Solution manual aswers auditing theory by cabrera chapter 15 ans

9 6 0
  • Loading ...
1/9 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 28/02/2018, 14:15

CHAPTER 15 BASIC CONCEPTS AND ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL CONTROL I Review Questions Refer to page 548, 3rd paragraph and page 549, 1st paragraph of the textbook Internal control systems are defined as “ the process by which an entity’s board of directors, management and/or other personnel obtain reasonable assurance as to the achievement of specified objectives.” The basic elements of internal control are: a b Control environment, and Control procedures All internal control systems, due to the human factor, contain certain inherent limitations Because of these inherent limitations, internal control provides reasonable, but not absolute, assurance as to the achievement of control objectives Management support of internal control is prerequisite to its effectiveness That is, no matter how sound the other components, the system will not be effective if management does not support it and communicate that support throughout the organization An organizational awareness that management takes internal control seriously, helps to maximize the effectiveness of the control activities A management operating style that supports proper ethical behavior also enhances the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control If employees perceive that management conducts itself in accordance with proper ethical behavior, such conduct will tend to reflect itself throughout the organization Proper ethical behavior, in turn, minimizes the probability that financial statements will be intentionally misstated A centralized, efficient human resources function, an integral part of the control environment, enhances competence by placing the right people in the right jobs and training them properly to perform their assigned tasks An effective set of internal controls requires a careful analysis of decision alternatives, and the assumption of high risk only where warranted A management attitude geared toward excessive risk-taking hampers goal attainment and thereby compromises control 15-2 Solutions Manual - Assurance Principles, Professional Ethics… Monitoring affects all of the other controls by assuring their effectiveness over time “Ongoing” monitoring is recurring and somewhat automatic An example is the periodic analysis of cost variances and follow-up control where the variance is material and controllable “Separate evaluation” applies to those controls not conducive to ongoing monitoring Integrity, ethical values, and competence, for example, cannot be monitored on a “real-time” basis, but require periodic review for effectiveness Fixing of responsibility enhances control by providing accountability for assets The person responsible for prelisting incoming cash receipts, for example, will be initially accountable for any discrepancy between such prelisting and the receipted deposit ticket obtained from the bank Knowledge of such accountability, in turn, will encourage care in preparing the prelisting and in transferring the cash receipts to the person designated as responsible for preparing and making bank deposits 10 Any internal control system, regardless of how sound it is, has certain inherent limitations The system can be circumvented by collusion among two or more employees; management can override the structure; and the procedures can break down temporarily causing a lag in the adaptation of the controls For these reasons, an effective system of internal control provides reasonable, but not absolute assurance as to the prevention and detection of material errors or irregularities Auditors, therefore, must not rely totally on a sound control system as support for their audit opinion Rather, they must recognize the inherent limitations and, at the very least, perform a minimum amount of substantive audit testing 11 Small entities, typically, cannot afford the degree of separation of functional responsibilities existing in larger firms Also, small firms, typically, cannot support a separate internal audit staff For these reasons, compensating controls are necessary in smaller organizations Such compensating controls ordinarily require that the owner/manager assume an active role in reviewing transactions, examining documents, reconciling bank accounts, and otherwise performing many of the tasks normally done by internal auditors in larger organizations 12 Separating recordkeeping from custody of the related assets provides an independently maintained record which may periodically be reconciled with assets on hand This independent record holds the personnel of a custodial department accountable for assets entrusted to their care If the accounting records were maintained by the custodial department, opportunity would exist for that department to conceal its errors or shortages by manipulating the records 13 Most controls can be classified as either prevention controls or detection controls A control environment, for example, that reflects strong management Basic Concepts and Elements of Internal Control 15-3 support of effective control activities and proper ethical behavior, will encourage organizational personnel to be conscientious in performing their assigned tasks, and thereby assist in preventing errors or irregularities Periodic inventories and comparisons, on the other hand, will assist in detecting errors or irregularities which have already occurred Both types of controls are vital to an effective system of internal control 14 A company control procedure is an action taken for the purpose of preventing, detecting, or correcting errors and irregularities in transactions 15 Examples of periodic comparisons: Count of cash on hand Reconciliation of bank accounts Count of securities Confirmation of accounts receivable Confirmation of accounts payable Physical count of inventory 16 Four kinds or functional responsibilities that should be segregated: Authorization to execute transactions Recording of transactions (bookkeeping) Custody of assets Periodic reconciliation (comparison) of existing (real) assets to recorded amounts 17 Key factors in protecting against losses through embezzlement include an adequate internal control structure, fidelity bonds, and regular audits by independent public accountants 18 Assuming that the general category of transaction has already been authorized by top management, at least three employees or departments should usually participate in each transaction to achieve strong internal control One employee approves the transaction after determining that the details conform to company policies, another employee records the transaction in the accounting records, and the third employee executes the transaction by releasing and/or taking custody of the related assets (Note: the approval function may be omitted in an extremely simple transaction such as a cash sale not involving a check) 19 Refer to page 557 of the textbook II Multiple Choice Questions d d b d d b b a d 10 a 11 c 12 c 15-4 Solutions Manual - Assurance Principles, Professional Ethics… III Comprehensive Cases Case RELEVANT TO AUDIT? ASSERTION AFFECTED HOW AFFECTED? a Yes Completeness Valuation Year-end adjustments for accruals and/or allocations may be overlooked b Yes Existence Valuation Customers may be billed for goods not shipped If so, customer accounts may not be valid c No N/A N/A d Yes Valuation Presentation Debits and credits to incorrect accounts are likely to cause materiality errors e Yes No assertions are adversely affected, given the compensating control of conducting an annual physical inventory f Yes Completeness Some cash receipts may not be deposited Valuation Cash in bank and/or accounts receivable may be overstated, depending on whether or not undeposited cash was recorded g Yes Presentation Trade accounts receivable should be kept separate from nontrade receivables Credit balances in customer accounts should be reported as current liabilities h Yes Existence Valuation Invoices may be submitted a second time for payment and the signed disbursement checks misappropriated The result may be debits to inventory or other accounts for nonexistent goods or services i No N/A N/A Basic Concepts and Elements of Internal Control 15-5 Case INHERENT OR CONTROL WEAKNESS TYPE OF INHERENT OR CONTROL REMEDY a Inherent Temporary breakdown: environmental changes not accompanied by revised controls b Control Chart of accounts and accounting manuals; training of personnel who determine debits to various expenditure accounts; review of account distribution by second person; internal auditor review of transactions on a test basis c Inherent Management override d Control Bills of lading evidencing shipment of goods should be prenumbered and signed by the carrier A copy should be forwarded to accounts receivable and should trigger the mailing of an invoice to the customer The numeric sequence of used bills of lading should be accounted for periodically and bills of lading should be matched with customer invoices on a test basis e Control Billing clerks should not handle cash receipts Incoming cash receipts should be prelisted and compared with daily deposits Credits to customer accounts should be made from remittance advices Checks should be forwarded directly to the treasurer (cashier) for deposit Writeoffs of customer accounts should require approval by the credit manager or some other responsible officer f Inherent Collusion Case a The planned assessed level of control risk is the level the auditors intend to use in performing the audit for a particular financial statement assertion For example, after obtaining the understanding of internal control necessary to plan the audit, the auditors will project a planned assessed level of control risk based on their understanding of the internal control structure The assessed level of control risk is the level of risk based on the tests of controls performed to evaluate control risk for an assertion Control risk is the actual, but unknown, level of risk pertaining to an assertion 15-6 Solutions Manual - Assurance Principles, Professional Ethics… b While obtaining an understanding of the internal control structure, the auditors may determine a planned assessed level of control risk for the existence of accounts receivable which requires them to test a sample of sales transactions Based on the results of the tests of controls for sales, the auditors may arrive at an assessed level of control risk that is either higher or lower than the level planned The actual level of control risk for existence of receivables is, as always, at an unknown level Case a After obtaining an understanding of the internal control structure, the auditors assess control risk At this point they may or may not have performed some tests of controls When they believe that a lower level of assessed control risk may be possible, and that the related reduction of substantive tests may be cost justified, the auditors will perform additional tests of controls Finally, when the additional tests of controls have been performed, the auditors will reassess control risk and design substantive tests b Obtain an understanding Determine the planned assessed level of control risk Perform additional tests of controls Reassess control risk and design substantive tests Prepare flowchart Prepare checklists Prepare questionnaires Perform walk-through of transactions Perform some tests of controls Analyze results obtained Perform inquiry procedures Inspect documents for performance Observe application of procedures Reperform application of procedures Analyze results obtained Case Since Vasquez’s consideration of the internal control structure shows that controls are very weak, he may omit performing tests of controls He must, however, have an adequate understanding of internal control to plan the remainder of the audit At a minimum, Vasquez should obtain a basic understanding of the control environment, accounting system, and important control procedures He should document this understanding, and also document that control risk is assessed at the maximum level Case a (1) The primary advantage of the internal control questionnaire is that control weaknesses, including the absence of control procedures, are prominently identified by the “no” answers Another advantage of the questionnaire is its simplicity If the questions have been Basic Concepts and Elements of Internal Control 15-7 predetermined, as is usual, the auditors’ responsibility includes the completion of the questionnaire with yes-or-no answers, and written explanations are required only for the “no” or unfavorable answers Also, the comprehensive list of questions provides assurance of complete coverage of significant control areas (2) An advantage of the written narrative approach in reviewing internal control is that the description is designed to explain the precise controls applicable to each examination In this sense, the working paper description is tailor-made for each engagement and thus offers flexibility in its design and application A second advantage is that its preparation normally requires a penetrating analysis of the client’s system In requiring a written description of the flow of transactions, records maintained, and the division of responsibilities, the memorandum method minimizes the tendency to perform a perfunctory review (3) The use of a flowchart in documenting internal control offers the advantage of a graphic presentation of a system or a series of sequential processes It shows the steps required and the flow of forms or other documents from person to person in carrying out the function depicted Thus, the tendency to overlook the controls existing between functions or departments is minimized Another advantage is that the flowchart method avoids the detailed study of written descriptions of procedures without sacrificing the CPA’s ability to appraise the effectiveness of internal controls under review An experienced auditor can gain a working understanding of the system much more readily by reviewing a flowchart than by reading questionnaires or lengthy narratives Information about specific procedures, documents, and accounting records can also be located more quickly in a flowchart Because of these advantages, flowcharting has become the most widely used method of describing internal control in audit working papers b Even though internal control appears to be strong, the auditors are required to conduct tests of controls Just because policies and procedures are prescribed does not mean that the client’s personnel are adhering to those requirements Employees may not understand their assigned duties, or may perform those duties in a careless manner, or other factors may cause the internal controls actually in place to differ from those prescribed Through tests of controls the CPAs obtain reasonable assurance that the internal control policies and procedures are in use and are operating as planned, and they may detect material errors of types not susceptible to effective internal control In addition, such testing enables the CPAs to comply with the third standard of field work which calls for obtaining 15-8 Solutions Manual - Assurance Principles, Professional Ethics… sufficient competent evidential matter to provide a reasonable basis for an opinion Note to instructor – Auditors may forego tests of controls if they conclude that internal controls are so weak as to provide no basis for assessing control risk at a level lower than the maximum Case PURPLE CORP Raw Materials Recording and Transferring System Flowchart December 31, 2003 ACCOUNTING INVENTORY CLERK STORES MANUFACTURING Start Goods from Supplier Stock-in Report Storeskeep er Prepares Stock-in Report Posts Perpetual Inventory Records Stock-in Report 1 Filed by date Clerk Prepares Requisition Inventory Records at Standard Cost Filed by date Requisitio n Supervisor Approves Requisition Approved Requisitio n Approved Requisitio n Reviews for Completeness Posts Transfer to Perpetual Inventory Records Inventory Records at Standard Cost Filed by date Filed by Job Order Basic Concepts and Elements of Internal Control Case a 15-9 The quantity of serially numbered tickets issued during the shift of each cashier is multiplied by the price per ticket to determine the amount of cash which the cashier should have on hand at the end of the shift Two employees participate in each transaction The withholding cash receipts would require collusion between the cashier and the door attendant because the door attendant does not have access to cash and the cashier cannot cause a patron to be admitted without issuing to him a serially numbered ticket b The following steps should be taken by the manager to make these controls work effectively: (1) Maintain careful control over unused rolls of tickets (2) Make a record of the serial number of the first and last ticket issued on each cashier’s shift (3) Count the cash in possession of cashier at beginning and end of shift In addition to these regular routines, the manager should take the following steps at unannounced intervals: (4) Observe that the cashier never has loose tickets in his or her possession and does not sell tickets in any manner other than ejecting them from the ticket machine (5) Verify by inspection of tickets being presented by patrons to the door attendant that only recently issued tickets (current serial numbers) are being used c Collusion by the cashier and door attendant to abstract cash receipts often consists of the door attendant pocketing whole tickets presented by patrons rather than tearing the ticket in half He or she may then give these unused tickets to the cashier; the cashier may then resell the tickets to customers at the box office rather than punching out new tickets on the machines The cashier withholds the cash received from sales of these “used tickets” and divides it with the door attendant d Observation on a surprise basis by the manager of the serial numbers of tickets being presented at the door by customers may reveal that these tickets are not freshly issued ones Observation of the cashier’s work may reveal that this employee is handling loose tickets ...15-2 Solutions Manual - Assurance Principles, Professional Ethics… Monitoring affects all of the other controls by assuring their effectiveness over time... accompanied by revised controls b Control Chart of accounts and accounting manuals; training of personnel who determine debits to various expenditure accounts; review of account distribution by second... Filed by date Filed by Job Order Basic Concepts and Elements of Internal Control Case a 15-9 The quantity of serially numbered tickets issued during the shift of each cashier is multiplied by the
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Solution manual aswers auditing theory by cabrera chapter 15 ans , Solution manual aswers auditing theory by cabrera chapter 15 ans

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay