Management by chuch williams chapter 13

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Chapter 13 Motivation MGMT Chuck Williams Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd What Is Motivation? After reading this section, you should be able to: explain the basics of motivation Motivation Direction Direction Initiation Initiation Persistence Persistence Basics of Motivation Effort and Performance Need Satisfaction Extrinsic Extrinsic and and Intrinsic Intrinsic Rewards Rewards Motivating Motivating People People Effort and Performance Effort Effort • • • Initiation Direction Persistence Performance Performance 1.1 Effort and Performance Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints • Job performance – how well someone performs the job • Motivation – effort put forth on the job • Ability – capability to the job • Situational Constraints 1.1 – external factors affecting performance Need Satisfaction • Needs – physical or psychological requirements – must be met to ensure survival and well being • Unmet needs motivate people • Three approaches: – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Alderfer’s ERG Theory – McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory 1.2 Adding Needs Satisfaction to the Model 1.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Self-Actualization Esteem Esteem Belongingness Belongingness Safety Safety Physiological Physiological 1.2 Aldefer’s ERG Theory Growth Growth Relatedness Relatedness Existence Existence 1.2 10 How Rewards and Goals Affect Motivation After reading these sections, you should be able to: explain how reinforcement theory works and how it can be used to motivate describe the components of goal-setting theory and how managers can use them to motivate workers discuss how the entire motivation model can be used to motivate workers 30 Reinforcement Theory Components Components of of Reinforcement Reinforcement Theory Theory Schedules Schedulesfor for Delivering Delivering Reinforcement Reinforcement Motivating Motivatingwith with Reinforcement Reinforcement Theory Theory 31 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory A theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences–or not followed by positive consequences–will occur less frequently 32 Reinforcement Contingencies Positive reinforcement • desirable consequence strengthens behavior  Negative reinforcement • withholding unpleasant consequence strengthens behavior  Punishment • unpleasant consequence weakens behavior  Extinction • no consequence weakens behavior  4.1 33 Adding Reinforcement Theory to Model 4.1 34 Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Continuous Intermittent 4.2 35 Continuous Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement Schedule A schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior 4.2 36 Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules Fixed Interval Interval (Time) (Time) Ratio Ratio (Behavior) (Behavior) Variable Variable Consequences Consequencesfollow follow behavior behaviorafter afteraafixed fixed time timehas haselapsed elapsed Consequences Consequencesfollow follow behavior behaviorafter afterdifferent different times timesthat thatvary varyaround around an anaverage averagetime time Consequences Consequencesfollow follow aaspecific specificnumber numberof of behaviors behaviors Consequences Consequencesfollow follow aadifferent differentnumber numberof of behaviors behaviorsthat thatvary vary around aroundan anaverage average number number 4.2 37 Motivating with Reinforcement Theory • Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate • Don’t reinforce the wrong behavior • Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time • Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement 4.3 38 Goal-Setting Theory Goal-Setting Theory relates to the basic model: desire to meet a goal prompts effort Effort Effort Initiation Direction Persistence Performance Performance 39 Goal-Setting Theory • Goal Specificity – the clarity of goals • Goal Difficulty – how challenging goals are • Goal Acceptance – how well goals are agreed to or understood • Performance Feedback – information on goal progress 5.1 40 Adding Goal-Setting Theory to Model 5.1 41 Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory • Assign specific, challenging goals • Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals • Provide frequent and specific performancerelated feedback 5.2 42 Motivating with the Integrated Model Motivating Motivating with with the the Basics Basics Motivating Motivatingwith with Expectancy ExpectancyTheory Theory Motivating Motivatingwith with Goal-Setting Goal-SettingTheory Theory Motivating Motivating with with Equity EquityTheory Theory Motivating Motivating with with Reinforcement Reinforcement Theory Theory 43 Motivating with the Integrated Model 44 ... Intrinsic Rewards – natural rewards – associated with performing the task for its own sake 1.3 13 Extrinsic Rewards Extrinsic Rewards motivate people to: • • • • Join the organization Regularly... Satisfy lower-order needs first • Expect people’s needs to change • Satisfy higher order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards 1.4 18 How Perceptions and
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