Financial system an introduction

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AP Faure Financial System: An Introduction Download free eBooks at Financial System: An Introduction 1st edition © 2013 Quoin Institute (Pty) Limited & ISBN 978-87-403-0592-0 Download free eBooks at Financial System: An Introduction Contents Contents Lenders & borrowers 1.1 Learning objectives 1.2Introduction 1.3 Defining the financial system 1.4 Non-financial lenders and borrowers 12 1.5Summary 15 1.6Bibliography 16 Financial intermediaries 17 2.1 Learning objectives 17 2.2Introduction 18 2.3 Financial intermediation 18 2.4 Economic functions of financial intermediaries 20 2.5 Financial intermediaries: classification and relationship 26 2.6 Financial intermediaries: intermediation functions 30 2.7Summary 36 2.8Bibliography 36 We not reinvent the wheel we reinvent light Fascinating lighting offers an infinite spectrum of possibilities: Innovative technologies and new markets provide both opportunities and challenges An environment in which your expertise is in high demand Enjoy the supportive working atmosphere within our global group and benefit from international career paths Implement sustainable ideas in close cooperation with other specialists and contribute to influencing our future Come and join us in reinventing light every day Light is OSRAM Download free eBooks at Click on the ad to read more Financial System: An Introduction Contents Financial instruments 37 3.1 Learning objectives 37 3.2Introduction 38 3.3 Financial instrument types 39 3.4 Share instruments 41 3.5 Debt instruments 45 3.6 Deposit instruments 49 3.7 Instruments of investment vehicles 52 3.8 Derivative instruments 54 3.9Summary 55 3.10Bibliography 55 Financial markets 57 4.1 Learning objectives 360° thinking 4.2Introduction 4.3 Money market 4.4 Bond market 4.5 Share market 4.6 Foreign exchange market 4.7 Derivative markets 57 57 60 63 66 70 73 360° thinking 360° thinking Discover the truth at © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities Discover the truth at Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities Discover the truth at Click on the ad to read more Download free eBooks at © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities Dis Financial System: An Introduction Contents 4.8 Organisational structure of financial markets 79 4.9 Financial market participants & short selling 90 4.10 Clearing and settlement 92 4.11 Bibliography and references 95 Money creation 96 5.1 Learning objectives 96 5.2Introduction 96 5.3 What is money? 97 5.4 Measures of money 99 5.5 Monetary banking institutions 100 5.6 Money and its role 101 5.7 Uniqueness of banks 102 5.8 The cash reserve requirement 106 5.9 Money creation does not start with a bank receiving a deposit 108 5.10 Money creation is not dependent on a cash reserve requirement 118 5.11 Is “money supply” a misnomer? 120 5.12 The money identity and the creation of money 121 We will turn your CV into an opportunity of a lifetime Do you like cars? 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We will appreciate and reward both your enthusiasm and talent Send us your CV You will be surprised where it can take you Download free eBooks at Send us your CV on Click on the ad to read more Financial System: An Introduction Contents 5.13 Role of the central bank in money creation 122 5.14 How does a central bank maintain a bank liquidity shortage? 123 5.15Bibliography 125 Price discovery 126 6.1 Learning objectives 126 6.2Introduction 127 6.3 What is price discovery? 127 6.4 Price discovery and information 129 6.5 The mechanics of price discovery 129 6.6 Role of central bank in price discovery 134 6.7 Composition of interest rates 137 6.8 Role of interest rates in security valuation 143 6.9 Market efficiency 149 6.10 Bibliography and references 151 7Endnotes 153 I joined MITAS because I wanted real responsibili� I joined MITAS because I wanted real responsibili� Real work International Internationa al opportunities �ree wo work or placements �e Graduate Programme for Engineers and Geoscientists �e G for Engine Ma Month 16 I was a construction Mo supervisor ina const I was the North Sea super advising and the No he helping foremen advis ssolve problems Real work he helping fo International Internationa al opportunities �ree wo work or placements ssolve pr Download free eBooks at Click on the ad to read more Financial System: An Introduction Lenders & borrowers Lenders & borrowers 1.1 Learning objectives After studying this text the learner should / should be able to: Define the financial system Describe the elements that make up the financial system Elucidate the allied (non-principal) financial bodies / entities that assist in facilitating the flow of funds and securities in a financial system Name and define the sectors of the economy that constitute the non-financial lenders and borrowers 1.2Introduction This text is about the fundamentals of the financial system By “fundamentals” we mean that we attempt to elucidate the system by going back to the basics, and this is best achieved in our view by splitting it up into its components and illuminating each one The following are the constituents: • Lenders & borrowers • Financial intermediaries • Financial instruments • Financial markets • Money creation • Price discovery 1.3 Defining the financial system Every scholar on the financial markets has attempted a definition of the financial system Ours is: The financial system is a set of arrangements / conventions embracing the lending and borrowing of funds by non-financial economic units and the intermediation of this function by financial intermediaries in order to facilitate the transfer of funds, to create additional money when required, and to create markets in debt and equity instruments (and their derivatives) so that the price and allocation of funds are determined efficiently Download free eBooks at Financial System: An Introduction Lenders & borrowers This definition identifies the six essential elements of a financial system: • First: the lenders and borrowers, i.e the non-financial economic units that undertake the lending and borrowing process • Second: the financial intermediaries, which intermediate the lending and borrowing process, meaning that they interpose themselves between the lenders and borrowers • Third: the financial instruments (marketable and non-marketable), which are created to satisfy the needs of the various participants • Fourth: the creation of money when required, i.e the unique money creating ability of banks • Fifth: the financial markets, i.e the institutional arrangements and conventions that exist for the issue and trading (dealing) of the financial instruments • Sixth: price discovery, i.e the determination or making of the price of equity and the price of Figure 1: financial system (simplified) money / debt (the rate of interest) Direct investment / financing Securities Surplus funds BORROWERS LENDERS (def icit economic units) (surplus economic units) Securities FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES Surplus funds Securities Surplus funds Indirect investment / financing Figure 1: financial systme (simplified) The definition covers the essence of the financial system In addition to the mentioned elements, there are also allied participants / players / entities in the system, without which the system would not function efficiently They are: • First: the brokers and dealers, i.e the members of exchanges and/or financial intermediaries that facilitate the trade in financial instruments (which we refer to here collectively as broker-dealers) • Second: the fund managers (portfolio managers), i.e the corporate entities or departments of financial intermediaries that manage funds on behalf of principals (owners or holders of money) • Third: the financial exchanges that allow the broker-dealers to facilitate trading in securities, and create the mechanism for clearing and settlement of trades in a risk-minimising manner Download free eBooks at Financial System: An Introduction Lenders & borrowers • Fourth: the credit rating agencies, which analyse relevant financial and economic data pertaining to the issuers of securities and assign ratings to the securities reflecting the probability of the issuers meeting their financial obligations (interest and principal) • Fifth: the financial regulators that regulate and supervise all players in the financial system Given the above information, how does one portray the financial system? The answer is that it is not possible to capture all the elements and players in one single illustration However, we can go pretty far in this regard A good to start is with the illustration presented in Figure This illustration portrays the main players in the system: the lenders, borrowers, financial intermediaries, and hints at the two types of borrowing / lending (discussed in detail later) Not observable here are the financial (or securities) markets (OTC or formal – the exchanges) and the broker-dealers The financial markets may be imagined as being interposed in the flow lines The broker-dealers of the financial markets, as this generic name indicates, facilitate and operate in these markets as brokers (= match buyers and sellers) and dealers (= act as principals = buy and sell for own account) (We will return to and elucidate this later.) Figure 2:exchanges financial markets broker-dealers may in financial system The addition of the financial and the&broker-dealers be depicted as in Figure BROKERDEALERS FINANCIAL MARKETS BORROWERS (def icit economic units) Securities Securities Surplus f unds Surplus f unds FINANCIAL MARKETS Securities Surplus f unds FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES Securities FINANCIAL MARKETS LENDERS (surplus economic units) Surplus f unds Figure 2: financial markets & broker-dealers in financial system The remaining elements of, and the other players in, the financial system are the fund managers, the regulators of the financial system, the creation of money and price discovery The former two we are able to add to the illustration: see Figure The significant elements of the financial system, creation of money and price discovery, cannot be easily illustrated The banks, by simply extending new loans (credit) or purchasing new securities on the primary market (also credit, in a different form), create new money 10 Download free eBooks at ... British financial system London: Macmillan Saunders, A and Cornett, MM, 2001 Financial markets and institutions New York: McGraw-Hill 16 Download free eBooks at Financial System: An Introduction. .. Click on the ad to read more Financial System: An Introduction Financial intermediaries 2.2 Introduction Financial intermediaries evolved over many years to perform the financial- related functions... Financial System: An Introduction 2.5 Financial intermediaries Financial intermediaries: classification and relationship 2.5.1 Introduction As expressed earlier, financial institutions
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