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Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad Introductory Circuit A Analysis Thirteenth Edition Global Edition Robert L Boylestad Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Hoboken Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editor-in-Chief: Andrew Gilfillan Acquisitions Editor, Global Editions: Karthik Subramanian Program Manager: Holly Shufeldt Project Manager: Rex Davidson Project Editor, Global Editions: K.K Neelakantan Senior Production Manufacturing Controller, Global Editions: Trudy Kimber Editorial Assistant: Nancy Kesterson Team Lead Project Manager: JoEllen Gohr Team Lead Program Manager: Laura Weaver Director of Marketing: David Gesell Marketing Manager: Darcy Betts Procurement Specialist: Deidra M Skahill Media Project Manager: Noelle Chun Media Project Coordinator: April Cleland Media Production Manager, Global Editions: Vikram Kumar Creative Director: Andrea Nix Art Director: Diane Y Ernsberger Cover Designer: Lumina Datamatics Full-Service Project Management: Sherrill Redd, iEnergizer Aptara®, Ltd Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsonglobaleditions.com © Pearson Education Limited 2016 The right of Robert L Boylestad to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Introductory Circuit Analysis, 13th edition, ISBN 978-0-13392360-5, by Robert L Boylestad published by Pearson Education © 2016 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library 10 ISBN 10: 1-292-09895-3 ISBN 13: 978-1-292-09895-1 Typeset in Times Ten LT Std by Aptara Printed and bound by Courier Westford in The United States of America Preface Looking back over the past twelve editions of the text, it is interesting to find that the average time period between editions is about 3.5 years This thirteenth edition, however, will have years between copyright dates clearly indicating a need to update and carefully review the content Since the last edition, tabs have been placed on pages that need reflection, updating, or expansion The result is that my copy of the text looks more like a dust mop than a text on technical material The benefits of such an approach become immediately obvious—no need to look for areas that need attention—they are well-defined In total, I have an opportunity to concentrate on being creative rather than searching for areas to improve A simple rereading of material that I have not reviewed for a few years will often identify presentations that need to be improved Something I felt was in its best form a few years ago can often benefit from rewriting, expansion, or possible reduction Such opportunities must be balanced against the current scope of the text, which clearly has reached a maximum both in size and weight Any additional material requires a reduction in content in other areas, so the process can often be a difficult one However, I am pleased to reveal that the page count has expanded only slightly although an important array of new material has been added New to this edition In this new edition some of the updated areas include the improved efficiency level of solar panels, the growing use of fuel cells in applications including the home, automobile, and a variety of portable systems, the introduction of smart meters throughout the residential and industrial world, the use of lumens to define lighting needs, the growing use of LEDs versus fluorescent CFLs and incandescent lamps, the growing use of inverters and converters in every phase of our everyday lives, and a variety of charts, graphs, and tables There are some 300 new art pieces in the text, 27 new photographs, and well over 100 inserts of new material throughout the text Perhaps the most notable change in this edition is the removal of Chapter 26 on System Analysis and the breaking up of Chapter 15, Series and Parallel ac Networks, into two chapters In recent years, current users, reviewers, friends, and associates made it clear that the content of Chapter 26 was seldom covered in the typical associate or undergraduate program If included in the syllabus, the coverage was limited to a few major s ections of the chapter Comments also revealed that it would play a very small part in the adoption decision In the dc section of the text, series and parallel networks are covered in separate chapters because a clear understanding of the concepts in each chapter is critical to understanding the material to follow It is now felt that this level of importance should carry over to the ac networks and that Chapter 15 should be broken up into two chapters with similar titles to those of the dc portion of the text The result is a much improved coverage of important concepts in each chapter in addition to an increased number of examples and problems In addition, the computer coverage of each chapter is expanded to include additional procedures and sample printouts There is always room for improvement in the problem sections Throughout this new edition, over 200 problems were revised, improved, or added to the selection As in previous editions, each section of the text has a corresponding section of problems at the end of each chapter that progress from the simple to the more complex The most difficult problems are indicated with an asterisk In an appendix the solutions to odd-numbered selected exercises are provided For confirmation of solutions to the even-numbered exercises, it is suggested that the reader consider attacking the problem from a different direction, confer with an associate to compare solutions, or ask for confirmation from a faculty member who has the solutions manual for the text For this edition, a number of lengthy problems are broken up into separate parts to create a step approach to the problem and guide the student toward a solution As indicated earlier, over 100 inserts of revised or new material are introduced throughout the text Examples of typical inserts include a discussion of artificial intelligence, analog versus digital meters, effect of radial distance on Coulomb’s law, recent applications of superconductors, maximum voltage ratings of resistors, the growing use of LEDs, lumens versus wattage in selecting luminescent products, ratio levels for voltage and current division, impact of the ground connection on voltage levels, expanded coverage of shorts and open circuits, concept of 0+ and 0-, total revision of derivatives and their impact on specific quantities, the effect of multiple sources on the application of network theorems and methods, networks with both dc and ac sources, T and Pi filters, Fourier transforms, and a variety of other areas that needed to be improved or updated 4 Preface Both PSpice and Multisim remain an integral part of the introduction to computer software programs In this edition Cadance’s OrCAD version 16.6 (PSpice) is utilized along with Multisim 13.0 with coverage for both Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 for each package As with any developing software package, a number of changes are associated with the application of each program However, for the range of coverage included in this text, most of the changes occur on the front end so the application of each package is quite straightforward if the user has worked with either program in the past Due to the expanded use of Multisim by a number of institutions, the coverage of Multisim has been expanded to closely match the coverage of the OrCAD program In total more than 90 printouts are included in the coverage of each program There should be no need to consult any outside information on the application of the programs Each step of a program is highlighted in boldface roman letters with comment on the how the computer will respond to the chosen operation In general, the printouts are used to introduce the power of each software package and to verify the results of examples covered in the text In preparation for each new edition there is an extensive search to determine which calculator the text should utilize to demonstrate the steps required to obtain a particular result The chosen calculator is Texas Instrument’s TI-89 primarily because of its ability to perform lengthy calculations on complex numbers without having to use the timeconsuming step-by-step approach Unfortunately, the manual provided with the calculator is short in its coverage or difficult to utilize However, every effort is made to cover, in detail, all the steps needed to perform all the calculations that appear in the text Initially, the calculator may be overpowering in its range of applications and available functions However, using the provided text material and being patient with the learning process will result in a technological tool that can some amazing things, saving time and providing a very high degree of accuracy One should not be discouraged if the TI-89 calculator is not the chosen unit for the course or program Most scientific calculators can perform all the required calculations for this text The time, however, to perform a calculation may be a bit longer but not excessively so The laboratory manual has undergone some extensive updating and expansion in the able hands of Professor David Krispinsky Two new laboratory experiments have been added and a number of the experiments have been expanded to provide additional experience in the application of various meters The computer sections have also been expanded to verify experimental results and to show the student how the computer can be considered an additional piece of laboratory equipment Through the years I have been blessed to have Mr Rex Davidson of Pearson Education as my senior editor His contribution to the text in so many important ways is so enormous that I honestly wonder if I would be writing a thirteenth edition if it were not for his efforts I have to thank Sherrill Redd at Aptara Inc for ensuring that the flow of the manuscript through the copyediting and page proof stages was smooth and properly supervised while Naomi Sysak was patient and meticulous in the preparation of the solutions manual My good friend Professor Louis Nashelsky spent many hours contributing to the computer content and preparation of the printouts It’s been a long run—I have a great deal to be thankful for The cover design of the US edition was taken from an acrylic painting that Sigmund Årseth, a contemporary Norwegian painter, rendered in response to my request for cover designs that provided a unique presentation of color and light A friend of the author, he generated an enormous level of interest in Norwegian art in the United States through a Norwegian art form referred to as rosemaling and his efforts in interior decoration and landscape art All of us in the Norwegian community were saddened by his passing on 12/12/12 This edition is dedicated to his memory Robert Boylestad Acknowledgments Kathleen Annis—AEMC Instruments Jen Brophy—Red River Camps, Portage, Maine Tom Brown—LRAD Corporation Professor Leon Chua—University of California, Berkeley Iulian Dobre—IMSAT Maritime Patricia Fellman—Leviton Mfg Co Jessica Fini—Honda Corporation Ron Forbes—B&K Precision, Inc Felician Frentiu—IMSAT Maritime Lindsey Gill—Pearson Education Don Johnson—Professional Photographer John Kesel—EMA Design Automation, Inc Professor Dave Krispinsky—Rochester Institute of Technology Cara Kugler—Texas Instruments, Inc Cheryl Mendenhall—Cadence Design Systems, Inc Professor Henry C Miller—Bluefield State College Professor Mack Mofidi—DeVry University Professor Mostafa Mortezaie—DeVry University Katie Parker—EarthRoamer Corp Andrew Post—Vishay Intertechnology, Inc Professor Gilberto Medeiros Ribeiro—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil Greg Roberts—Cadence Design Systems, Inc Peter Sanburn—Itron, Inc Peggy Suggs—Edison Electric Institute Mark Walters—National Instruments, Inc Stanley Williams—Hewlett Packard, Inc Professor Chen Xiyou—Dalian University of Technology Professor Jianhua Joshua Yang—University of Massachusetts, Amherst Preface Supplements To enhance the learning process, a full supplements package accompanies this text and is available to instructors using the text for a course Instructor Resources To access supplementary materials online, instructors need to request an access code Go to www.pearsonglobaleditions com/boylestad • Instructor’s Resource Manual, containing text solutions • PowerPoint Lecture Notes • TestGen, a computerized test bank www.downloadslide.com This page intentionally left blank www.downloadslide.com Brief Contents 15 16 17 18 Introduction 15 Voltage and Current 47 Resistance 81 Ohm’s Law, Power, and Energy 119 Series dc Circuits 157 Parallel dc Circuits 213 Series-Parallel Circuits 269 Series ac Circuits 671 Parallel ac Circuits 721 Series-Parallel ac Networks 763 Methods of Analysis and Selected Topics (ac) 793 19 Network Theorems (ac) 835 20 Power (ac) 883 21 Resonance 921 Methods of Analysis and Selected Topics (dc) 311 22 23 10 24 11 25 Network Theorems 373 Capacitors 427 Inductors 493 12 Magnetic Circuits 543 13 Sinusoidal Alternating Waveforms 569 14 The Basic Elements and Phasors 621 Decibels, Filters, and Bode Plots 969 Transformers 1047 Polyphase Systems 1091 Pulse Waveforms and the R-C Response 1131 26 Nonsinusoidal Circuits 1159 Appendixes 1185 Index 1210 www.downloadslide.com This page intentionally left blank www.downloadslide.com Contents Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 15 The Electrical/Electronics Industry 15 A Brief History 17 Units of Measurement 21 Systems of Units 23 Significant Figures, Accuracy, and Rounding Off 25 Powers of Ten 27 Fixed-Point, Floating-Point, Scientific, and Engineering Notation 30 Conversion Between Levels of Powers of Ten 32 Conversion Within and Between Systems of Units 34 Symbols 36 Conversion Tables 36 Calculators 37 Computer Analysis 41 Resistance 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 81 Introduction 81 Resistance: Circular Wires 82 Wire Tables 85 Temperature Effects 88 Types of Resistors 91 Color Coding and Standard Resistor Values 96 Conductance 101 Ohmmeters 102 Resistance: Metric Units 103 The Fourth Element—The Memristor 105 Superconductors 106 Thermistors 108 Photoconductive Cell 109 Varistors 109 Applications 110 Voltage and Current 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 Introduction 47 Atoms and Their Structure 47 Voltage 50 Current 53 Voltage Sources 56 Ampere-Hour Rating 66 Battery Life Factors 67 Conductors and Insulators 69 Semiconductors 70 Ammeters and Voltmeters 70 Applications 73 Computer Analysis 78 47 Ohm’s Law, Power, and Energy 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 119 Introduction 119 Ohm’s Law 119 Plotting Ohm’s Law 122 Power 125 Energy 127 Efficiency 131 Circuit Breakers, GFCIs, and Fuses 134 Applications 135 Computer Analysis 143 www.downloadslide.com appendix F 1205 9 Hz 11 (a) 28 mV (b) 56 mV (c) 10 ms (d) cycles 13 (a) 60° (b) 216° (c) 18° (d) 108° 15 (a) 942.48 rad/s (b) 3.14 * 103 rad/s (c) 25.13 * 103 rad/s (d) 50.27 * 103 rad/s 17 5.56 ms 19 (a) 20, 60 Hz (b) 12, 120 Hz (c) 106, 1591.55 Hz (d) 8, 1.6 kHz 21 — 23 0.26 A 25 11.54° and 168.46° 27 — 29 (a) y = * 10-3 sin(2p 2000t + 30°) (b) i = 20 * 10-3 sin(2p 60t - 60°) 31 y = 12 * 10-3 sin(2p 2000t + 135°) 33 y leads i by 90° 35 y leads i by 10° 37 1>3 ms 39 1>12 ms 41 V 43 0.786 mV 45 (a) V (b) V (c) same 47 (a) 0.4 ms (b) 2.5 kHz (c) -25 mV (d) — 49 (a) 91.92 V (b) 3.54 mA (c) 6.36 mV 51 1.414 V 53 G = V, Vrms = V 55 (a) — (b) 360 sV2 (c) 5.48 V (d) 3.67 V (e) Vrms ≅ 1.5 G Chapter 14 — (a) 3770 cos 377t (b) * 103 cos(400t + 60°) (c) 4440.63 cos(157t - 20°) (d) 200 cos t (a) 1.56 * 103 sin 500t (b) 39 sin(600t - 120°) (a) 31.91 mH (b) 1.23 H (a) y = 0.5 sin(200t + 90°) (b) y = 0.8 sin(vt + 150°) (c) y = 120 sin(vt - 120°) 11 (a) i = sin(vt - 90°) (b) i = 0.75 sin(vt - 70°) 13 (a) ∞ Ω (b) 4.973 kΩ (c) 159.15 Ω (d) 0.159 Ω 15 (a) 4.08 kHz (b) 0.68 Hz (c) 408.1 kHz (d) 20.40 Hz 17 (a) i = 7.5 * 10-3 sin(250t + 90°) (b) i = 33.96 * 10-6 sin(377t + 90°) 19 (a) y = 800 sin(500t - 90°) (b) y = 26.53 sin(377t - 135°) 21 (a) C = 15.92 mF (b) L = 254.78 mH (c) R = Ω 23 — 25 318.47 mH 27 3.58 nF 29 224 W 31 i = 40 sin(vt - 40°) 33 (a) i = 53.33 sin(1500t - 45°) (b) W 35 i1 = 2.4 sin(104t + 150°), i2 = 12 sin(104t + 150°) 37 (a) 7.21 ∠56.31° (b) 4.24 ∠45° (c) 15.81 ∠71.57° (d) 502.5 ∠5.71° (e) 2236.07 ∠-63.43° (f) 0.45 ∠-63.43° 39 (a) 4.6 + j 3.86 (b) - 6.0 + j 10.39 (c) - j 2000 (d) - * 10-3 - j 2.2 * 10-3 (e) 47.97 + j 1.68 (f) 4.7 * 10-4 - j 1.71 * 10-4 41 (a) 9.4 + j 8.4 (b) 246.2 + j 51.7 (c) 5.74 * 10-6 + j 66 43 (a) 12.17 ∠54.70° (b) 98.37 ∠13.38° (c) 28.07 ∠-115.91° 45 (a) 8.00 ∠20° (b) 49.68 ∠-64.0° (c) 40 * 10-3 ∠40° 47 (a) 4 (b) - 4.15 - j 4.23 (c) 6.69 - j 6.46 49 (a) 5.06 ∠88.44° (b) 426 ∠109.81° 51 (a) x = 3, y = or x = 6, y = (b) u = 30° 53 (a) 21.21 ∠-180° (b) 4.24 * 10-6 ∠90° (c) 3.96 * 10-6 ∠70° 55 ein = 75.48 sin(377t + 100.8°) 57 ein = 115.7 sin(377t + 39.77°) 59 — 61 — Chapter 15 (a) 14.14 mA ∠30° (b) 28.28 V ∠30° (c) — (d) yR = 40 sin(1000t + 30°) (e) — (a) 7.071 mA ∠40° (b) 14.14 V ∠130° (c) — (d) yL = 20 sin(250t + 130°) (e) — (a) 4.24 mA ∠20°, 11.31 V ∠110° (b) 2.67 kΩ ∠90° (c) 2.23 H (d) — (e) — (a) kΩ ∠- 90° (b) 3.54 mA ∠-80° (c) 17.7 mV ∠-170° (d) — (e) yC = 25.02 * 10-3 sin(20,000t - 170°) (f) — — 11 — 13 (a) 5.83 Ω ∠59.04 (b) 10.05 kΩ ∠84.29° (c) 471.70 Ω ∠- 4.86° 15 (a) 10 Ω ∠36.87° (b) — (c) I = 10 A ∠-36.87°, VR = 80 V ∠-36.87°, VL = 60 V ∠53.13° (d) — (e) — (f) 800 W (g) 0.8 lagging (h) i = 14.14 sin(vt - 36.87°), yR = 113.12 sin(vt - 36.87°), yL = 84.84 sin(vt + 53.13°) (i) — 17 (a) 5.66 Ω ∠-45° (b) — (c) 16 mH, 265 mF (d) I = 8.83 A ∠45°, VR = 35.32 V ∠45°, VL = 52.98 V ∠135°, VC = 88.30 V ∠- 45° (e) — (f) — (g) 311.88 W (h) 0.707 leading (i) i = 12.49 sin(377t + 45°), e = 70.7 sin 377t, yR = 49.94 sin(377t + 45°), yL = 74.91 sin(377t + 135°), yC = 124.86 sin(377t - 45°) 19 (a) 85.44 Ω ∠69.44° (b) 468.16 mA ∠-9.44° (c) 14.04 V ∠- 9.44° (d) 0.351 lagging 21 (a) mA ∠30° (b) 85.04 V ∠78.81° (c) 16 V ∠30° 23 (a) 3.36 H (b) 10.3 kΩ (c) 6.2 H 25 3.6 Ω + j 1.74 Ω 27 (a) V1 = 120 V ∠6.87°, V2 = 160 V ∠96.87° (b) V1 = 89.27 V ∠50.75°, V2 = 49.097 V ∠-39.25° 29 (a) I = 655.1 mA ∠50.65°, VR = 19.65 V ∠50.65°, VC = 16.80 V ∠- 39.35° (b) 0.983 leading (c) 12.87 W (d) — (e) — (f) VR = 19.66 V ∠50.65°, VC = 16.80 V ∠- 39.35° (g) Z T = 30 Ω - j 5.64 Ω 31 — 33 (a) 1.54 kHz (b) — (c) 100 Hz: ZT ≅ XC = 3.39 kΩ 10 kHz: ZT ≅ R = 220 Ω (d) — (e) u = - 88.51° ≅ -90° (capacitive) www.downloadslide.com 1206 appendixes 35 I: (a) y1 leads y2 by 72° (b) y1p@p = 2.5 V, V1(rms) = 0.88 V, y2p@p = 1.2 V, V2(rms) = 0.42 V (c) 1.25 kHz II: (a) y1 leads y2 by 132° (b) y1p@p = 5.6 V, V1(rms) = 1.98 V, y2p@p = V, V2(rms) = 2.83 V (c) 16.67 kHz Chapter 16 (a) 1.897 Ω ∠18.43°, 1.799 Ω + j 0.599 Ω (b) 5.885 kΩ ∠- 11.32°, 5.77 kΩ - j 1.15 kΩ (c) 1.23 kΩ ∠90°, j 1.23 kΩ (a) 147.06 mS ∠0°, 147.06 mS (b) mS ∠-90°, - j mS (c) 500 mS ∠90°, j 500 mS I: (a) 8.94 Ω ∠63.43° (b) 0.112 S ∠- 63.43° (c) G - jBL = 50.09 mS j 100.17 mS (d) — II: (a) 80.06 Ω ∠- 48.54° (b) 12.49 mS ∠48.54° (c) G + jBC = 8.27 mS + j 9.36 mS (d) — III: (a) 1140.47 Ω ∠-70° (b) 2.43 mS ∠14.03° (c) G + jBC = 2.36 mS + j 0.59 mS (d) — (a) YT = G - jBL = 82.43 mS j 103.67 mS (b) — (c) R = 12.13 kΩ, L = 767.92 mH (d) Both have resistive and inductive components (a) 111.8 mS ∠- 26.57° (b) — (c) E = 17.89 V ∠26.57°, IR = 1.79 A ∠26.57°, IL = 0.89 A ∠- 63.43° (d) — (e) — (f) 32.04 W (g) 0.894 lagging (h) e = 25.30 sin(377t + 26.57°), iR = 2.53 sin(577t + 26.57°), iL = 1.26 sin(377t - 63.43°), is = 2.83 sin 377t (i) — 11 (a) Z T = 65.21 Ω ∠32.91° (b) YT = 15.34 mS ∠-32.91° (c) — (d) Is = 184.02 mA ∠-32.91° (e) IC = 200 mA ∠90° (f) e = 16.97 sin vt, is = 260.2 * 10-3 sin(vt - 32.91°) (g) 0.84 lagging 13 (a) YT = 0.36 mS ∠-22.22°, Z T = 2.78 kΩ ∠22.22° (b) — (d) E = 9.83 V ∠2.22°, IR = 3.28 mA ∠2.22°, IL = 2.52 mA ∠- 87.78°, IC = 1.18 mA ∠92.22° (e) — (f) — (g) 32.28 mW (h) 0.925 leading (i) e = 13.9 sin(1000t + 2.22°), iR = 4.64 * 10-3 sin(1000t + 2.22°), iL = 3.56 * 10-3 sin(1000t - 87.78°), iC = 1.67 * 10-3 sin(1000t + 92.22°) (j) — 15 — 17 — 19 — 21 (a) Z T = 7.02 kΩ - j 2.88 kΩ (b) Z T = 17.48 Ω + j 29.72 Ω 23 R′ } XL = 4.40 Ω } 5.435 Ω Chapter 17 (a) 3.12 Ω ∠- 8.38° (b) 3.5 A ∠22.65° (c) 3.5 A ∠22.65° (d) 2.77 A ∠-56.30° (e) 14 V ∠112.65° (a) 19.86 Ω ∠37.17° (b) 3.02 A ∠-37.17° (c) 128.377 A ∠23.3° (d) 47.81 V ∠-37.17° (e) 144.42 W (a) 0.25 A ∠36.86° (b) 89.44 V ∠-26.57° (c) 20 W (a) 1.42 A ∠18.26° (b) 26.57 V ∠4.76° (c) 54.07 W (a) 15.12 V ∠6.85° (b) 10 V ∠-41.69° (c) 15.12 V ∠6.85° 11 (a) 537.51 Ω ∠56.07° (b) 93 mA ∠-56.07° (c) I1 = 0.0214 mA ∠-80.34°, I2 = 13.48 mA ∠123.93° (d) V1 = 16.93 V ∠213.93°, Vab = 41.49 V ∠33.92° (e) 2.6 W (f) 0.558 lagging 13 (a) 1.52 Ω ∠- 38.89° (b) 42.43 V ∠45° (c) 14.14 A ∠45° (d) 39.47 A ∠38.89° 15 17.72 mW 17 0.42 A ∠174.45° Chapter 18 — Z s = 14.06 Ω ∠51.34°, E = 42.18 V ∠171.34° 5.15 A ∠- 24.5° 2.55 A ∠132.72° 48.33 A ∠-77.57° 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 0.68 A ∠- 162.9° 51.49 I ∠149.31° 2.69 mA ∠-174.8° V1 = 22.89 V ∠-179.73°, V2 = 14.46 V ∠-131.28° V1 = 17.92 V ∠59.25°, V2 = 13.95 V ∠93.64° V1 = E1 = 220 V ∠0°, V2 = 96.30 V ∠-12.32°, V3 = E2 = 100 V ∠90° V1 = 5.74 V ∠122.76°, V2 = 4.04 V ∠145.03°, V3 = 25.94 V ∠78.07° V1 = 15.13 V ∠1.29°, V2 = 17.24 V ∠3.73°, V3 = 10.59 V ∠-0.11° 10.67 V ∠180° -2451.92 Ei (a) no (b) 1.73 mA ∠-71.54° (c) 7.03 V ∠-18.46° no Rx = R2R3 >R1, L x = R2L >R1 7.02 A ∠20.56° 63.29 A ∠101.57° Chapter 19 6.09 A ∠- 32.12° 3.92 A ∠135.82° 2.04 mA ∠72.07° yC = 15 V + 3.17 sin(vt - 85.24°) 332.225 mA ∠- 33.69° 11 208 mA ∠-20.32° 13 2.94 mA ∠0° 15 Z Th = 1.86 Ω ∠21.80°, ETh = 92.85 V ∠21.80° 17 Z Th = 21.47 Ω ∠32.47°, ETh = 4.29 V ∠32.47° 19 Z Th = 1.14 kΩ ∠-29.92°, ETh = 5.68 V ∠89.27° 21 Z Th = 5.00 Ω ∠-38.66°, ETh = 77.14 V ∠50.41° 23 (a) AC: Z Th = 66.04 Ω ∠57.36°, ETh = 6.21 V ∠207.36° DC: RTh = 22 Ω, ETh = - V (b) i = - 72.46 mA + 62.36 * 10-3 sin(1000t + 173.42°) 25 (a) Z Th = 4.47 kΩ ∠-26.57°, ETh = 31.31 V ∠- 26.57° (b) 6.26 mA ∠63.44° 27 Z Th = 4.44 kΩ ∠-0.03°, ETh = -444.45 * 10-3 I ∠0.26° 29 Z Th = 5.10 kΩ ∠-11.31°, ETh = -50 V ∠0° 31 Z Th = -32.79 Ω ∠0°, ETh = 30 V ∠47° 33 Z Th = 607.42 Ω ∠0°, ETh = 1.62 V ∠0° 35 Z N = 21.47 Ω ∠32.47°, IN = 0.2 A ∠0° www.downloadslide.com appendix F 1207 37 Z N = 9.66 Ω ∠14.93°, IN = 2.15 A ∠-42.87° 39 (a) AC: Z N = 66.04 Ω ∠57.36°, IN = 94 mA ∠150° DC: RN = 22 Ω, IN = 227.27 mA (b) i = -72.46 mA + 62.68 * 10-3 sin(1000t + 173.22°) 41 (a) Z N = 4.47 kΩ ∠- 26.57°, IN = mA ∠0° (b) 6.26 mA ∠63.44° 43 Z N = 4.44 kΩ ∠- 0.03°, IN = 100 I ∠0.29° 45 Z N = 27 kΩ ∠0°, IN = 222.22 mA ∠0° 47 Z N = 6.65 kΩ ∠0°, IN = 0.79 mA ∠0° 49 Z L = 1.51 Ω - j 0.39 Ω, Pmax = 3.64 W 51 Z L = 2.48 Ω + j 5.15 Ω, Pmax = 618.33 W 53 Z L = 1.38 kΩ - j 5.08 kΩ, Pmax = 78.30 mW 55 (a) Z L = kΩ + j kΩ (b) Pmax = 61.27 mW 57 (a) 7.31 nF (b) 2940.27 Ω (c) Pmax = mW 59 (a) 0.83 mA ∠0° (b) 0.83 mA ∠0° (c) the same Chapter 20 (a) 135 W (b) QT = VAR, ST = 135 VA (c) 0.675 A (d) R1 = 274.34 Ω, R2 = 411.51 Ω (e) I1 = 0.405 A, I2 = 0.207 A (a) R: P = 7.2 W, Q = VAR, S = 7.2 VA C: P = W, QC = 3.62 VAR(C), S = 3.62 VA R@L: P = 2.77 W, QL = 13.84 VAR(L), S = 14.11 VA (b) — (c) Z T = kΩ ∠45.67°, FP = 0.698 lagging (d) Is = 120 mA ∠-45.67° (a) PT = 1100 W, QT = 200 VAR, ST = 1118.03 VA (b) 0.984 (c) Power Triangle (d) 5.59 A ∠10.30° (a) R = 50 Ω, L = 3.18 mH, C = 212.2 nF (b) 70.71 Ω ∠- 45° (c) 141.42 V ∠- 45° (d) 0.7071 leading (e) 300 V ∠- 90° (a) 5.57 A ∠3.03° (b) PR1 = 62.05 W, PR2 = 39.52 W, PR3 = 9.86 W, PxL = PxC = W (c) QR1 = QR2 = QR3 = VAR, QC = 15.81 VAR, QL = 9.86 VAR (d) ST (R1) = 62.05 VA, ST (R2) = 39.52 VA, ST (R3) = 9.86 VA, ST (C) = 15.81 VA, ST (L) = 9.86 VA (e) PT = 111.43 W, QT = 5.95 VAR(C), ST = 111.59 VA, FP = 0.998 leading (f) — 11 (a) PL = PC = W, PR = 38.99 W (b) QR = VAR, QL = 126.74 VAR, QC = 46.92 VAR (c) SR = 38.99 VA, SL = 126.74 VA, SC = 46.92 VA (d) ST = 38.99 W, QT = 79.82 VAR (L), ST = 88.83 VA, Fp = 0.439 (lagging) (e) — (f) WR = 0.31 J (g) WL = 0.32 J, WC = 0.12 J 13 (a) Z = 2.7 Ω + j 1.04 Ω (b) 6.75 kW 15 (a) PT = 900 W, QT = VAR, ST = 900 VA (b) Is = A ∠0° (c) — (d) 1: XC = 20 Ω 2: R = 2.83 Ω 3: R = 5.66 Ω, XL = 4.72 Ω (e) — 17 (a) PT = 1200 W, QT = 2441.28 VAR(C), ST = 2720.27 VA, FP = 0.441 (leading) (b) E = 453.38 V ∠-68.83° (c) 1: R = 657.80 Ω, XC = 493.35 Ω 2: R = 32.89 Ω, XC = 75.36 Ω 19 (a) 10 kVA (b) 0.8 (lagging) (c) 50.0 A (d) 397.87 mF (e) 40 A 21 (a) 199.83 W (b) a-b: 88.74 W, b-c: 66.55 W, a-c: 155.29 W, a-d: 155.29 W, c-d: W, d-e: W, f-e: 44.37 W 23 (a) R = Ω, L = 132.03 mH (b) R = 10 Ω (c) R = 15 Ω, L = 262.39 mH (c) XL = XC = 60 Ω (d) 720 mW (a) 10 (b) 50 Ω (c) 3.2 mH, 1.27 mF (d) f1 = 2.6 kHz, f2 = 2.4 kHz (a) R = 10 Ω, L = 13.26 mH, C = 27.07 mF, f1 = 8.34 kHz, f2 = 8.46 kHz 11 (a) MHz (b) 160 kHz (c) R = 720 Ω, L = 0.716 mH, C = 35.38 pF (d) 56.23 Ω 13 (a) 112.60 kHz (b) kV (c) 56.57 mA (d) 28.28 15 (a) 1.027 MHz (b) 114.1 V (c) 13.69 W (d) 669 mW 17 R = 91 kΩ (closest to 93.33 kΩ), C = 240 pF (closest to 250 pF) 19 (a) fs = 7.12 kHz, fp = 6.65 kHz, fm = 7.01 kHz (b) XL = 20.88 Ω, XC = 23.94 Ω (c) 55.56 Ω (d) Qp = 2.32, BW = 2.87 kHz (e) IC = 92.73 mA, IL = 99.28 mA (f) 2.22 V 21 (a) 3558.81 Hz (b) 223.61 V (c) 588.42 mW (d) 975.02 Hz 23 (a) 98.54 Ω (b) 8.21 (c) 8.05 kHz (d) 4.83 V (e) f1 = 7.55 kHz, f2 = 8.55 kHz 25 Rs = 6.29 kΩ, C = 16,210 pF 27 (a) 251.65 kHz (b) 4.44 kΩ (c) 14.05 (d) 17.91 kHz (e) fs = 251.65 kHz, ZTp = 49.94 Ω, Qp = 2.04, BW = 95.55 kHz (f) fs = 251.65 kHz, ZTp = 13.33 kΩ, Qp = 21.08, BW = 11.94 kHz (g) Network: L>C = 100 * 103; part (e): L>C = * 103; part (f): L>C = 400 * 103 (h) As the L>C ratio increased, BW decreased and Vp increased Chapter 21 (a) left: 1.54 kHz, right: 5.62 kHz (b) bottom: 0.22 V, top: 0.52 V (a) 1000 (b) 1012 (c) 1.59 (d) 1.1 (e) 1010 (f) 1513.56 (g) 10.02 (h) 1,258,925.41 1.732 -0.602 (a) 1.806 (b) 18.06 dB 11 13.01 13 39.46 15 44.08 dBs 17 — (a) vs = 258.19 rad/s, f = 41.09 Hz (b) vs = 1851.85 rad/s, fs = 294.73 Hz (a) kΩ (b) 120 mA (c) VR = 12 V, VL = 240 V, VC = 240 V (d) 20 (e) L = 63.7 mH, C = 15,920 pF (f) 250 Hz (g) f1 = 4.88 kHz, f2 = 5.13 kHz (a) 300 Hz (b) f1 = 4.7 kHz, f2 = 4.4 kHz Chapter 22 www.downloadslide.com 1208 appendixes 19 (a) fc = 3617.16 Hz; f = fc: Ay = 0.707; f = 0.1fc: Ay = 0.995; f = 0.5fc: Ay = 0.894; f = 2fc: Ay = 0.447; f = 10fc: Ay = 0.0995 (b) f = fc: u = - 45°; f = 0.1fc: u = - 5.71°; f = 0.5fc: u = - 26.57°; f = 2fc: u = - 63.43°; f = 10fc: u = - 84.29° 21 C = 0.265 mF 23 (a) fc = 3.62 kHz; f = fc: Ay = 0.707; f = 2fc: Ay = 0.894; f = 0.5fc: Ay = 0.447; f = 10fc: Ay = 0.995; f = 10 fc: Ay = 0.995 (b) f = fc: u = 45°; f = 2fc: u = 26.57°; f = 0.5fc: u = 63.43°; f = 10fc: u = 5.71°; f = 10 fc; u = 84.29° 25 R = 795.77Ω, Rstandard = 750 Ω + 47 Ω = 797 Ω 27 (a) low-pass section: fc1 = 795.77 Hz; high-pass section: fc2 = 1.94 kHz; f = fc1: Vo = 0.654Vi; f = fc2: Vo = 0.64Vi; BW At f = fc1 + = 1.37 kHz; Vo = 0.706 Vi (b) BW defined at 0.5Vi; f = 500 Hz:Vo = 0.515Vi; f = kHz:Vo = 0.429Vi; from plot BW ≅ 2.9 kHz with fcenter = 1.93 kHz 29 (a) fs = 98.1 kHz (b) Qs = 16.84, BW = 5.83 kHz (c) f = fs: Ay = 0.93; f1 = 95.19 kHz, f2 = 101.02 kHz; f = f1: Vo = 0.64 V; f = f2: Vo = 0.66 V (d) f = fs: Vomax = 0.93 V; f1 = 95.19 kHz, Vo = 0.66 V; f2 = 101.02 kHz: Vo = 0.66 V 31 (a) Qs = 15.56 (b) BW = 321.34 Hz, f1 = 4.8 kHz, f2 = 5.2 kHz (c) f = fs, Vo = 0.022 mV, (d) f = fs: Vo = 0.022 mV 33 (a) fp = 726.44 kHz (band@stop); f(band@pass) = 2.01 MHz 39 (a) fc = 1.83 kHz (b) — (c) — (d) f = fc: dB, f = 0.5fc: dB, f = 2fc: dB; low-frequency drop of -1.39 dB (e) Ay = 0.84 (f) — 41 (a) fc = 1.02 kHz; f = Hz: Vo = 0.852 Vi, f = fc: Vo = 0.602Vi (b) — (c) — (d) f = fc: dB, f = 0.5fc: dB, f = 2fc:1 dB (e) Ay = 0.80 (f) — 43 (a) fc = 132.41 Hz; f = ∞ Hz: Vo = 0.465Vi, f = fc: Vo = 0.329Vi; high- frequency drop of -6.65 dB (b) f = fc >10: u = 84.3°, f = fc: u = 45°, f = 10fc: u = 5.7° 45 (a) note text section 22.13, f1 = 2.84 kHz, fc = 904.3 Hz; high-frequency level drop of -9.95 dB (b) f = 1.5 kHz: u = - 31.09°; low and high end at 0° 47 (a) note text section 22.14, f1 = 964.58 Hz, fc = 7334.33 Hz; low-frequency drop of -17.62 dB, high-frequency level of dB (b) f = kHz (near peak): u ≅ 50° 49 (a) BW = 19,910 Hz, f1 = 90 Hz, f2 = 20 kHz (b) f = 100 Hz: u = 63.8°, f = kHz: u ≅ 0° 51 f ( -3 dB) = kHz 53 f1( - dB) = kHz, f2( - dB) = 10 kHz 55 f ( +3 dB) = 159.16 Hz, f ( -3 dB) = 795.78 Hz f (0 dB) ≅ 300 Hz Chapter 23 (a) 50 mH (b) ep = 1.6 V, es = 5.12 V (c) ep = 15 V, es = 12 V (a) 355.56 mH (b) ep = 24 V, es = 0.6 V (c) ep = 15 V, es = 12 V (a) V (b) 625.59 mWb 120 Hz 28 Ω 11 16,500 turns 13 (a) 3 (b) 2.78 W 15 (a) 364.55 Ω ∠86.86° (b) 329.17 mA ∠-86.86° (c) VRe = 6.58 V ∠- 86.86°, VXe = 14.48 V ∠3.14°, VXL = 105.33 V ∠3.14° 17 — 19 1.64 H 21 I1(Z R1 + Z L1) + I2(Z m) = E1 I1(Z m) + I2(Z L2 + Z RL) = 23 (a) 30 (b) 100 A (c) 3.33 A (d) Is = 3.33 A, Ip = 100 A 25 (a) VL = 25 V ∠0° (b) IL = A ∠0° (b) Z L = 80 Ω ∠0° (c) Z 1>2 = 20 Ω ∠0° 27 (a) E2 = 40 V ∠0°, I2 = 3.33 A ∠60°, E3 = 30 V ∠60°, I3 = A ∠60° (b) R1 = 64.52 Ω 29 [Z + Z L1] I1 - Z M12I2 + Z M13 = E1; Z M12I1 - [Z + Z + Z L2]I2 + Z 2I3 = 0; Z M13I1 + Z 2I2 + [Z + Z + Z L3]I3 = Chapter 24 (a) 131.64 V (b) 131.64 V (c) 8.78 A (d) 8.78 A (a) 131.64 V (b) 131.64 V (c) 23.26 A (d) 23.26 A (a) u2 = -120°, u3 = + 120° (b) Van = 120 V ∠0°, Vbn = 120 V ∠-120°, Vcn = 120 V ∠120° (c) Ian = A ∠-53.13°, Ibn = A ∠-173.13°, Icn = A ∠66.87° (e) A (f) 207.85 V Vf = 127.0 V, If = 8.98 A, IL = 8.98 A (a) EAN = 12.7 kV ∠- 30°, EBN = 12.7 kV ∠- 150°, ECN = 12.7 kV ∠90° (b–c) Ian = IAa = 11.29 A ∠-97.54°, Ibn = IBb = 11.29 A ∠-217.54°, Icn = ICc = 11.29 A ∠22.46° 11 (a) 120.1 V (b) 208 V (c) 10.4 A (d) 18 A 13 (a) 120.1 V (b) 208 V (c) 16.34 A (d) 28.30 A 15 (a) u2 = -120°, u3 = 120° (b) Vab = 208 V ∠0°, Vbc = 208 V ∠- 120°, Vca = 208 V ∠120° (c) — (d) Iab = 1.47 A ∠45°, Ibc = 1.47 A ∠-75°, Ica = 1.47 A ∠165° (e) 2.55 A (f) 120.1 V 17 Vab = Vbc = Vca = 220 V, Iab = Ibc = Ica = 15.56 A 19 (a) 208 V (b) 120.1 V (c) 4.00 A (d) A 21 (a) 208 V (b) 120.1 V (c) 10 A (d) 10 A 23 Van = Vbn = Vcn = 69.28 V, Ian = Ibn = Icn = 3.10 A, IAa = IBb = ICc = 3.10 A 25 (a) 440 V (b) 440 V www.downloadslide.com appendix F 1209 27 (a) 440 V (b) 440 V (c) 28.28 A (d) 48.98 A 29 (a) u2 = - 120°, u3 = 120° (b) Vab = 100 V ∠0°, Vbc = 100 V ∠-120°, Vca = 100 V ∠120° (c) — (d) Iab = A ∠- 53.13°, Ibc = A ∠-173.13°, Ica = A ∠66.87° (e) IAa = IBb = ICc = 8.66 A 31 1220.19 W, 1743.13 VAR (C), 2127.76 VA, 0.6 (leading) 33 2419.21 W, 2419.21 VAR (C), 3421.28 VA, 0.7071 (leading) 35 649.15 W, 649.15 VAR (C), 918.04 VA, 0.7071 (leading) 37 2884.80 W, 2163.60 VAR (C), 3605.97 VA, 0.8 (leading) 39 26.4 kW, 26.4 kVAR (L), 37.34 kVA, 0.7071 (lagging) 41 Z f = 16 Ω + j 12 Ω 43 2999.02 W, 998.7 VAR (C), 3161 VA, 0.949 (leading) 45 (a) 7,159.35 V (b) IL = If = 186.19 A (c) Ef = 8,810 V (d) EL = 15,259 V 47 (a) — (b) PT = 5899.64 W, Pmeter = 1966.55 W 49 — 51 (a) 120.1 V (b) Ian = 8.49 A, Ibn = 7.08 A, Icn = 42.47 A (c) 4.93 kW, 4.93 kVAR (L), 6.97 kVA, 0.7071 (lagging) (d) Ian = 8.49 A ∠-75°, Ibn = 7.08 A ∠- 195°, Icn = 42.47 A ∠45° (e) 35.09 A ∠- 43.00° Chapter 25 I: (a) positive going (b) V (c) ms (d) 12 V (e) 0% II: (a) positive going (b) - V (c) ms (d) V (e) 28.57% (a) positive going (b) 10 mV (c) 3.2 ms (d) 20 mV (e) 6.9% — (a) 120 ms (b) 8.33 kHz (c) max = 440 mV, = 80 mV (a) prf = 200 Hz, duty cycle = 20% (b) prf = 166.67 kHz, duty cycle = 50% 11 (a) ms (b) ms (c) 125 kHz (d) V (e) 3.46 mV 13 8.44 mV 15 117 mV 17 yC = 10 V - V e-t >20 ms 19 iC = -8 mA e-t 21 iC = mA e-t>0.2 ms, t = 0.2 ms (a) T = 10 ms (b) T = ms (c) T = 0.2 ms 23 S T2 : 20 V; T2 S T: 20 V e-t>0.2 ms; T S 32T: 20 V (1 - e-t>0.2 ms); -t>0.2 ms T S 2T: 20 V e 25 Vscope ≅ 10 V ∠0° Chapter 26 I: (a) no (b) no (c) yes (d) no (e) yes II: (a) yes (b) yes (c) yes (d) yes (e) yes III: (a) yes (b) yes (c) no (d) yes (e) yes IV: (a) no (b) no (c) yes (d) yes (e) yes — — v f = 2p : mag = 1, f = pv : mag = (a) Vay = 100 V, Veff = 107.53 V (b) Iay = A, Ieff = 3.36 A 11 333.52 W 13 (a) i = 1.5 + 2.08 sin(400t 33.69°) (b) 2.10 A (c) yR = 18 + 24.96 sin(400t 33.69°) (d) 25.21 V (e) yL = + 16.64 sin(400t + 56.31°) (f) 11.77 V (g) 52.97 W 15 (a) i = - + 1.49 sin(300t 26.57°) - 0.59 sin(600t - 45°) (b) 5.13 A (c) yR = -60 + 17.88 sin(300t 26.57°) - 7.07 sin(600t - 45°) (d) 61.52 V (e) yL = 8.94 sin(300t + 63.43°) - 7.07 sin(600t + 45°) (f) 6.8 V (g) 315.8 W 17 (a) yo = 2.54 sin(754t 94.57°) - 2.45 sin(1508t - 101.1°) (b) 2.50 V (c) 6.25 mW 19 (a) 80 + 100 sin vt + 14.55 sin(3vt + 69.9°) (b) 15 + 70 sin a + 10 sin(2a 180°) + 8.69 sin (3a + 166.7°) 21 e = 10 + 150.32 sin(600t + 123.74°) + 100 sin(1200t + 90°) + 108.97 sin(1800t + 23.41°) 23 — www.downloadslide.com Index A absolute zero, 89 ac circuits applications, 608–610 average power, 637–642 average value, 590–596 capacitance, 625–631 complex numbers (see complex numbers) computer analysis, 611–614, 662–665 converters, 602–605 definitions, 571–572 direction, 576 frequency response, 631–637, 688–701, 734–744 frequency spectrum, 573–576 generator, 570 inductors, 624–625 instrumentation, 605–608 inverters, 602–605 overview, 569–570 parallel (see parallel ac circuits) phase relations, 584–590 polarity, 576 power factor, 642–643 series (see series ac circuits) series-parallel (see series-parallel ac circuits) sinusoidal ac voltage, 569, 570–572, 581–584 accuracy, 25–27 ac generator, 570 active filters, 981 See also filters actual/true/practical pulse, 1132 addition, using powers of ten, 28–29 admittance, parallel ac circuits, 723–727 admittance diagram, 725 parallel R-C circuits, 730 parallel R-L-C circuits, 732 parallel R-L circuits, 729 air-core inductors, 502 air-core transformers, 1067–1069 air gaps, 555–557 air trimmer capacitor, 441–442 alternating waveform, 569 alternator See ac generator aluminum, 85 American Wire Gage (AWG) sizes, 85, 86 ammeters, 70–73 See also instrumentation loading effects, 189 in series dc circuits, 165 series-parallel dc circuits, 294–295 ampere, 17, 55 Ampère, André Marie, 17, 19, 55, 493 ampere-hour (Ah) rating, 66–67 defined, 67 drain current vs., 68 temperature vs., 68 Ampère’s circuital law, 493, 550–551 ampere-turns (At), 496 1210 amplitude, of pulse waveforms, 1132 analogies parallel resistors, 222 series dc circuits, 164 series resistors, 160 analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 589 analysis methods (ac), 793–827 bridge networks, 814–819 computer analysis, 823–827 independent vs dependent sources, 793–794 mesh analysis (see mesh analysis (ac)) nodal analysis (see nodal analysis (ac)) source conversion, 794–797 analysis methods (dc), 311–362 applications, 355–360 branch-current analysis, 318–324 bridge networks, 346–349 computer analysis, 361–362 current source, 311–318 mesh analysis (see mesh analysis (dc)) nodal analysis (see nodal analysis (dc)) angular velocity, 578 answering machines/phones, 77–78 apparent power, 883, 886–888, 893 capacitor, 892 defined, 886 Δ-connected balanced load, 1107 power factor, 887 total, 895–900 Y-connected balanced load, 1105 applications ac circuits, 608–610 analysis methods, 355–360 answering machines/phones dc supply, 77–78 attenuators, 1030–1032 ballast transformer, 1081–1083 business sense, 909–911 capacitors, 474–479 car battery, boosting, 297–299 car battery charger, 75–77 constant-current alarm systems, 355–357 dimmer control in automobile, 113–114 dimmer switch, 525–528 electrical system of automobile, 249–252 electric baseboard heating element, 110–113 electronic circuits, 300–301 electronic systems, 866–867 energy, 135–143 flashlight, 73–75 fluorescent vs CFL/LED bulbs, 135–139 GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupter), 777–780 graphic and parametric equalizers, 954–957 Hall effect sensor, 562–563 holiday lights, 193–195 household wiring, 141–143, 252–254, 749–751 inductors, 525–528 low-voltage, 1080–1081 magnetic circuits, 561–565 magnetic reed switch, 563–564 magnetic resonance imaging, 564–565 microwave oven, 139–141, 195–196 noise filters, 1032–1035 parallel ac circuits, 749–753 parallel computer bus connections, 254–255 parallel dc circuits, 249–255 phase-shift power control, 751–753 portable power generators, 908–909 resonance, 954–957 safety concerns (high voltages and dc vs ac), 609–610 series ac circuits, 704–707 series control, 193 series dc circuits, 192–197 series-parallel ac circuits, 777–780 series-parallel dc circuits, 297–301 soldering gun, 1077–1080 speakers/microphones, 561–562, 704–707 strain gauges, 114–115 surge protector, 476–479 theorems (ac networks), 866–867 touch pad, 474–476 transformers, 1076–1084 transient response with initial conditions, 529–531 TV remote, 1149–1152 (120 V at 60 Hz) vs (220 V at 50 Hz), 608–609 Wheatstone bridge smoke detector, 357–359 applied voltage, 52, 53, 55 of series dc circuits, 170 approximate numbers, 25, 26 Armstrong, Edwin, 20 artificial intelligence, 15 atoms, 47–50 attenuator probe, oscilloscopes, 1148–1149 attenuators, 1030–1032 automobile dimmer control, 113–114 electrical system, 249–252 autotransformer, 1072 average current, 468 average induced voltage, 519–521 average power, 597, 637–642, 885, 893 Δ-connected balanced load, 1107 total, 895–900 Y-connected balanced load, 1105 average value, 590–596 Fourier series, 1161 pulse waveforms, 1138–1139 square wave, 1144 www.downloadslide.com Index 1211 B Babbage, Charles, 20 Baird, John, 20 ballast transformer, 1081–1083 band frequencies, 929 band-pass filters, 981, 982, 990–994, 1000 See also filters band-stop filters, 981, 982, 994–996 See also filters bandwidth defined, 929 fractional, 931 parallel resonant circuits, 941, 945 Bardeen, John, 21 base-line voltage, 1133 batteries, 57–63 cells (see cells) defined, 57 fuel cells, 64–66 lead–acid, 58–59, 240 life factors, 67–69 lithium-ion (Li-ion), 58, 60–61 nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), 59–60 in parallel dc circuits, 240–241 primary cells, 57–58 secondary cells, 57 block diagram approach defined, 273 format, 273 series-parallel dc circuits, 273–276 Bode, Hendrik Wade, 1001 Bode plots, 1001–1008 boldface notation, 644 branch-current analysis, 318–324 Brattain, Walter H., 21 breadboards See protoboards (breadboards) breakdown voltage, 433 bridge networks (ac), 780–784, 814–819 bridge networks (dc), 346–349 formats for, 346 mesh analysis, 347 nodal analysis, 347 symmetrical lattice, 346–347 bubbles, 550 business sense application, 909–911 Butterworth low-pass filter, 998 response of, 999 C calculators, 37–41 fundamentals, 38–39 TI-89, 37–38 calibration factor, 605 capacitance, 429–433 equation for, 434 stray, 473–474 capacitance comparison bridge, 819 capacitance sensing, 474 capacitance to digital converter (CDC), 475 capacitive shunt approach, 475–476 capacitors, 19, 427–484, 635–636 See also specific capacitors ac circuits, 625–631 applications, 474–479 average power, 641 charging phase, 445–453 computer analysis, 479–484 construction, 433–437 current ic, 467–469 defined, 430 discharging phase, 454–460 electric field, 427–429 energy storage, 473 equivalent series resistance, 443 fixed, 437–441 ideal, 632–633 initial conditions, 460–463 instantaneous values, 463–464 labeling, 443–444 leakage current, 442–443 measurement of, 444–445 in parallel, 469–472 in series, 469–472 series ac circuits, 675–677 standard values, 445 temperature effects, 443 testing of, 444–445 Thévenin equivalent, 464–467 transients (see transients (capacitive networks)) car battery charger, 75–77 carbon-film resistors, 91–92 CDC See capacitance to digital converter (CDC) cells See also batteries defined, 57 fuel, 64–66 photoconductive, 109 primary, 57–58 secondary, 57, 58–61 solar, 57, 61–63 center-tapped transformer, 1073–1074 ceramic capacitors, 440–441 ceramic trimmer capacitor, 442 CGS system, 23, 24 charging phase, capacitors, 445–454 chassis ground, 774–775 Chebyshev filter, 998 chokes, 505 RF, 502 circuit analysis, 17 circuit breakers, 134–135 circular mils (CM), 83–85 circular wires, 82–85 clamp-on meters, 607 closed loop, 170 CM See circular mils (CM) coefficient of coupling, 1048–1049 coercive force, 547 coils See inductors color coding, 96–100 common-mode choke coil, 502 compact fluorescent bulb (CFL), fluorescent vs., 135–139 compensated attenuator probes, 1149 complex circuits See series-parallel dc circuits complex conjugate, 647 complex numbers, 643–655 addition, 648 calculator methods with, 653–655 conjugate, 647 conversion between forms, 645–646 division, 651–653 mathematical operations with, 647–653 multiplication, 650–651 polar form, 644–645 reciprocal of, 647–648 rectangular form, 643–644 subtraction, 648–649 computer analysis, 78, 143–154 See also Multisim; PSpice ac circuits, 611–614, 662–665 analysis methods (ac), 823–827 analysis methods (dc), 361–362 capacitors, 479–484 inductors, 528–533 languages, 41 nonsinusoidal circuits, 1178–1180 parallel ac circuits, 753–757 parallel dc circuits, 255–257 power (ac), 911–914 pulse waveforms, 1152–1154 resonance, 957–963 series ac circuits, 708–712 series dc circuits, 197–199 series-parallel ac circuits, 780–787 series-parallel dc circuits, 301 software packages, 41–42 theorems (ac networks), 868–872 theorems (dc networks), 412–418 transformers, 1084–1087 computers, 20 conductance, 101, 723 conductance sensing, 474 conductors defined, 69 resistance of, impact of temperature on, 88 conjugate See complex conjugate constant-current alarm systems, 355–357 conventional flow, 56, 158 conversion tables, 36–37 converters, 602–605 Cooper effect, 107 copper, 48–49, 85 as conductor, 69 corner frequencies, 929, 1026 cosine wave, 585 coulomb (C), 50, 51 Coulomb, Charles Augustin, 19, 49 Coulomb’s law, 49, 428 coupled impedance, 1069 critical temperature, 107, 108 crossover networks, 1029–1030 current, 47, 53–56 direct (see dc current) source, 739–741 current-controlled current source (CCCS), 825–827 current divider rule (CDR), 234–239 defined, 234 equation, 236 parallel ac circuits, 734 two parallel resistors, 237–239 current sensitivity (CS), 294 current sources, 311–318 conversions, 314–318 dependent, 800, 806–807 ideal, 312 independent, 799 www.downloadslide.com 1212 Index current sources (continued) Ohm’s law and, 314 in parallel, 316–318 removal from network, 374 in series, 318 current transformers, 1075–1076 cutoff frequencies, 929, 941 cycle, waveforms, 572 D d’Arsonval movement See iron-vane movement dc circuits methods of analysis (see analysis methods (dc)) network theorems (see theorems (dc networks)) parallel (see parallel dc circuits) series (see series dc circuits) series-parallel (see series-parallel dc circuits) dc current, 157 defined, 56 voltage sources, 56–66 (See also specific sources) dc generator, 63 decibels (dB), 975–981 defined, 969 human auditory response, 978–979 instrumentation, 979–981 levels, 979 power gain, 975–976 voltage gain, 976–977 defined polarity and current, 122 degrees, 577, 578 delay line coil, 502 delta (Δ) configuration conversion to wye (Y) configuration, 349–355 resistance, 350 Δ-connected balanced load, 1107–1110 Δ-connected generators, 1101–1102 Δ-Δ systems, 1102–1104 Δ-Y systems, 1102–1104 dependent sources conversion, 796–797 current, 806–807 independent sources vs., 793–794 Norton’s theorem (ac circuits), 859–861 superposition theorem (ac circuits), 841–843 Thévenin’s theorem (ac circuits), 848–855 voltage, 799, 808 derivative, 621–623 defined, 621 sine wave, 623 derivative, of voltage, 467 determinants, 1189–1196 determinants method, 319 diamagnetic material, 496 dielectric constant, 433 dielectrics defined, 432 dielectric strength, 433 difference engine, 20 digital multimeter (DMM), 71, 102, 103 for average value, 594–595 dB scale, 979 digital storage scope (DSO), 589 dimmer control, in automobile, 113–114 dimmer switch, 525–528 diodes, 75, 124 dipped capacitors, 441 disc capacitors See ceramic capacitors distribution system, electrical See electrical distribution system division complex numbers, 651–653 using powers of ten, 29–30 domain theory, magnetism, 548, 550 double-subscript notation, 179 double-tuned filters, 996–998 defined, 996 network illustration, 997 PSpice, 1036–1038 droop, 1134 ductility, 85, 246 DuFay, Charles, 18 duty cycle, 1136 E earth ground, 774 eddy currents, 906–907 Edison, Thomas, 19 Edison effect, 19 effective resistance, 905–908 effective/rms value, 596–602, 1051 efficiency, 131–134 electrical distribution system residential/industrial service, 1119–1121 electrical telescope, 20 electric baseboard heating element, 110–113 electric field, 427–429 electric field strength, 427, 431 electric flux lines, 427–429 electrodynamometer movement, 606–607 electrolysis, 64–65 electrolytes, 57 electrolytic capacitors, 439–440, 445 electromagnet, 543 See also permanent magnet electromagnetic induction, 19 electromagnetic interference (EMI), 476, 478 electromagnetic theory of light, 19 electromagnetism, 19, 494 electromotive force (emf), 56 electron flow, 53–54, 56, 158 electronic devices, 20 electronic systems, 866–867 electrons, 47 free, 50 electron volt, 52–53 energy, 125, 127–131 applications, 135–143 capacitors, 473 flow of, 131 inductors, 524–525 potential, 52 units comparison, 24 engineering notation, 31, 38 ENIAC, 20 equivalent circuits, 745–749 equivalent series resistance (ESR), 443, 636–637 even function (axis symmetry), 1162 even harmonics, 1167 exact numbers, 25 F falling edge, waveform, 1132 fall time, 1133–1134 Faraday, Michael, 19, 430 Faraday’s law, 504, 570, 1051 ferromagnetic material, 496, 544 film capacitors, 440 film resistor, 91–92 filters, 981–1001 active, 981 band-pass, 981, 982, 990–994, 1000 band-stop, 981, 982, 994–996 Chebyshev, 998 configurations, 998–1001 defined, 981 double-tuned, 996–998 high-pass, 981, 982, 987–990 low-pass, 981, 982–987 noise, 1032–1035 passive, 981 stop-band, 981 final value See steady-state value five-band color code, 98 fixed capacitors, 437–441 See also capacitors fixed inductors, 500–501 fixed-point notation, 30 fixed resistors, 91–93 color coding for, 97 flashlight, 73–75 Fleming, John Ambrose, 20 Fleming’s valve, 20 floating-point notation, 30–31 fluorescent vs CFL/LED bulbs, 135–139 flux, 551 flux density, 496, 543 residual, 547 foil capacitors, 440 Fourier, Baron Jean, 1160 Fourier analyzer, 1164 Fourier expansion of half-wave rectified waveform, 1169–1170 of square wave, 1167–1168 Fourier series, 1160–1167 average value, 1161 PSpice, 1178–1179 Fourier Spectrum, 1170–1171 fractional bandwidth, 931 Franklin, Benjamin, 18 free electron, 50 frequency band, 929 corner, 929, 1026 cutoff, 929, 941 defined, 572 half-power, 929 natural, 922 quality factor vs., 926 resonant, 924, 943–945 response (see frequency response) spectrum, 573–576 of square wave, 1143 total impedance vs., 927–928 transformers, 1063–1064 frequency counter, 607 Frequency Domain, 1170–1171 www.downloadslide.com Index 1213 frequency response, 631–637 ideal, 631–633 parallel elements, 734–744 parallel R-L-C circuits, 735 parallel R-L circuits, 736–741 practical, 633–637 series ac circuits, 688–701 Frequency Spectrum, 1170–1171 fringing, 431, 555 fuel cells, 64–66 full-wave rectified waveform, 605 function generators, 571, 588 fundamental component, 1160 fuses, 134–135 G Galvani, Luigi, 19 generator (dc), 63 GFCI See ground fault circuit interrupt (GFCI) Gilbert, William, 18 gold, 85 graphic equalizers, 954–957 Gray, Stephen, 18 ground connection, 178–179, 182–184 ground fault circuit interrupt (GFCI), 135, 777–780 grounding, 774–777 See also specific grounds H half-power frequencies, 929 half-wave rectified waveform, Fourier expansion of, 1169–1170 half-wave rectifier, 605 half-wave symmetry, 1162–1163 Hall effect sensor, 562–563 harmonic terms, 1160 hash choke coil, 502 Hay bridge, 817 helium atom, 48 henries (H), 498 Henry, Joseph, 498 hertz (Hz), 572 Hertz, Heinrich Rudolph, 19, 572 high-pass filters, 981, 982 See also filters with limited attenuation, 1017–1022 Multisim, 1038 R-C, 987–990, 1001–1006 holiday lights, 193–195 horsepower (hp), 125 household dimmer switch, 525–528 hydrogen atom, 47, 48 hysteresis, 546–550 hysteresis losses, 907 I IC See integrated circuit (IC) ideal pulse, 1131 impedance diagrams, 677–678 series R-L-C circuits, 683–684 impedances coupled, 1069 matching, 1056–1060 maximum, 939–940 measurements, 608 Norton’s theorem (ac circuits), 855, 856, 858 parallel R-C circuits, 732 parallel R-L-C circuits, 734 parallel R-L circuits, 730, 736–739 reflected, 1054–1056 resistive element, 672 series configuration, 678–685 Thévenin’s theorem (ac circuits), 845, 849 total (see total impedance) independent sources conversion, 794–796 current, 799 nodal analysis (ac), 804–806 Norton’s theorem (ac circuits), 855–859 superposition theorem, 836–841 voltage, 797–798, 807–808 vs dependent sources, 793–794 induced voltage, 504–506, 1053 inductance, 498–504 mutual, 1047–1050 inductors, 473–474, 493–533, 634–635 See also specific inductors ac circuits, 624–625 applications, 525–528 average induced voltage, 519–521 average power, 641 coefficient of coupling, 1048–1049 color-coding system, 503 computer analysis, 528–533 construction, 498–500 defined, 498 energy storage, 524–525 fixed, 500–501 ideal, 631 induced voltage, 504–506 initial conditions, 509–511 instantaneous values, 518–519 labeling, 503–504 loosely coupled, 1049 magnetic field, 493–497 measurement of, 504 in parallel, 521–522 practical equivalent, 502–503 in series, 521–522 series ac circuits, 673–675 steady-state conditions, 522–524 symbols, 500 testing of, 504 Thévenin equivalent, 516–518 variable, 501, 502 voltage, 512, 513 industrial electrical distribution system, 1119–1121 inferred absolute temperature, 88–90 initial conditions capacitive networks, 460–463 inductive networks, 509–511 transient response with, 529–531 initial value, 460 instantaneous values capacitive networks, 463–464 defined, 571 inductive networks, 518–519 transformers, 1052 instrumentation ac circuits, 605–608 ammeters, 70–73, 165, 189, 227, 294–295 decibels, 979–981 digital multimeter (DMM), 71, 102, 103, 594–595 loading effects, 189–191 nonsinusoidal circuits, 1164–1167, 1173–1174 ohmmeters, 102–103, 608 oscilloscopes, 588–590 parallel dc circuits, 226–228 parallel resistors, 222–223 pulse waveforms, 1139 series dc circuits, 164–166 voltmeters, 70–73, 165, 226–227, 295 volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM), 71, 102, 103 instrument transformers, 1075 insulators breakdown strength of, 69 defined, 69 resistance of, impact of temperature on, 88 types of, 70 integrated circuit (IC), 2, See also ac circuits; dc circuits Integration, 593 internal resistance of voltage sources, 184–189 inverter, 571 inverters, 602–605 iron-core transformers, 1050–1054 equivalent circuit, 1060–1063 nameplate data, 1070–1071 phasor diagram for, 1062 reduced equivalent circuit, 1061 reflected impedance, 1054–1056 iron-vane movement, 293–294, 605 J Joule (J), 23, 51, 128 Joule, James Prescott, 128 K kelvin (K), 23 kilogram (kg), 23, 25 kilowatthour meter, 128 Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert, 19, 169 Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL), 230–234 application of, 231–234 defined, 230 equation, 230 nodal analysis and, 335, 338–339 parallel ac network, 728 parallel R-C circuits, 731 parallel R-L-C circuits, 733 parallel R-L circuits, 729 unbalanced Y-connected loads, 1115 Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL), 169–173 in branch-current analysis, 319 capacitors and, 450 closed loop, 170 defined, 170 in mesh analysis (ac), 797 in mesh analysis (dc), 325 series R-C circuits, 682 series R-L-C circuits, 684 series R-L circuits, 680 symbolic form, 170 unbalanced Y-connected loads, 1117 www.downloadslide.com 1214 Index L labeling capacitors, 443–444 inductors, 503–504 ladder networks ac, 773–774 dc, 283–285 lagging, 585 power factor, 642 languages, computer, 41 lead-acid batteries, 58–59, 240 leading, 585 power factor, 642 leakage current, 442–443 leakage flux, 1060, 1061 Leibniz wheel, 20 Lenz’s law, 505 Leyden jar, 18 light-emitting diode (LED), fluorescent vs., 135–139 line conditioner See surge protector line current, 1094 line voltage, 1094 lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, 58, 60–61 load regulation See voltage regulation logarithmic plot, characteristics of, 972–973 logarithmic scale, 971 logarithms applications of, 970 graphs, 970–972 natural, 974 properties of, 974–975 relationship with variables, 969–972 usage of, 969 log-log graph paper, 970 loop currents, 324 low-pass filters, 981, 982 See also filters Butterworth, 998 with limited attenuation, 1013–1017 R-C, 982–987, 1006–1008 low-voltage application, 1080–1081 M magnetic circuits, 543–565 air gaps, 555–557 Ampére’s circuital law, 550–551 applications, 561–565 domain theory, 548, 550 flux, 551 flux density, 543 hysteresis, 546–550 magnetic field, 543–544 magnetizing force, 545–546 Ohm’s law for, 544–545 reluctance, 544 series, 551–555 series-parallel, 557–561 magnetic field, 493–497, 543–544 magnetic flux lines defined, 494 magnetic circuits, 545 materials, 496 magnetic reed switch, 563–564 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 564–565 magnetism, domain theory of, 548, 550 magnetizing force, 545–546 magnetomotive force, 496, 543, 545 magnets, permanent See permanent magnets malleability, 85 Marconi, Guglielmo, 20 matrix approach, 474–475 maximum power transfer theorem (ac circuits), 861–865 conditions for, 862 defined, 861 maximum power transfer theorem (dc circuits), 397–406 defined, 397 efficiency, 400, 401 load resistance, 402 PSpice, 413–417 validation of, 397 maximum voltage rating, 94 maximum working voltage, 433 Maxwell, James Clerk, 19 Maxwell bridge, 818 Maxwell’s equations, 19 megohmmeter, 296–297 memristors, 105–106 action of, 106 defined, 105 illustrated, 105 menu, 42 mesh analysis (ac), 797–804 bridge network, 814 dependent current sources, 800 dependent voltage sources, 799 format approach, 800–804 independent current sources, 799 independent voltage sources, 797–798 Kirchhoff’s voltage law, 797 mesh analysis (dc), 324–334 bridge networks, 347 defined, 324 format approach, 330–334 general approach, 324–330 Kirchhoff’s voltage law and, 325 procedure, 324–325, 331 supermesh approach/current, 328–330 mesh/loop currents, 324 metal-film resistor, 92 meter (m), 23, 24–25 meters See also specific meters ac, 605–608 capacitance, 444 clamp-on, 607 power, 905 in series dc circuits, 164–166 methods of analysis ac (see analysis methods (ac)) dc (see analysis methods (dc)) mica capacitors, 441 microammeter, 70 microbar (μbar), 978 microphones, 561–562 microwave oven, 139–141, 195–196 milliammeter, 70 milligaussmeter, 497 Millman’s theorem, 406–409 ac circuits, 865 application effect, 406 dual effect, 409 equivalent resistance, 407 voltage source conversion to current source, 406–407 mirror symmetry, 1162–1163 MKS system, 23, 24 molded coils, 502 color coding, 503 multiple-load transformers, 1073–1074 multiplication, using powers of ten, 29 Multisim, 149–154 ac circuits, 611–614, 664–665 analysis methods (ac), 827 analysis methods (dc), 361–362 capacitors, 483–484 high-pass filter, 1038 installation, 149–151 ladder network voltage, 784–787 Ohm’s law, 151–154 parallel ac circuits, 755–757 parallel dc circuits, 256–257 resonance, 961–963 series dc circuits, 197–198 series-parallel ac circuits, 784–787 series R-L-C circuit, 711–712 superposition theorem, 417–418 superposition theorem (ac circuits), 871–872 transient RL response, 531–533 mutual inductance, 1047–1050 mutually coupled coils, 1064–1067 N nameplate data, 1070–1071 nanochips, 16 nanotechnology, 16 nanovoltmeter, 296 natural frequency, 922 negative-going pulse, 1133 neutral connection, 1097 neutrons, 48 Newton (N), 23 nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries, 59–60 Nipkow, Paul, 20 nodal analysis (ac), 804–814 bridge networks, 815 computer analysis, 823–825 dependent current sources, 806–807 dependent voltage sources, 808 format approach, 808–814 general approach, 804–808 independent sources, 804–806 independent voltage sources, 807–808 nodal analysis (dc), 334–346 bridge networks, 347 format approach, 342–346 general approach, 334–341 Kirchhoff’s current law and, 335, 338–339 procedure, 335, 342 supernode approach, 339–341 nodal voltage, 359–360 nodes, 231, 334 noise filters, 1032–1035 nonsinusoidal circuits, 1159–1180 computer analysis, 1178–1180 defined, 1159 even function (axis symmetry), 1162 Fourier series, 1160–1167 www.downloadslide.com Index 1215 Fourier Spectrum, 1170–1171 half-wave/mirror symmetry, 1162–1163 half-wave rectified waveform, Fourier expansion of, 1169–1170 input response, 1171–1177 instrumentation, 1164–1167, 1173–1174 odd function (point symmetry), 1161–1162 repetitive on half cycle, 1163 square wave, Fourier expansion of, 1167–1168 normalization, 983 normal magnetization curve, 547, 548 Norton, Edward L., 393 Norton’s theorem (ac circuits), 855–861 defined, 855 dependent sources, 859–861 equivalent circuit, 855–856, 857 impedance, 855, 856, 858 independent sources, 855–859 Norton’s theorem (dc circuits), 393–396 defined, 393 experimental procedure, 396 procedure of, 393–394 notation double-subscript, 179 series dc circuits, 178–182 single-subscript, 179–180 nucleus, 47, 48 O odd function (point symmetry), 1161–1162 Oersted, Hans Christian, 19, 493 Ohm, George Simon, 17, 19, 120 ohmmeters, 102–103 in impedance measurement, 608 in parallel network resistance measurement, 222–223 series, 296 in series-parallel dc circuits, 296–297 in Thévenin resistance measurement, 390–391 ohms, 17, 81 Ohm’s law, 19, 119–125 and current source, 314 defined, 120 and equation for power, 126 for magnetic circuits, 544–545 Multisim, 151–154 parallel ac network, 727 phase currents, 1114–1115 plotting, 122–125 PSpice, 146–149 series ac circuits, 679 and series-parallel dc circuits, 270 and series R-L circuits, 680 in voltage drop magnitude, 162–163 and voltage source, 315 ohm/volt (Ω/V) rating, 245 oil capacitors, 441 open circuits capacitor and, 449 parallel dc circuits, 241–242 series-parallel dc circuits, 290–293 oscillators, 604 oscilloscopes, 588–590 attenuator probe, 1148–1149 for average value, 594–596 in dc voltage measurement, 595 defined, 588 ground, 775 input resistance, 1148 storage, 589 P parallel ac circuits, 721–757 admittance, 723–727 analysis of, 721 applications, 749–753 computer analysis, 753–757 current divider rule, 734 equivalent, 746–747 frequency response, 734–744 networks, 727–734 R-C, 730–732, 741–744 R-L, 728–730, 736–741 R-L-C, 732–734, 735, 744 summary, 744–745 total impedance, 721–723 parallel capacitors, 469–472 parallel computer bus connections, 254–255 parallel current sources, 316–318 parallel dc circuits, 213–257 advantages of, 249 ammeter, 227 applications, 249–255 computer analysis, 255–257 current, 223 current divider rule, 234–239 defined, 213 duality, 224 instrumentation, 226–228 Kirchhoff’s current law and, 230–234 open, 241–242 power distribution in, 228–230 protoboards (breadboards), 248–249 resistors, 213–223 short, 242–244 summary table, 246–247 troubleshooting techniques, 247–248 voltage, 223 voltage sources in, 240–241 voltmeters in, 226–227, 244–245 parallel inductors, 521–522 parallel resistors, 213–223 analogies, 222 combination, 214 current through, 235–239 defined, 213 equal, 218–219 instrumentation, 222–223 interchanging, 220 schematic representation, 214 total resistance, 215, 218–219 two, 219–222, 237–239 parallel resonant circuits, 922, 936–953 bandwidth, 941, 945 cutoff frequencies, 941 examples, 947–953 maximum impedance, 939–940 quality factor, 945 selectivity curve for, 940–943 summary table, 946–947 total impedance, 945 unity power factor., 938–939 paramagnetic material, 496 parametric equalizers, 954–957 parts per million per degree Celsius (PPM/°C), 91 Pascal, Blaise, 20 passive filters, 981 See also filters peak amplitude, 571 peak-to-peak value, 571 peak value, 571 period (T), 572 periodic pulse train, 1135 periodic waveform, 572 permanent magnets defined, 493, 550 flux distribution, 494 magnetic field distribution, 543 permeability of air, 496 defined, 496 ferromagnetic materials, 544 relative, 497, 499, 544 phase angle, measurement of, 701–704 phase current, 1094 phase relations, 584–590 defined, 586 function generators, 588 lagging, 585 leading, 585 oscilloscope and, 588–590 phasor diagram, 673 phase sequence Δ-connected generators, 1102 indicators, 1117–1118 Y-connected generator, 1095–1096 phase-shift power control, 751–753 phase voltages, 1092 phasor diagrams defined, 656 illustration, 677 for iron-core transformers, 1062 magnitudes, 673 parallel R-C circuits, 731 parallel R-L-C circuits, 733 parallel R-L circuits, 729 series R-C circuits, 682 series resonant circuits, 924 series R-L-C circuits, 684 series R-L circuits, 680 Y-connected generator, 1095 phasors, 655–661, 672 defined, 656 diagrams (see phasor diagrams) phenolic inductor, 501 photoconductive cell, 109 pi (p), 350, 577 polar form, complex numbers, 644–645 conversion to rectangular form, 645, 646 polarities, 121 polyester capacitors, 440 polyphase systems, 1091–1121 defined, 1091 Δ-connected balanced load, 1107–1110 Δ-connected generators, 1101–1102 Δ-Δ systems, 1102–1104 Δ-Y systems, 1102–1104 phase sequence, 1095–1096, 1102 phase voltages, 1092 www.downloadslide.com 1216 Index polyphase systems (continued) power, 1104–1110 three-phase generator, 1092–1093 three-wattmeter method, 1110–1111 two-wattmeter method, 1111–1114 unbalanced, 1114–1118 Y-connected three-phase generator, 1093–1095 Y-Δ system, 1099–1101 polypropylene capacitors, 440 Popov, Aleksandr, 20 portable power generators, 908–909 positive-going pulse, 1133 positive ion, 50 potential difference, 52, 55, 119 potential energy, 52 potentiometer defined, 94 internal construction of, 95 loading, 288–290 resistance components of, 95–96 in Thévenin resistance measurement, 391, 392 pound (lb), 23 power (ac), 883–914 apparent, 883, 886–888 applications, 908–911 average, 597, 637–642, 885 capacitive circuit, 891–893 computer analysis, 911–914 effective resistance, 905–908 general equation, 883–884 inductive circuit, 888–891 parallel R-L-C circuits, 733 parallel R-L circuits, 729 power-factor correction, 900–905 reactive, 883, 888–891 resistive circuit, 884–886 series R-C circuits, 682 series R-L-C circuits, 684–685 series R-L circuits, 680–681 vs time, 638 power (dc), 125–127 defined, 125 distribution in parallel circuit, 228–230 electrical unit of measurement, 125 equation for, 126 superposition theorem and, 375 power factor, 642–643 Δ-connected balanced load, 1107 parallel R-C circuits, 731 parallel R-L-C circuits, 733–734 parallel R-L circuits, 729 series R-C circuits, 682 series R-L-C circuits, 685 series R-L circuits, 681 Y-connected balanced load, 1106 power-factor correction, 900–905 power meters, 905 powers of ten, 27–30, 32–34, 40–41 power supplies, 63–64 power triangle, 893–895 PPM/°C, 91, 443 practical pulse See actual/true/practical pulse primary cells, 57–58 program, computer, 41 protoboards (breadboards) defined, 191 network setups, 191–192 parallel dc circuits, 248–249 series dc circuits, 191–192 proton, 47 PSpice, 145–149 ac bridge network, 780–784 ac circuits, 611, 662–664 analysis methods (ac), 823–827 analysis methods (dc), 361 average capacitive current, 482–483 current-controlled current source (CCCS), 825–827 double-tuned filters, 1036–1038 Fourier series, 1178–1179 installation, 145–146 maximum power transfer theorem, 413–417 nodal analysis, 823–825 Ohm’s law, 146–149 parallel ac circuits, 753–755 parallel dc circuits, 255–256 parallel resonance, 959–961 power curve: resistor, 911–912 power curves: series R-L-C circuit, 912–914 R-C response, 1152–1154 series dc circuits, 197–198 series-parallel ac circuits, 780–784 series-parallel dc circuits, 301 series resonance, 957–959 series R-L-C circuit, 708–711 Thévenin’s theorem (ac circuits), 868–869 Thévenin’s theorem (dc circuits), 412–413 transformers, 1084–1087 transient RC response, 479–482 transient RL response, 528–529 voltage-controlled voltage source, 869–870 pulse repetition rate, 1136 pulse train, 1135 pulse transformer, 1073 pulse waveforms, 1131–1154 amplitude of, 1132 average value, 1138–1139 base-line voltage, 1133 computer analysis, 1152–1154 duty cycle, 1135–1138 fall time, 1133–1134 ideal, 1131 instrumentation, 1139 negative-going, 1133 positive-going, 1133 pulse width, 1132 rise time, 1133–1134 tilt, 1134 pulse width, 1132 Pythagorean theorem, 894 Q quadrature power See reactive power quality factor (Q), 925–927 coil, 926 defined, 925 frequency vs., 926 parallel resonant circuits, 945 R radians, 577, 578 radiation loss, 906 radio, 19–20 radio-frequency interference (RFI), 476, 478 R-C circuits parallel, 730–732, 741–744 series, 680–683, 689–690 transient, 1139–1141 R-C high-pass filter, 987–990, 1001–1006 R-C low-pass filters, 982–987, 1006–1008 R-C response PSpice, 1152–1154 to square-wave inputs, 1141–1148 reactance capacitive, 626 inductive, 625, 943 reactive power, 883, 888–891, 893 Δ-connected balanced load, 1107 total, 895–900 Y-connected balanced load, 1105 real power See average power reciprocal, of complex numbers, 647–648 reciprocity theorem ac circuits, 865 dc circuits, 411–412 rectangular form, complex numbers, 643–644 conversion to polar form, 645, 646 rectification, 63 rectifier See diodes reduce and return approach series-parallel dc circuits, 270–273 relative permeability, 497, 499, 544 relative permittivity, 432–433 reluctance, 544 residential electrical distribution system, 1119–1121 residual flux density, 547 resistance, 81–115 See also resistors circular wires, 82–85 color coding, 96–100 conductance, 101 defined, 81 internal, of voltage sources, 184–189 mathematical manipulations, 120 memristors, 105–106 metric units, 103–105 photoconductive cell, 109 sheet, 104 superconductors, 106–108 temperature and, 88–91 thermistor, 108–109 varistors, 109–110 resistive ac circuit, 672–673 resistivity, 82, 103 resistors, 624, 633–634 See also resistance average power, 640 fixed, 91–93 ideal, 631 maximum voltage rating, 94 parallel, 213–223 series, 158–160 series ac circuits, 672–673 standard values of, 98, 99 www.downloadslide.com Index 1217 surface mount, 100 variable, 94–96 resonance, 921–963 applications, 954–957 computer analysis, 957–963 parallel circuit, 922, 936–953 series circuit, 922, 923–936 stray, 954 resonant frequency, 924 RF chokes, 502 rheostats, 94 rise time, 1133–1134 rising edge, waveform, 1132 R-L-C circuits parallel, 732–734, 744 series, 683–684, 699–701 R-L circuits parallel, 728–730, 736–741 series, 680–681, 696–699 Röntgen, Wilhelm, 19 root-mean-square (rms) value See effective/ rms value rounding off, 26 S sag, 1134 saturation, 550 scientific notation, 31 second (s), 23 secondary cells, 57, 58–61 selectivity series resonant circuits, 929–931 selectivity curve, 929 for parallel resonant circuits, 940–943 semiconductors defined, 70 materials, 70 resistance of, impact of temperature on, 88 semilog graph paper, 970–971 series ac circuits, 671–712 applications, 704–707 capacitive elements, 675–677 components, 671 computer analysis, 708–712 frequency response for, 688–701 inductive elements, 673–675 Ohm’s law, 679 R-C, 681–683, 689–690 resistive elements, 672–673 R-L, 680–681, 696–699 R-L-C, 683–685, 699–701 voltage divider rule, 685–688 series alarm circuit, 196–197 series capacitors, 469–472 series current sources, 318 series dc circuits, 157–199 ammeter, 165 analogies, 164 applications, 192–197 applied voltage of, 170 computer analysis, 197–199 connection of supplies, 169 defined, 161 elements of, 177–178 instrumentation, 164–166, 189–191 Kirchhoff’s voltage law, 169–173 notation, 178–182 overview, 157–158 power distribution in, 166–167 protoboards (breadboards), 191–192 resistors, 158–160 schematic representation, 161 summary table, 246–247 voltage divider rule, 175–177 voltage division in, 173–177 voltage measurement, 165–166 voltage regulation, 184–189 voltage sources in, 167–169 voltmeters, 165 series inductors, 521–522 series magnetic circuits, 551–555 series ohmmeter, 296 series-parallel ac circuits, 763–787 applications, 777–780 computer analysis, 780–787 defined, 763 grounding, 774–777 illustrative examples, 763–773 ladder networks, 773–774 series-parallel dc circuits, 269–301 ammeter, 294–295 applications, 297–301 block diagram approach, 273–276 computer analysis, 301 defined, 269 examples of, 276–283 ladder network, 283–285 network illustration, 269–270 ohmmeter, 296–297 Ohm’s law and, 270 open, 290–293 potentiometer loading, 288–290 reduce and return approach, 270–273 short, 290–293 voltage divider supply, 285–288 voltmeter, 295 series-parallel magnetic circuits, 557–561 series resistors, 158–160 analogies, 160 instrumentation, 160 series resonant circuits, 922, 923–936 examples, 934–936 quality factor (Q), 925–927 selectivity, 929–931 summary, 933–934 total impedance, 923, 927–928 voltage, 931–933 sheet resistance, 104 shells, 48 Shockley, William, 21 short circuits capacitor and, 449 current, in Thévenin resistance measurement, 391, 392–393 defined, 242 examples of, 243–244 inductor characteristics, 509 inductor equivalents, 522, 524 parallel dc circuits, 242–244 series-parallel dc circuits, 290–293 siemens (S), 101, 724 significant figures/digits, 25–27 silver, 85 single-phase ac generator, 1091 single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) relays, 358 single split-phase distribution system, 1119 single-subscript notation, 179–180 sinusoidal alternating current, 157 sinusoidal voltage, 569, 570–572, 581–584 element response to, 624–631 sinusoidal waveforms, 577–581 See also ac circuits angular velocity, 578 areas of positive (negative) pulse, 593 defined, 577 derivative of, 623 function, 581 generating through vertical projection, 579 mathematical format for, 581 phase relations, 584–590 SI system, 23–24 skin effect, 906 slug, 23 smart meter, 128–129 software packages, 41–42 solar cells, 57, 61–63 soldering gun, 1077–1080 solid-state era, 21 source current parallel R-C circuits, 743–744 parallel R-L circuits, 739–741 speakers, 561–562, 704–707 specific gravity, 59 spectrum analyzer, 1164 square wave average value, 1144 defined, 1141 Fourier expansion of, 1167–1168 frequency of, 1143 inputs, R-C response to, 1141–1148 periodic, 1141 steady-state conditions, 1147 static electricity, 18 steady-state conditions, 522–524 steady-state region, 460 steady-state value, 461 Steinmetz, Charles Proteus, 659 step-down transformer, 1052 step-up transformer, 1052 stop-band filters, 981 See also filters strain gauges, 114–115 stray capacitances, 473–474 stray resonance, 954 substitution theorem ac circuits, 865 dc circuits, 409–411 subtraction, using powers of ten, 28–29 superconductors, 106–108 supermesh approach/current, 328–330 supernode approach, 339–341 superposition theorem (ac circuits), 835–843 applications of, 836 defined, 835 dependent sources, 841–843 independent sources, 836–841 www.downloadslide.com 1218 Index superposition theorem (continued) Multisim, 871–872 power effects and, 835 superposition theorem (dc circuits), 373–380 defined, 374 Multisim, 417–418 power effects, 375 usage of, 373 surface-mount inductors, 502 surface mount resistors, 100 surge protector, 476–479 susceptance capacitive element, 724 inductive element, 724 symbols, 36 symmetrical lattice network, 346–347 systems of units, 23–25, 34–36 CGS, 23, 24 MKS, 23, 24 SI, 23–24 T t(0+), 451–452 t(0−), 451–452 tee (T), 350 Teflon® capacitors, 440 television, 20 temperature ampere-hour (Ah) rating vs., 68 critical, 107, 108 effects on capacitors, 443 inferred absolute, 88–90 and resistance, 88–91 temperature coefficient, 443 temperature coefficient of resistance, 90–91 terminal voltage, 68, 69 Tesla, Nikola, 496 teslas (T), 496 theorems (ac networks), 835–872 applications, 866–867 computer analysis, 868–872 maximum power transfer, 861–865 Millman’s, 865 Norton’s, 855–861 reciprocity, 865 substitution, 865 superposition, 835–843 Thévenin’s, 843–855 theorems (dc networks), 373–418 computer analysis, 412–418 maximum power transfer, 397–406 Millman’s, 406–409 Norton’s, 393–396 reciprocity, 411–412 substitution, 409–411 superposition, 373–380 Thévenin’s, 380–393 thermistor, 108–109 Thévenin, Leon-Charles, 381 Thévenin’s theorem (ac circuits), 843–855 defined, 843 dependent sources, 848–855 equivalent circuit, 843–845, 849, 855–856 impedance, 845, 849 independent sources, 843–848 PSpice, 868–869 voltage, 848 Thévenin’s theorem (dc circuits), 380–393 defined, 381 ETh measurement, 390 experimental procedures, 389–393 procedure of, 381–382 PSpice, 412–413 RTh measurement, 390–393 and terminal identification, 382, 384, 386 usage of, 380–381 three-phase generator, 1092–1093 Y-connected, 1093–1099 three-symbol approach, color coding, 100 three-wattmeter method, 1110–1111 three-wire conductors, 775–776 TI-103 calculator, 37–38 complex numbers, 653–655 logarithms, 974–975 Norton’s theorem (ac circuits), 858 sinusoidal functions, 583–584 superposition theorem (ac circuits), 840 total admittance, 770–771 total impedance, 772 voltage divider rule (ac), 686 tilt, 1134 time power vs., 638 as unit of measurement, 577 time charts, 18 time constant, 447, 450 effect on response, 456–460 toroid coil, 502 total impedance defined, 764 parallel ac circuits, 721–723 parallel R-C circuits, 741–743 parallel resonant circuits, 945 series R-C circuit, 690–692 series resonant circuits, 923, 927–928 series R-L-C circuit, 699–700 series R-L circuit, 696–697 touch pad, 474–476 transformation ratio, 1052 transformers, 75, 1047–1087 air-core, 1067–1069 applications, 1076–1084 center-tapped, 1073–1074 components of, 1048 computer analysis, 1084–1087 current, 1075–1076 frequency, 1063–1064 impedance matching, 1056–1060 instrument, 1075 iron-core, 1050–1054 isolation, 1059 multiple-load, 1073–1074 mutual inductance, 1047–1050 mutually coupled, 1064–1067 nameplate data, 1070–1071 reflected impedance, 1054–1056 step-down, 1052 step-up, 1052 symbols, 1071 types of, 1071–1073 (See also specific types) transient period, 445 transients (capacitive networks), 445–460 charging phase, 445–453 discharging phase, 454–460 exponential functions, solving for, 452–453 time constant (see time constant) t(0−)/t(0+), 451–452 universal equation for, 461 transients (inductive networks), 506–509, 511–515 Kirchhoff’s voltage law and, 508 release phase, 511–515 R-L, 506–509, 511–515 storage phase, 506–509 transistors dc levels, 280 defined, 21 troubleshooting defined, 247 techniques, 247–248 true pulse See actual/true/practical pulse True rms Multimeter, 601–602 tungsten, 85 turns ratio, 76 TV remote application, 1149–1152 12 V car battery charger, 75–77 two-symbol marking, 100 two-terminal device, 158 two-wattmeter method, 1111–1114 U ultra-wideband audio transformer, 1073 unbalanced systems, 1114–1118 See also polyphase systems three-phase, four-wire, Y-connected load, 1114–1116 three-phase, three-wire, Y-connected load, 1116–1118 units of measurement, 21–22 V van Musschenbroek, Pieter, 18 variable capacitors, 441–442 symbol, 437 variable inductors, 501, 502 variable resistors, 94–96 See also potentiometer varistors, 109–110 virtual ground, 475 volt, 17, 51 Volta, Alessandro, 17, 19, 51 voltage, 47, 50–53 applied, 52, 53, 55, 170 average induced, 519–521 average value, 591 base-line, 1133 breakdown, 433 defining between two points, 51 dependent sources, 799, 808 derivative of, 467 division, in series circuit, 173–177 independent sources, 797–798, 807–808 induced, 504–506, 1053 inductor, 512, 513 ladder network, 784–787 www.downloadslide.com Index 1219 line, 1094 mathematical manipulations, 120 maximum, 245 maximum rating, 94 nodal, 359–360 parallel dc circuits, 223 phase, 1092 phase angle measurement between, 703–704 polarity for, 576 resonance, 924 series R-C circuit, 693–696 series resonant circuit, 931–933 series R-L ac circuit, 697–699 sinusoidal, 569, 570–572 sources (see voltage sources) terminal, 68, 69 Thévenin, 390, 848 voltage divider rule (VDR), 175–177, 286 ac circuits, 685–688 defined, 175 voltage divider supply, 285–288, 301 defined, 285 illustration, 285 loaded conditions, 286–288 no-load conditions, 285–286 voltage gain, 976–977 high-pass filter, 1001 voltage regulation defined, 187 series dc circuits, 184–189 voltage sources, 56–66 batteries, 57–63 and current source, 312 dependent, 841–843 and ground connection, 178–179 ideal, 312 Ohm’s law and, 315 in parallel dc circuits, 240–241 removal from network, 374 in series dc circuits, 167–169 voltaic cell, 19 volt-ampere reactive (VAR), 889 voltmeters, 70–73 See also instrumentation loading effects, 244–245 in parallel dc circuits, 226–227 in series dc circuits, 165 series-parallel dc circuits, 295 Thévenin voltage measurement with, 390 volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM), 71, 102, 103, 605 analog, 244–245 dB scale, 979 von Guericke, Otto, 18 von Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 20 von Siemens, Werner, 101 W watt (W), 125 Watt, James, 125 wattage ratings, of household items, 131 wave analyzer, 1164 waveforms alternating, 569 cycle, 572 defined, 571 full-wave rectified, 605 nonsinusoidal (see nonsinusoidal circuits) periodic, 572 pulse (see pulse waveforms) sinusoidal, 577–581 Weber, Wilhelm Eduard, 495 webers (Wb), 495 Wheatstone bridge smoke detector, 357–359 Wien bridge oscillator, 604 wire tables, 85–87 wiring, household, 141–143, 252–254, 749–751 wye (Y) configuration conversion to delta (Δ) configuration, 349–355 resistance, 350 X X-rays, 19 Y Y-connected load balanced, 1104–1107 unbalanced, 1114–1118 Y-connected generators with, 1097–1099 Y-connected three-phase generator, 1093–1099 defined, 1093 line current, 1094 phase current, 1094 phase sequence, 1095–1096 phasor diagram, 1095 Y-connected load with, 1097–1099 Y-Δ conversion ac, 819–823 dc, 349–355 Y-Δ system, 1099–1101 ... Series dc Circuits 157 Parallel dc Circuits 213 Series-Parallel Circuits 269 Series ac Circuits 671 Parallel ac Circuits 721 Series-Parallel ac Networks 763 Methods of Analysis and Selected... Parallel Resonant Circuit 936 Selectivity Curve for Parallel Resonant Circuits 940 Effect of Ql Ú 10 943 Summary Table 946 Examples (Parallel Resonance) 947 Applications 954 Computer Analysis ... Introduction 213 Parallel Resistors 213 Parallel Circuits 223 Power Distribution in a Parallel Circuit 228 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 230 Current Divider Rule 234 Voltage Sources in Parallel 240 Open
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Xem thêm: Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad, Giáo trình Introductory circuit analysis 13th by robert l boylestad, 5 Significant Figures, Accuracy, and Rounding Off, 7 Fixed-Point, Floating-Point, Scientific, and Engineering Notation, 7 Circuit Breakers, GFCIs, and Fuses, 10 Ammeter, Voltmeter, and Ohmmeter Design, 9 Y Δ (T-π) and Δ-Y (π-T) Conversions, 9 Thévenin Equivalent: T = RThC, 8 Thévenin Equivalent: T = L/RTh, 4 Ohm’s Law for Magnetic Circuits, 2 Response of Basic R, L, and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current, 7 Δ - Y, Y - Δ Conversions, 6 Substitution, Reciprocity, and Millman’s Theorems, 8 The Total P, Q, and S, 6 VR, VL, and VC, 5 Impedance Matching, Isolation, and Displacement, 9 Δ - Δ, Δ - Y Three-Phase Systems, 14 Unbalanced, Three-Phase, Three-Wire, Y-Connected Load