Management by chuch williams chapter 15

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Chapter 15 Managing Communication MGMT Chuck Williams Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd What Is Communication? After reading these sections, you should be able to: explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems describe the communication process and the various kinds of communication in organizations Perception and Communication Problems Basic BasicPerception Perception Process Process Perception Perception Problems Problems Perceptions Perceptions of of Others Others Self-Perception Self-Perception Basic Perception Process Perception The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments Perception Filters The personality-, psychology-, or experiencebased differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli 1.1 Basic Perception Process Stimulus 1.1 Stimulus Stimulus Perceptual Attention Filter Perceptual Organization Filter Perceptual Interpretation Filter Perceptual Retention Filter Perception Problems  Selective perception • • notice and accept stimuli which are consistent with our values and beliefs ignore inconsistent stimuli  Closure • • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing we assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we know 1.2 Perception of Others • Attribution Theory – we have a need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior • General reasons to explain behavior – Internal attribution • the behavior was voluntary or under their control – External attribution • the behavior was involuntary and beyond their control 1.3 Attribution Bias and Error Defensive Defensive Bias Bias The Thetendency tendencyfor forpeople peopleto to perceive perceivethemselves themselvesas aspersonally personallyand and situationally situationally similar similarto to someone someonewho who isis having havingdifficulty difficulty Fundamental Fundamental Attribution Attribution Error Error The Thetendency tendencyto toignore ignoreexternal externalcauses causes of ofbehavior behaviorand andto toattribute attribute other other people’s people’sactions actionsto tointernal internalcauses causes 1.3 Attribution Bias and Error 1.3 Self-Perception Self-Serving Bias The tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes) 1.4 10 Employee Assistance Programs Counseling Financial Services Pet Care Child Care Employee Assistance Programs Health Lifestyles Senior Care Legal Services 2.4 23 Nonverbal Communication • Any communication that doesn’t involve words • Kinesics – movements of the body and face • Paralanguage – the pitch, tone, rate, volume, and speaking pattern of a person’s voice 2.5 24 How to Improve Communication After reading these sections, you should be able to: explain how managers can manage effective one-on-one communication describe how managers can manage effective organization-wide communication 25 How to Improve Communication Choosing Choosing the the Right Right Communication Communication Medium Medium Being Being aa good good listener listener Giving Giving effective effective feedback feedback 26 Choosing the Right Communication Medium Communication Medium The method used to deliver an oral or written message • Oral communication • Written communication 3.1 27 Listening Hearing versus Listening Active Listening Empathetic Listening 3.2 28 Becoming an Active Listener Clarify responses • Ask questions to clear up ambiguities Paraphrase responses • Restate the speaker’s comments in your own words Summarize responses • Review the speaker’s main points 3.2 29 Clarifying, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Responses • • • • Could you explain that again? I don’t understand what you mean I’m confused Would you run through that again? I’m not sure how … Paraphrasing • • • • If I understand you correctly … So your perspective is that … In other words … Tell me if I’m wrong, but what you’re saying is … Clarifying Summarizing • • • • Let me summarize … Okay, your main concerns are … Thus far, you’ve discussed … To recap what you’ve said … 3.2 30 Becoming an Empathetic Listener Show your desire to understand • Listen first • Talk about what’s important to the other Reflect feelings • Focus on the emotional part of the message • More than just restating words 3.2 31 Giving Feedback Two types of feedback: Constructive Destructive 3.3 32 Making Feedback Constructive • Give immediate feedback – Don’t delay feedback – Discuss performance while the memory is vivid • Make feedback specific – Focus on definite behavior and time-frame – Make sure behavior was controllable • Make feedback problem-oriented – Focus on behavior not personality 3.3 33 Managing Organization-Wide Communication Improving Improving Transmission: Transmission: Getting Gettingthe the Message MessageOut Out Improving Improving Reception Reception 34 Improving Transmission Getting Getting the the Message Message Out Out email email online online discussion discussion forums forums televised televised // videotaped videotaped speeches speeches and and conferences conferences corporate corporate talk talk shows shows broadcast broadcast voice voice mail mail 4.1 35 Email Ettiquette Beyond the Book • E-mail is the vehicle for any number of communication faux pas: being abusive, “cc”ing the wrong people, discussing sensitive topics • How to use it well? (1) Think about tone and don’t respond when you’re angry (2) Send only to the appropriate people (3) Assume anyone can read what you write (4) Review what you wrote before you send Source: G A Olson, “E-Mails are Forever,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 December 2008 36 Improving Reception • Company hotlines • Survey feedback • Informal meetings • Surprise visits • Blogs 4.2 37 ... Upward • Risk of telling upper management about problems • Managers reacting angrily and defensively to problems • Few opportunities for workers to contact upper levels of management Horizontal 2.2... Hurriedly communicating vague, unclear messages Issuing messages indicating management s low regard for lower-level workers • Management discouraging or punishing horizontal communication • Managers... Downward communication – top down • Upward communication – bottom up • Horizontal – within a level 2.2 15 Improving Formal Communication Decrease reliance on downward communication Increase chances for
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