pharmacotherapy handbook 9th b y wells dipiro

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Pharmacotherapy Handbook Ninth Edition NOTICE Medicine is an ever-changing science As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required The authors of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in medical sciences, neither the authors nor the publisher nor any other party who has been involved in the preparation or publication of this work warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete, and they disclaim all responsibility for any errors or omissions or the results obtained from use of the information contained in this work Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources For example and in particular, readers are advised to check the product information sheet included in the package of each drug they plan to administer to be certain that the information contained in this work is accurate and that changes have not been made in the recommended dose or in the contraindications for administration This recommendation is of particular importance in connection with new or infrequently used drugs Pharmacotherapy Handbook Ninth Edition Barbara G Wells, PharmD, FASHP, FCCP Dean Emeritus and Professor Emeritus Executive Director Emeritus, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi Joseph T DiPiro, PharmD, FCCP Professor and Dean Archie O McCalley Chair School of Pharmacy Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia Terry L Schwinghammer, PharmD, FCCP, FASHP, FAPhA, BCPS Professor and Chair, Department of Clinical Pharmacy School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia Cecily V DiPiro, PharmD Consultant Pharmacist Richmond, Virginia New York   Chicago   San Francisco   Athens   Lisbon   London   Madrid Mexico City   Milan   New Delhi   Singapore   Sydney   Toronto Copyright © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher ISBN: 978-0-07-182129-2 MHID: 0-07-182129-5 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-182128-5, MHID: 0-07-182128-7 eBook conversion by codeMantra Version 1.0 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark Where such designations appear in this book, they have 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prohibited Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL EDUCATION AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE McGraw-Hill Education and its licensors not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free Neither McGraw-Hill Education nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom McGraw-Hill Education has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill Education and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise Contents FM_H1 Preface ix Acknowledgments x SECTION 1: BONE AND JOINT DISORDERS Edited by Terry L Schwinghammer Gout and Hyperuricemia Osteoarthritis Osteoporosis 16 Rheumatoid Arthritis 26 Section 2: Cardiovascular Disorders Edited by Terry L Schwinghammer   Acute Coronary Syndromes 37   Arrhythmias 48   Cardiac Arrest 59   Dyslipidemia 65   Heart Failure 75 10 Hypertension 87 11 Ischemic Heart Disease 102 12 Shock 111 13 Stroke 120 14 Venous Thromboembolism 125 SECTION 3: DERMATOLOGIC DISORDERS Edited by Terry L Schwinghammer 15 Acne Vulgaris 135 16 Dermatologic Drug Reactions and Common Skin Conditions 141 17 Psoriasis 147 SECTION 4: Endocrinologic Disorders Edited by Terry L Schwinghammer 18 Adrenal Gland Disorders 155 19 Diabetes Mellitus 161 20 Thyroid Disorders 176 Section 5: GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS Edited by Joseph T DiPiro and Terry L Schwinghammer 21 Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension 185 22 Constipation 194 23 Diarrhea 200 24 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 206 25 Hepatitis, Viral 213 v Contents 26 Inflammatory Bowel Disease 221 27 Nausea and Vomiting 231 28 Pancreatitis 244 29 Peptic Ulcer Disease 251 SECTION 6: GYNECOLOGIC AND OBSTETRIC DISORDERS Edited by Barbara G Wells 30 Contraception 257 31 Menopausal, Perimenopausal, and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy 276 32 Pregnancy and Lactation 291 SECTION 7: HEMATOLOGIC DISORDERS Edited by Cecily V DiPiro 33 Anemias 301 34 Sickle Cell Disease 308 SECTION 8: INFECTIOUS DISEASES Edited by Joseph T DiPiro 35 Antimicrobial Regimen Selection 313 36 Central Nervous System Infections 323 37 Endocarditis 333 38 Fungal Infections, Invasive 347 39 Gastrointestinal Infections 361 40 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 368 41 Influenza 387 42 Intraabdominal Infections 394 43 Respiratory Tract Infections, Lower 405 44 Respiratory Tract Infections, Upper 418 45 Sepsis and Septic Shock 427 46 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 433 47 Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections 448 48 Surgical Prophylaxis 466 49 Tuberculosis 476 50 Urinary Tract Infections 490 51 Vaccines, Toxoids, and Other Immunobiologics .500 SECTION 9: Neurologic Disorders Edited by Barbara G Wells 52 Alzheimer’s Disease 511 53 Epilepsy 518 54 Headache: Migraine and Tension-Type 543 55 Pain Management 557 56 Parkinson’s Disease 578 57 Status Epilepticus 587 vi Contents SECTION 10: NUTRITION SUPPORT Edited by Cecily V DiPiro 58 Obesity 599 59 Nutrition Evaluation and Support 605 SECTION 11: ONCOLOGIC DISORDERS Edited by Cecily V DiPiro 60 Breast Cancer 619 61 Colorectal Cancer 631 62 Lung Cancer 642 63 Lymphomas 647 64 Prostate Cancer 654 SECTION 12: OPHTHALMIC DISORDERS Edited by Cecily V DiPiro 65 Glaucoma 665 SECTION 13: PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS Edited by Barbara G Wells 66 Anxiety Disorders 673 67 Bipolar Disorder 694 68 Major Depressive Disorder 712 69 Schizophrenia 731 70 Sleep-Wake Disorders 747 71 Substance-Related Disorders 755 SECTION 14: RENAL DISORDERS Edited by Cecily V DiPiro 72 Acid–Base Disorders 771 73 Acute Kidney Injury 779 74 Chronic Kidney Disease 787 75 Electrolyte Homeostasis 798 SECTION 15: RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Edited by Terry L Schwinghammer 76 Allergic Rhinitis 813 77 Asthma .821 78 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 835 SECTION 16: UROLOGIC DISORDERS Edited by Cecily V DiPiro 79 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 845 80 Erectile Dysfunction 850 81 Urinary Incontinence 865 vii Contents Appendices Edited by Barbara G Wells Appendix Allergic and Pseudoallergic Drug Reactions 873 Appendix Geriatrics 877 Appendix Drug-Induced Hematologic Disorders 882 Appendix Drug-Induced Liver Disease 887 Appendix Drug-Induced Pulmonary Disease 889 Appendix Drug-Induced Kidney Disease 898 Index 903 viii Preface FM_H1 The pocket companion to Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 9th edition, is designed to provide practitioners and students with critical information that can be easily used to guide drug therapy decision making in the clinical setting To ensure brevity and portability, the bulleted format provides the user with essential textual information, key tables and figures, and treatment algorithms In order to reduce the number of pages and thus allow it to fit more easily in a pocket, the publisher undertook a slight redesign to save space, and the authors made every effort to write as clearly and succinctly as possible Corresponding to the major sections in the main text, disorders are alphabetized within the following sections: Bone and Joint Disorders, Cardiovascular Disorders, Dermatologic Disorders, Endocrinologic Disorders, Gastrointestinal Disorders, Gynecologic and Obstetric Disorders, Hematologic Disorders, Infectious Diseases, Neurologic Disorders, Nutritional Disorders, Oncologic Disorders, Ophthalmic Disorders, Psychiatric Disorders, Renal Disorders, Respiratory Disorders, and Urologic Disorders Drug-induced conditions associated with allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, hematologic disorders, liver diseases, pulmonary disorders, and kidney disease appear in five tabular appendices Information on the management of pharmacotherapy in the elderly is also included as an appendix Each chapter is organized in a consistent format: •Disease state definition •Pathophysiology •Clinical presentation •Diagnosis •Treatment •Evaluation of therapeutic outcomes The treatment section may include goals of treatment, general approach to treatment, nonpharmacologic therapy, drug selection guidelines, dosing recommendations, adverse effects, pharmacokinetic considerations, and important drug-drug interactions When more in-depth information is required, the reader is encouraged to refer to the primary text, Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 9th edition It is our sincere hope that students and practitioners find this book helpful as they continuously strive to deliver highest-quality patient-centered care We invite your comments on how we may improve subsequent editions of this work Barbara G Wells Joseph T DiPiro Terry L Schwinghammer Cecily V DiPiro Please provide your comments about this book—Wells et al, Pharmacotherapy Handbook, 9th edition—to its authors and publisher by writing to pharmacotherapy@ Please indicate the author and title of this handbook in the subject line of your e-mail ix Index for noncognitive symptoms of dementia, 516t in Parkinson’s disease, 585t in schizophrenia, 739t in substance-related disorders, 764t treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder, 690t Quinapril as antihypertensive agents, 89t in heart failure, 78t Quinidine, 50, 52t in antiarrhythmic drugs, 51t causing diarrhea, 201t for patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia,(PSVT), 57 side effects of, 54t Quinolone antibiotics in anxiety disorders, 676t drug interactions, 319t for intraabdominal infections, 399t to prevent and treat osteoporosis, 20t for sickle cell disease, 311 in urinary tract infection, 294, 497t Quinupristin-dalfopristin, 315t drug monitoring, 344t in peritonitis, 399t R Rabeprazole, 208f, 209t, 210 Rabies, 465 Radiation therapy, 232t, 632, 643, 651, 656t–657t, 658 Radiofrequency ablation procedures in supraventricular tachycardia, 56f Radiography, 206, 252, 642, 647 Radioimmunotherapy in lymphoma, 651, 652 Raloxifene, 18f, 22t, 23, 288, 289, 630 in breast cancer, 288 in osteoporosis, 23 Ramelteon, 748 Ramipril in myocardial infarction, secondary prevention after, 46 Ranitidine, 208f, 208t, 209t, 234, 237t, 255t, 292 Ranolazine in ischemic heart disease, 106 Rasagiline in Parkinson’s disease, 579f, 580t, 582t, 584 Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK), 23 Receptor blockers α1, in hypertension, 95 Rectal cancer, adjuvant therapy, 633 Rectal examination, digital, 845, 849 Recurrent stroke, 98 Red blood cells, 37, 113, 202f, 203f, 301, 308, 398, 783t 5α-Reductase inhibitors, 848 Reed–Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 647 Reentry supraventricular tachycardia, paroxysmal, 48 Regorafenib in colorectal cancer, 640, 640t Rehydralyte oral rehydration solution, 204t Relactation, 300 Renal disease glomerular filtration rate categories, 788t proposed mechanisms for progression of, 789f therapeutic strategies to prevent progression in diabetic individuals, 790f Renal disorders, 771–812 acute hypercalcemia drug dosing, 804t pharmacotherapeutic options for, 803f drug-induced hypokalemia, mechanism of, 807t hyperkalemia management of, therapeutic alternatives for, 809t treatment approach, 810f hypocalcemia, diagnostic, treatment algorithm, 805f hyponatremia, evaluation of diagnostic algorithm for, 800f intravenous solutions, composition of, 799t nephrogenic diabetes insipidus drugs, 801t phosphorus replacement therapy, 807t Renal function, dosing recommendations, 487t 951 Index Renal insufficiency, 80 Renal replacement therapy, 784t, 786t, 787 Renin inhibitors in hypertension, 90, 98, 298 Repaglinide in diabetes mellitus, 165, 166t Reserpine in hypertension, 96 Resistance to drugs, 479, 486 Resorcinol in acne vulgaris, 137 Respiratory disorders, 813–843 See also Respiratory tract infections bronchiolitis, 408–410 in infections, 405–417 bronchitis, 405–410 otitis media, 418–420 pneumonia, 410–417 Respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 836 Respiratory tract infections, 405 bronchitis acute, 405–406 treatment, 405–406 chronic, 407–408 bacterial isolates, 407t diagnosis/treatment, clinical algorithm, 408f oral antibiotics, 407t Resting energy expenditure, 599 Retapamulin ointment, 455t Reteplase in acute coronary syndromes, 41 Retinoids, topical, 136f, 137–138 Retinopathy, diabetic, 161, 173–174 Reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV infection, 372, 376t–377t Reye’s syndrome in children, aspirin effect of, 406 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 26–36 clinical monitoring of drug therapy, 31t–32t doses and monitoring parameters, 29t–30t nonpharmacologic therapy, 27 pharmacologic therapy, 27–36, 28f treatment, 27, 28f Rheumatoid factors, 26 Rhinitis, 180, 294, 813, 814, 816, 817 Rhinosinusitis, 422–426 Rho(D) IG (RDIg), 510 952 Ribavirin, 219–220, 219t, 410 in bronchiolitis, 410 Rifabutin, 382t, 478, 482t Rifampin, 20t, 158, 183, 245t, 273, 320t, 344t, 379, 478, 480t, 481t, 486, 686 antimicrobial agents, 331t Rifapentine in tuberculosis, 480t, 482t Rifaximin in cirrhosis, 193t in gastrointestinal infections, 193, 363t, 364t Rimantadine in influenza, 388, 391t Ringer’s solution, lactated, in hypovolemic shock, 113, 114f Risedronate in osteoporosis, 19, 21t Risperidone, 516t, 692f, 693, 704t, 710 in schizophrenia, 737, 739t Ritodrine in renal disorders, 807t Ritonavir in HIV infection, 375t, 378t, 379 Rituximab, 28f, 29t, 31t, 35, 653 chemotherapeutic agents, 233t for follicular lymphoma, 651 in rheumatoid arthritis, 27, 35 Rivaroxaban in atrial flutter, 54 in venous thromboembolism (VTE), 130 Rivastigmine in Alzheimer’s disease, 513, 514t Rizatriptan in migraine headache, 548t, 550t Ropinirole in Parkinson’s disease, 580t, 582t, 583, 586 Ropivacaine local anesthetics, 576t in regional analgesia, 576t Rosiglitazone in diabetes mellitus, 167t, 168t, 169 Rosuvastatin in hyperlipidemia, 69t, 70t, 71, 73, 797 Rotavirus vaccines, 505t Rotigotine in Parkinson’s disease, 582t, 586 RU-486 in Cushing’s syndrome, 158 Rubella vaccine, 509 Rufinamide, 541 antiepileptic drug side effects, 535t dosing and target serum concentration ranges, 529t Index elimination pathways and major effects on hepatic enzymes, 537t pharmacokinetic data, 526t S Salicylates, Salicylic acid in acne vulgaris, 137 in psoriasis, 150 Saline cathartics in constipation, 196, 198 Salmeterol, 807t, 827t in asthma, 823, 827t in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 837 in renal disorders, 807t Salmonella infections, 317t, 363t, 365t, 366, 370t Salpingitis, 395t, 434t, 435t Salsalate in osteoarthritis, 252 Saquinavir in HIV infection, 319t, 375t, 378t Saxagliptin in diabetes mellitus, 167t, 170 Scalp psoriasis, 150 Schizophrenia adverse effects, 738–743 drug interactions, 744 treatment algorithm for, 734f asenapine, 739t general approach, 732–733 initial therapy, 733, 734, 737 maintenance therapy, 737 pharmacokinetics, 733 stabilization therapy, 737 treatment-resistant, management of, 737–738 use, in pregnancy and lactation, 743 Sclerotherapy in variceal hemorrhage, 189 Scopolamine, 58, 236t, 242t, 243 patches, bradyarrhythmias, 58 Sebum production in acne vulgaris, 135 Secondary prevention after myocardial infarction, 46–47 pharmacotherapy in, 46–47 Sedation, cognition and, 741 Seizures, 217t, 292, 412, 518, 519, 520, 525, 593, 594, 758, 840 See also Epilepsy epileptic, 519t Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 58, 249, 284, 298, 517, 666t, 679t, 690t, 691, 692f, 715t, 719t, 722t, 725, 738, 851t Selegiline, 580t, 584, 717t, 718 in Parkinson’s disease, 582t Senna in constipation, 196 Sepsis, 428, 428t antimicrobial therapy, 429–431 cardiovascular agents receptor activity in, 432t empiric antimicrobial regimens, 431t etiology, 427 evidence-based treatment recommendations, 430t hemodynamic support, 431 inotrope/vasoactive drug support, 431–432 protocol for, 432 signs and symptoms, 429t treatment of, 429–432 adjunctive therapy, 432 early goal-directed, 432 Septic shock See Sepsis Serotonin, 158, 557 Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 550, 680t, 690t, 715t, 718, 719t, 723t, 725 Serotonin receptor agonists in migraine headache, 552t Serotonin syndrome, 550, 584 Serratia marcescens infections, 317t Sertraline, 58, 245t, 678t, 678t, 687t, 690t, 691, 715t, 719t, 726t, 867 antidepressants, 516t, 692t, 729t bradyarrhythmias, 58 Serum ferric gluconate in anemia, 306t Serum sickness-like reactions, 143 Sevelamer carbonate in chronic kidney disease, 795t Sevelamer hydrochloride in chronic kidney disease, 795t 953 Index Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 434t, 446, 446t–447t chlamydial, 339–441 gonorrhea, 433–434, 434t herpes simplex virus, 434t, 435t, 441–442 HIV infection, 329, 368–386, 369t–370t pathogens associated with, 434t spectrum of, 433 syphilis, 434–438 treatment regimens for, 446t–447t trichomoniasis, 442 Sexually transmitted pathogens syndromes, 435t Shigella infections, 363t, 365t, 366 Shock, 111–119 fluid resuscitation for hypovolemic shock, 113 blood products, 113 colloids, 113 crystalloids, 113 general approaches for treatments, 113 hypovolemia protocol for adults, 114f hypovolemic, pharmacologic therapy for, 113 monitoring of, 111–112 pathophysiology of, 111 pharmacologic therapy, 113–119 septic algorithmic approach to management, 116f pharmacologic therapy for, 116–117 tissue perfusion, management of, 115f Shunt procedures, 472t Sibutramine, 87 Sick sinus syndrome, 49 Sickle cell disease, 308–312 fetal hemoglobin inducers, 309, 311 general principles of treatment, 309 hydroxyurea use in, 310f treatment of complications, 311 sickle cell crisis, 311–312 Sickle cell trait, 308, 309t Sildenafil, 44, 174, 853t, 860 endocrinologic disorders, 174 erectile dysfunction, 861t treatments for, 853t urologic disorders, 861 954 Silodosin in prostate hyperplasia, benign, 847t, 848 Silver sulfadiazine in pressure ulcers, 462 Simvastatin in hyperlipidemia, 69t, 70t, 71, 73, 797 Sinus bradyarrhythmias, 58 Sinusitis, 422, 425t–426t acute bacterial antibiotic recommendations, 425t–426t dosing guidelines for, 425t–426t treatment of, 425t–426t Sipuleucel-T, in prostate cancer, 664 Sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus, 167t, 170 Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), 448–465 cellulitis, 459 treatment of, 459 development of, 448 diabetic foot infections, 459, 462, 463t erysipelas, 448 evidence-based recommendations for treatment of, 450t–452t impetigo, 448–449, 449t, 453t treatment of, 449 infected bite wounds cat, 465 dog, 462, 464–465 human, 465 infected pressure ulcers, 462 prevention and treatment, 462 treatment of, evidence-based recommendations for, 450t–452t Skin reactions, drug-induced, 141 Sleep apnea central (CSA), 751 obstructive (OSA), 751 Sleep disorders insomnia nonpharmacologic therapy, 748t treatment, 747–750 narcolepsy, 751, 754 treatment of, 751, 754 sleep physiology, 747 Smoking cessation, pharmacologic agents used for, 768t in chronic bronchitis, 406 Index chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in, 835, 837, 841 lung cancer, 642 oral contraceptive use in, 262 osteoporosis in, 16, 17 peptic ulcer disease in, 251, 252 in pregnancy, 292 Social anxiety disorder, 674 treatment of algorithm on, 688f drug choices in, 677t Sodium channel blockers, 50, 50 Sodium citrate in metabolic acidosis, 744t Sodium hyaluronate in osteoarthritis, 15 Sodium iodide, 180 Sodium nitroprusside in acute decompensated heart failure, 84 Sodium oxybate, 752f, 754 Sodium phosphates, 197t Sodium polystyrene sulfonate in hyperkalemia, 807t, 808 Soft-tissue infections See also Skin and soft-tissue infections bacterial classification of, 449t evidence-based recommendations, 450t–452t recommended oral drugs, 453t Solifenacin in prostate hyperplasia, benign, 847t in urinary incontinence, 868t, 870, 870t Somatostatin in variceal hemorrhage, 247 Sorafenib as chemotherapeutic agents, 233t Sorbitol in constipation, 196–197, 198 Sotalol, 57 in antiarrhythmic drugs, 51t in arrhythmias, 50, 51t, 52t side effects of, 54t Specific seizure disorders drugs of choice for, 521t–524t Spermicide-implanted barrier techniques, 261 Spermicides, 259t, 260t, 261 Spinal surgery, surgical site infections in, 472t Spirometry in asthma, 822 Spironolactone in acne vulgaris, 139 in cirrhosis, 193t in heart failure, 80 in hypertension, 94 in myocardial infarction, secondary prevention after, 46 Spleen, abscess of, 400t Sponge, contraceptive, 260t, 261 Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, 191–192 St Anthony’s fire, 448 St John’s wort, 379 ST segment elevation in acute coronary syndromes, 38, 40f in ischemic heart disease, 102, 103 Staphylococcal endocarditis, 335, 342 Staphylococcal infections, 335, 342 peritonitis in, 394, 396t, 399t Statin therapy in acute coronary syndromes, 43 in dyslipidemia, 74 in myocardial infarction, secondary prevention after, 46–47 in stroke, 122 Status epilepticus (SE), 587–597 signs, 587 symptoms, 587 international classification of, 588t morbidity and mortality, 587 therapeutic, outcomes, 597 treatment, 588–597, 591t–592t benzodiazepine, 593, 594 fosphenytoin, 593–594 phenobarbital, 594, 594 phenytoin, 593 propofol, 597 topiramate, 597 valproate, 594, 597 valproic acid, 594, 597 Stavudine in HIV infection, 374t, 376t Steatorrhea in pancreatitis, 248, 249, 249f Stem cell transplantation, 311, 648 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections, 317t Stevens–Johnson’s syndrome (SJS), 141, 143, 169–170, 380, 709 Streptococcal endocarditis, 335 955 Index Streptococcal infections bronchitis in, chronic, 407t otitis media in, 418 peritonitis in, 394, 396t, 399t pneumonia in, 410, 416t, 417t Streptococcal pharyngitis group A, 421t Streptococcus, group A evidence-based principles for diagnosis, 422t S pneumoniae, 329, 418 Streptokinase in acute coronary syndromes, 41 in venous thromboembolism, 133 Streptomycin, antituberculosis drugs for, 484t Streptozotocin as chemotherapeutic agents, 233t Stress urinary incontinence, 866t, 871 Stroke, 120 hemorrhagic stroke, 120, 124t ischemic stroke, 120, 124t nonpharmacologic therapy, 121 pharmacologic therapy of hemorrhagic stroke, 122 of ischemic stroke, 121–122, 122t–123t, 124t recurrent, 98 for treatment, general approach, 121 Sublingual nitroglycerine (SL NTG), 105 in acute coronary syndromes, 44 for ongoing ischemia, 46 Substance intoxication, pharmacologic treatment of, 761t Substance-related disorders, 755–769 central nervous system depressants, 755–757 alcohol, 755–756 benzodiazepines and other sedative-hypnotics, 756 carisoprodol, 757 γ-hydroxybutyrate, 757 opiates, 757 central nervous system stimulants, 757–758 cocaine, 757–758 methamphetamine, 758 drugs of abuse inhalants, 759–760 lysergic acid diethylamide, 759 marijuana, 759 956 methamphetamine analogues, 758–759 nicotine, 758 treatment intoxication, 760 substance use disorders, 765, 767 alcohol dependence, 765 bupropion sustained release (SR), 767 nicotine, 765, 767 nicotine-replacement therapy, 767 second-line medications, 767, 768 smoking cessation, 768t withdrawal alcohol, 760 benzodiazepine, 760, 761 opiates, 762, 765 Sucralfate, 182, 208f, 211, 292 Sulfamethoxazole in acne vulgaris, 139 Sulfasalazine, 28f, 29t, 33, 224, 225, 226f, 228, 229t, 608t Crohn’s disease, 227 inflammatory bowel disease, treatment of, 225t in rheumatoid arthritis, 27, 33 vitamin interactions, 608t Sulfonamides, 141, 143, 201t, 320t, 542 Sulfonylureas in diabetes mellitus, 165, 166t Sulfur in acne vulgaris, 137 Sulindac, 2, 4t, 33t, 245t acute gouty arthritis, 4t Sumatriptan in migraine headache, 547t, 549, 550t Sun-induced skin reactions, 143 Sunitinib, chemotherapeutic agent, 233t Supraventricular arrhythmias atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, 48, 51–56 paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, 48 Surgical prophylaxis, 466–475 antibiotic issues antimicrobial selection, 467–468 scheduling antibiotic administration, 466–467 bacteriology, 466 specific recommendations appendectomy, 469t, 473 biliary tract surgery, 473 Index cardiac surgery, 471t, 474 cesarean section, 470t, 473–474 colorectal surgery, 469t, 473 gastroduodenal surgery, 468, 469t, 473 gynecological surgery, 470t head and neck surgery, 470t–471t, 474 hysterectomy, 470t, 474 minimally invasive and laparoscopic surgery, 475 neurosurgery, 475 noncardiac vascular surgery, 471t, 474 orthopedic surgery, 471t, 475 urologic procedures, 470t, 473 surgical wound infection, risk factors for, 466 Surgical-site infection (SSI) risk of, 467t Sympathetic inhibitors, postganglionic, in hypertension, 96 Syncope, vasovagal, 50, 58 Synovial fluid analysis, Synovitis, 26 Synthetic cannabinoids, 759 Synthetic cathinones, 759 Synthetic marijuana, 759 Syphilis, 296t, 434t, 435 drug therapy and follow-up of, 439t–440t latent, 436 and neurosyphilis, 436 presentation of, 438t primary, 435 secondary stage of, 435 treatment of, 438 Systemic vascular resistance (SVR), 81 Systolic heart failure, 97 T T cells cluster of differentiation (CD2), 152 in psoriasis, 147 in rheumatoid arthritis, 26 T-score in osteoporosis, 17, 18f T-wave acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 39f in cardiovascular disorders, 38 electrocardiography (ECG), 38 Tachy-brady syndrome, 49 Tachycardia, 56–57 β-blockers, 51 hypertensive emergency, 100t panic attack, 674t paroxysmal supraventricular (PSVT), 48, 56–57 QRS, 48 reflex, 104 with sepsis, 429t sinus, 48 social anxiety disorder, 675t supraventricular arrhythmias, 48 sustained ventricular, 57 ventricular, 48, 57–58 treatment of, 60–62 Tacrolimus in atopic dermatitis, 145 Tadalafil endocrinologic disorders, 174 erectile dysfunction, 861t treatments for, 854t, 860, 861 in prostate hyperplasia, benign, 847t, 848 Tafluprost, 671t Tamoxifen in breast cancer, 288, 625t, 627, 630 oncologic disorders, 624 Tamsulosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia, 847t, 848 Tap water enema, 196–197, 199 Tapentadol in pain management, 566t, 572t, 575 Tardive dyskinesia (TD) psychiatric disorders, 710 schizophrenia, 733, 740–741, 745t Taxanes in breast cancer, 627 Tazarotene in acne vulgaris, 138 dermatologic disorders, 138 in psoriasis, 150 Tazobactam and piperacillin for diabetic foot infections, 463t in pneumonia, 414t, 417t Telbivudine, 216 Telmisartan as antihypertensive agents, 89t Temazepam in psychiatric disorders, 749t Tenecteplase in cardiovascular disorders, 41 957 Index Tenofovir in hepatitis B, 216 in HIV infection, 372, 376t Tension-type headache, 555–556 treatment of, 555–556 Terazosin in hypertension, 95 in prostate hyperplasia, benign, 847t in urologic disorders, 847 Terbutaline in asthma, 827t, 828t in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 837 hematologic disorders, 311 to prevent preterm labor, 299 in renal disorders, 807t Teriparatide in osteoporosis, 22t, 24, 25 Testosterone erectile dysfunction, treatments for, 856t–859t hormone therapy, 284, 288t, 655f in osteoporosis, 24 production of, 654 replacement therapy, 863 in osteoporosis, 24 Tetanus immunoglobulin, 502–503 Tetanus prophylaxis, 504t, 506t Tetanus toxoid, 502–503, 505t adsorbed, 502–503 Tetany in hypocalcemia, 803, 806 Tetracaine as local anesthetics, 576t Tetracycline in acne vulgaris, 139 in bacterial pneumonia, 416t in bronchitis, chronic, 409t enteral nutrition, 615t gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, 207t ophthalmic disorders, 666t in pancreatitis, acute, 245t in pneumonia, 414t, 416t Tetracycline in chlamydial infections, 442t in gonorrhea, 437t in syphilis, 439t, 440t Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride in allergic rhinitis, 818t Thalassemia, 309t Theophylline and anxiety disorders, 676t arrhythmias, 58 958 in asthma, 824f–825f, 830 bradyarrhythmias, 58 bronchodilator, 840 gastroesophageal reflux disease, 207t illnesses in pregnancy, 294 infectious diseases, 319t in nausea and vomiting, 232t in obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic, 838t–839t ophthalmic disorders, 666t in renal disorders, 807t in respiratory disorders, 832f Thiamine and alcohol withdrawal, 763t antacids, 608t Thiazide diuretics, 94 cardiovascular disorders, 77–78 in hypertension, 88, 91f, 99 hypokalemia, 807t osteoporosis, 20t in renal disorders, 807t in systolic heart failure, 77–78 Thiazolidinediones in diabetes mellitus, 167t, 169 Thionamides in thyroid disorders, 179 Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), 227 Thioridazine, 743 in schizophrenia, 739t Thiothixene in schizophrenia, 739t Thioureas, 179 in thyroid disorders, 179 Thoracic surgery, surgical site infections in, 471t Thrombectomy in venous thromboembolism, 127 Thrombin inhibitors, direct, in venous thromboembolism, 130–131 Thrombocytopenia in gastrointestinal disorders, 245 heparin-induced (HIT), 129 with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), 129–130 in neurologic disorders, 536t Thromboembolism fondaparinux sodium (Arixtra), 130 and oral contraceptive use, 267, 272 risk of, 51 venous, 125 alteplase, 133 coagulation cascade, 126f Index dalteparin, 130 definition of, 125 direct thrombin inhibitors for, 130–131 dosing for unfractionated heparin, 129t enoxaparin, 130 fondaparinux sodium (Arixtra), 130 initiation of warfarin therapy, 132f prevention of, 133 therapeutic outcomes in, evaluation of, 133 thrombolytic agents, 132–133 treatment of, 128f Thrombolytic agents in venous thromboembolism (VTE), 132–133 Thrombolytic therapy, 103, 132–133 Thrombolytics in cardiac arrest, 62 Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP), 42 Thyroid disorders, 176–184 Thyroid hormone physiology, 176 Thyroid USP, 183 Thyroidectomy, 179 Thyrotoxicosis, 176–181 nonpharmacologic therapy in, 178–179 pharmacologic therapy in, 179–181 Tiagabine, 541 antiepileptic drug side effects, 535t dosing and target serum concentration ranges, 529t elimination pathways and major effects on hepatic enzymes, 537t pharmacokinetic data, 526t Tibolone, hot flushes, treatment of, 286t Ticagrelor, 45f in acute coronary syndromes, 41–42 Ticarcillin-clavulanate, in intraabdominal infections, 398t, 400t Tigecycline, 458t Timolol, 554 in glaucoma, 667, 669t, 671t Tinzaparin, in venous thromboembolism (VTE), 130 Tiotropium bromide in asthma, 832 in chronic bronchitis, 407 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 840 Tipranavir, in HIV infection, 375t, 378t Tirofiban in acute coronary syndromes, 42, 44–45 Tobramycin antimicrobial agents, 330t dosing of, 458t for intraabdominal infections, 399t in peritonitis, dialysis-associated, 404 in pneumonia, 417t in urinary tract infections, 494t Tocilizumab, in rheumatoid arthritis, 27, 30t, 35 Tofacitinib, 30t, 34 Tolazamide in diabetes mellitus, 166t Tolbutamide in diabetes mellitus, 166t Tolcapone in Parkinson’s disease, 581t, 584–585 Tolterodine in benign prostate hyperplasia, 847t in urinary incontinence, 868t, 870t Tolvaptan, in acute decompensated heart failure, 85 Tophi (urate deposits), Topical erythromycin, in acne vulgaris, 138 Topical retinoids, in acne vulgaris, 137–138 Topiramate, 541, 592t, 597 and antiepileptic drug side effects, 535t–536t dosing and target serum concentration ranges, 529t elimination pathways and major effects on hepatic enzymes, 537t ophthalmic disorders, 666t pharmacokinetic data, 527t seizure disorders, 521t side effects of, 554 in tension-type headache, 556 treat refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, 596t Topotecan as chemotherapeutic agents, 233t 959 Index Toremifene in breast cancer, 625t, 627 oncologic disorders, 624 Torsades de pointes, 57–58 Torsemide, 81 use in heart failure, 78 Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), 143 Toxoids diphtheria, 465, 500–502 recommendations, 500 tetanus, 465, 502–503 Toxoplasmosis in HIV infection, 370t Tramadol in chronic pancreatitis, 248 in endocrinologic disorders, 174 in osteoarthritis, 13, 14–15 in pain management, 565t, 571t, 575 Trandolapril in myocardial infarction, secondary prevention after, 46 Transcutaneous catheter ablation, 57 Transdermal contraceptives, 261t, 274 Transferrin, lean body mass, visceral proteins, 606t Transferrin saturation (TSat) in irondeficiency anemia, 303 Transfusions blood, 311, 368, 778 red blood cell, 311 Transplantation cardiac orthotopic, 85 heart, 85 hematopoietic stem cell, 311, 648 liver, 191, 356t Tranylcypromine, 717t, 718 Trastuzumab as chemotherapeutic agents, 233t, 621, 627 Trauma, abdominal, acute contamination in, 400t Travoprost in glaucoma, 667, 671t Trazodone, 718 in Alzheimer’s disease, 516t as antidepressant drug, 720t, 724t, 726t, 727t in erectile dysfunction, 864 in sleep disorders, 748 in urologic disorders, 864 Treponema pallidum infections, 318t, 434t, 435t See also Syphilis 960 Tretinoin in acne vulgaris, 138 dermatologic disorders, 138 Triamcinolone, 159t Triamcinolone acetonide in allergic rhinitis, 818t in gout, in psoriasis, 149t in rheumatoid arthritis, 36 Triamcinolone hexacetonide in osteoarthritis, 11t in rheumatoid arthritis, 36 Triazolam, 749t Tricalcium phosphate in osteoporosis, 17 Trichomonas infections, 445t Trichomoniasis, 296t, 442, 446 treatment of, 442, 445t, 446 by Trichomonas vaginalis, 442 Tricyclic antidepressants, 680t Triglycerides, 65 Trimethoprim in acne vulgaris, 139 bacterial resistance, 139 in urinary tract infection, 293 vitamin interactions, 608t Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 386, 453t, 470t antimicrobial agents, 330t bacterial resistance, 139 in bronchitis, chronic, 409t for dog bites, 464 dosing of, 455t for human bites, 465 infectious diseases, 315t, 316t, 317t respiratory tract infections, lower, 409t in urinary tract infections, 493t, 496t, 497t, 498 Tripelennamine hydrochloride in allergic rhinitis, 816t Triptans, pharmacokinetic characteristics of, 550t Triptorelin in breast cancer, 625t, 627 in prostate cancer, 658, 663t Trolamine salicylate, in osteoarthritis, 14 Trospium chloride in urinary incontinence, 868t, 870, 870t Index Trospium in benign prostate hyperplasia, 847t Tuberculin skin test, criteria for, 477t Tuberculosis (TB), 476–489 culture positive, drug regimens for, 480t–481t drug monitoring recommendations, 488t–489t infection, recommended drug regimens for treatment, 479t pharmacologic treatment, 478–486 drug resistance, 479, 486 latent infection, 478 patient monitoring, evaluation of, 486–487 special populations, 486 treating active disease, 478–479 progressive primary, 476 treatment of, 478–486 Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), 9, 26, 147, 427, 557, 835 inhibitors, in rheumatoid arthritis, 34–35 in rheumatoid arthritis, 26 U Ulcerative colitis, 186t, 203f, 221–227 clinical presentation of, 222–223, 223t drug therapy, 225–227 maintenance of remission, 227 treatment approaches for, 225–227, 226f Ulcers, 14, 222t foot, 174 formation of pressure, 462 gastric, 251 healing, 255 NSAID-induced, 253 pain, 254 peptic ulcer disease, 251 symptoms, 253f therapy, 462 Ultrasonography, 127, 245, 248, 631 Ultraviolet light therapies, 145 Undernutrition, 605, 606 Unfractionated heparin (UFH) in acute coronary syndromes, 42, 44 in pregnancy, 293 in stroke, 122 in venous thromboembolism, 127–129 Urate crystals, Urea breath test (UBT), 252 Ureaplasma urealyticum infections, 434t, 435t Uremia See also Renal disease nausea and vomiting, 232t renal replacement therapy, 784t Urethra chlamydia infections, 441t common sexually transmitted pathogens, 435t gonorrhea infections, 436t, 437t lower tract infections, 490, 496t Urethral syndrome, acute, 496t Urethral underactivity, bladder overactivity, differentiating, 866t Urethritis common sexually transmitted pathogens, 435t lower tract infections, 490 nongonococcal, 434t postgonococcal, 434t Trichomonas infections, 445t Uric acid, 1, allopurinol, liver function, 74 nephrolithiasis, production of, renal clearance of, 1, serum level, stone formation, uricosurics, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, Uricosuric drugs in gout, Urinalysis, 786t kidney injury, acute, 783t uncomplicated cystitis, acute, 492 Urinary tract infections, lower, outpatient antimicrobial therapy, 496t Urinary incontinence (UI), 865–872 treatment of nonpharmacologic treatment, 867 pharmacologic treatment, 867–871, 868t–869t bladder overactivity, 867, 868t–869t, 870t duloxetine, 871 estrogens, 871 overflow incontinence, 871 961 Index Urinary incontinence (UI) (Cont.) oxybutynin immediate-release, 867 α-receptor agonists, 871 tolterodine, 867 urethral underactivity, 871 urge urinary incontinence, 870–871 Urinary tract function, lower, medications, 866t Urinary tract infections (UTIs), 316t, 490–499 antimicrobial agents, uses, 493t–495t catheterized patients, 499 empirical treatment of, 497t in men, management of, 499f in pregnancy, 497t, 498 treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis, 492 complication, 492 in men, 492, 496 pharmacologic treatment, 491–498 pyelonephritis, acute, 492 recurrent infections, 496–498 women, management of, 498f Urine output cardiovascular disorders, 112 in kidney injury, acute, 780t, 781f weight loss, 361, 362t Urokinase in venous thromboembolism, 133 Urologic disorders, 845–872 Urticaria, 141 Ustekinumab dermatologic disorders, 152 in psoriasis, 152 V Vaccinations hepatitis A, 214t, 504t, 506t hepatitis B virus, 216t, 217t, 504t, 505t herpes zoster, 504t with Hib, 329, 503–504, 504t, 506t human papillomavirus, 504t, 506t influenza virus, 388, 504t, 506t trivalent influenza vaccine, 390 measles, mumps, rubella, 504t, 506t meningococcal, 504t, 506t meningococcal polysaccharide, 507 mumps, 507 962 pertussis, 507–508 pneumococcal, 506t, 508 pneumococcal polysaccharide, 504t poliovirus, 508–509 of pregnant women, 500 recommendations, 500 dosing of, 215t tetanus prophylaxis, 506t varicella, 384t, 504t Vacuum erection devices (VEDs), 860, 860f Vaginal atrophy in menopause, 288 Vaginal ring, contraceptive, 261t, 274 Vaginosis, bacterial, 294, 295t, 434t Valganciclovir, 383t Valproate elimination pathways and major effects on hepatic enzymes, 537t Valproate sodium in bipolar disorder, 708 Valproic acid, 529t, 538, 541–542 in Alzheimer’s disease, 516t antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetic data, 527t side effects, 536t bipolar disorder, 698t, 701t, 703t, 708 drug–drug interactions, 538 in epilepsy, 538 fetal malformations, 525 neurologic disorders, 517, 521t–524t in pancreatitis, 245t during pregnancy, 297 side effects of, 554 treat refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, 596t Valsartan, 46 in heart failure, 80 in hypertension, 89t in myocardial infarction, secondary prevention after, 46 Vancomycin antimicrobial agents, 330t central nervous system infections, 327t, 329, 330t in dermatologic disorders, 144 for diabetic foot infections, 463t dosing of, 458t drug monitoring, 344t endocarditis, 337t enterococcal endocarditis, 342 Index Enterococcus faecium, 345 gastrointestinal infections, 367 gynecologic and obstetric disorders, 299 in intraabdominal infections, 399t, 400t methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), 468 oxacillin-resistant strains, 339t in peritonitis, dialysis-associated, 404 in pneumonia, 417t with rifampin, 342 sepsis and septic shock, 431t Staphylococcus aureus strains, 342 streptococcal endocarditis, 335, 338t–339t surgical prophylaxis, 471t, 474 Vardenafil cardiovascular disorders, 44 endocrinologic disorders, 174 erectile dysfunction, treatments for, 853t, 860, 861t urologic disorders, 853t, 861 Varenicline, 767, 768t Variant angina pectoris, treatment of, 109 Variceal bleeding, 188–189, 191t acute variceal hemorrhage, 189 management of, 188–189 prevention of rebleeding, 189 primary prophylaxis, 188–189 Varicella virus vaccine, 506t, 509 Varicella zoster vaccine, 509 Vasodilators in acute decompensated heart failure, 84 direct arterial, 96 in heart failure, 81, 82f, 84 in hypertension, 93t, 185 ophthalmic disorders, 666t Vasopressin, 60, 117, 193t arginine vasopressin, 798 in cardiac arrest, 62, 63 in cardiovascular disorders, 118 gastrointestinal disorders, 189 receptor antagonists, 85 Vasopressin receptor antagonists in acute decompensated heart failure, 85 Vasopressors cardiovascular disorders, 118 in shock, 118, 430t Vasovagal syncope, 58 Venlafaxine in algorithm for pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress, 692f as antidepressant drug, 686, 715t, 719t, 723t, 726t, 729t anxiety disorders, 677, 677t, 678t, 691, 692t depressive disorder, 725 drug classification, 718 endocrinologic disorders, 174 headache, 554 hot flushes, treatment of, 286t neurologic disorders, 556 ophthalmic disorders, 666t in panic disorder, 687t prophylactic migraine therapies, 551t psychiatric disorders, 689f to treat narcolepsy, 753t treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder, 690t Venous stasis, 125 Venous thromboembolism (VTE), 125–133 coagulation cascade, 126f direct thrombin inhibitors for, 130–131 dosing for unfractionated heparin, 129t fondaparinux sodium (Arixtra), 130 initiation of warfarin therapy, 132f low-molecular-weight heparins for, 129–130 prevention of, 133 thrombolytic agents, 132–133 treatment of, 128f Ventilatory support chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 842 with O2 and pressurized airflow, 842 Ventricular arrhythmias cardiovascular effect, 811 intravenous antiarrhythmic dosing, 52t premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), 48 963 Index Ventricular assist devices in acute decompensated heart failure, 85 Ventricular fibrillation, 49, 58, 60–62 nonpharmacologic therapy, 60 pharmacologic therapy, 62 postresuscitative care, 63 Ventricular proarrhythmia, 49, 57 Ventricular remodeling in MI, 37 Ventricular tachycardia (VT), 48, 57–58, 60–62 acute, 57 nonpharmacologic therapy, 60 pharmacologic therapy, 62 antiarrhythmics, 62 magnesium, 62 thrombolytics, 62 vasopressin, 62 postresuscitative care, 63 sustained, 57 Verapamil, 51 in acute coronary syndromes, 44 in antiarrhythmic drugs, 51t in hypertension, 93 in ischemic heart disease, 106 in migraine prophylaxis, 555 variant angina pectoris, 109 Vibrio cholerae infection, 361, 363t, 364 Vigabatrin, 542 antiepileptic drug side effects, 536t dosing and target serum concentration ranges, 529t elimination pathways and major effects on hepatic enzymes, 537t pharmacokinetic data, 527t Vilazodone, 717t, 720t, 724t, 726t, 727t Vinblastine, 233t in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 649t Vincristine, 233t chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (CHOP), 652t in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 649t, 650t in lung cancer, 646 Vinorelbine in breast cancer, 627, 627, 628t as chemotherapeutic agent, 233t in lung cancer, 643, 645t in oncologic disorders, 644t 964 Viral hepatitis, 213–220 Viral infections bronchiolitis in, 408–409 bronchitis in, 405, 406 diarrhea in, 367 pneumonia in, 410, 412–413 in children, 416t Virchow triad, 125 Vitamin A in dermatologic disorders, 138 fat-soluble, absorption of, 71 nutrition, 608t Vitamin B12 anemias, 301, 304–305 Crohn’s disease, 222 gastroesophageal reflux disease, 210 Vitamin B2 as prophylactic migraine therapies, 551t Vitamin D bone and joint disorders, 17, 19t fat-soluble, absorption of, 71 nonpharmacologic therapy, 17 in osteoporosis, 16, 17, 19, 20t recommended dietary allowances, 19t supplementation in osteoporosis, 19 Vitamin E in Alzheimer’s disease, 513 fat-soluble, absorption of, 71 Vitamin interactions, 608t Vitamin K fat-soluble, absorption of, 71 neurologic disorders, 525 Voriconazole as antimicrobial agent, 331t W Waist circumference measurements, 605 Warfarin, 14 enteral nutrition, 615t in stroke, 122 in venous thromboembolism (VTE), 131–132, 132f vitamin interactions, 608t Warts, genital/anal, 435t, 446t–447t Weight loss, pharmacotherapeutic agents for, 602t–603t White blood cells, 202f, 203f Crohn’s disease, 223t general algorithm for, 303f Index leukocytosis, 313 and platelets, 125 Whitehead (closed comedone), 135 Withdrawal symptoms, 574, 683, 758 mental status, 757 World Health Organization (WHO), 16 anemia, 301 oral rehydration solutions, 204t tumor node metastases (TNM) staging, 642–643 Wound infection from bite, 449t, 462, 464–465 from burn, 449t pressure sores, 612t risk factors for, 466 X Xanthine oxidase inhibitor in hyperuricemia, Xanthomas cardiovascular disorders, 74 genetic lipid disorder, 74 Xylometazoline hydrochloride in allergic rhinitis, 818t Y Yersinia enterocolitica, 364t, 365t Yohimbine in erectile dysfunction, 864 Z Zafirlukast in asthma, 833 Zalcitabine, in acute pancreatitis, 245t Zaleplon, sleep disorders, 749t, 750 Zanamivir, in influenza, 388, 391t, 393 Zegerid, 210 Zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infections, 297, 376t, 379 vitamin interactions, 608t Zileuton, in asthma, 833 Zinc oxide in diaper dermatitis, 145 Ziprasidone in bipolar disorder, 704t, 710 effect, 742 in schizophrenia, 731, 739t cytochrome P450 pathways, 733 dosage range, 732t pharmacokinetic parameters of, 736t side effect, 739t Zoledronic acid in acute hypercalcemia, 804t in osteoporosis, 19, 21t, 25 Zolmitriptan as migraine therapies, acute, 547t, 550t, 552t, 555 Zolpidem, 749t, 750 Zonisamide pharmacokinetic data, 527t side effects, 536t dosing and target serum concentration ranges, 529t drugs of choice, 522t–524t elimination pathways and major effects on hepatic enzymes, 537t in epilepsy, 542 965 ... activity for polymorphonuclear leukocytes Phagocytosis of urate crystals by leukocytes results in rapid lysis of cells and discharge of proteolytic enzymes into cytoplasm The ensuing inflammatory... uric acid may result from abnormalities in enzyme systems that regulate purine metabolism (eg, increased activity of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate [PRPP] synthetase or deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine... highest-quality patient-centered care We invite your comments on how we may improve subsequent editions of this work Barbara G Wells Joseph T DiPiro Terry L Schwinghammer Cecily V DiPiro Please provide your
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Xem thêm: pharmacotherapy handbook 9th b y wells dipiro , pharmacotherapy handbook 9th b y wells dipiro , Menopausal, Perimenopausal, and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, Vaccines, Toxoids, and Other Immunobiologics, Appendix 1. Allergic and Pseudoallergic Drug Reactions

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