Management a practical introduction 3rd kinicky chapter 15

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Management A Practical Introduction Third Edition Angelo Kinicki & Brian K Williams Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 15: Interpersonal & Organizational Communication Mastering the Exchange of Information The Communication Process Barriers to Communication How Managers Fit into the Process Communication in the Information Age Improving Communication Effectiveness Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.1 The Communication Process: What It Is, How It Works WHY DO WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS? Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another Good communication skills, both written and oral, are essential to success One study found that managers spend over 80 percent of their day communicating Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.1 The Communication Process: What It Is, How It Works Communication is a process The sender is the person wanting to share information, called a message, and the receiver is the person for whom the message is intended Messages have to be encoded (translated into understandable symbols or language) Then, messages have to be decoded (interpreted and made sense of) The pathway by which a message travels is the medium Feedback is the receiver’s reaction to the sender’s message Any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message is noise Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Communication Process Basic Model McGraw-Hill/Irwin Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights rese 15.1 The Communication Process: What It Is, How It Works Figure 15.1: The Communication Process Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Communication Process Expanded Model McGraw-Hill/Irwin Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights rese The Communication Process What assignment you mean? Did you finish your assignment? Noise! Noise! Sender McGraw-Hill/Irwin Receiver Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights rese 15.1 The Communication Process: What It Is, How It Works HOW DO MANAGERS KNOW WHICH TYPE OF COMMUNICATION TOOL TO USE? Managers need to know how to use the right type of communication tool for a given situation How well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning is referred to as media richness Media are positioned along a continuum ranging from high media richness (face-to-face communication) to low media richness (impersonal written media like newsletters) In nonroutine situations, a rich medium works best In routine situations, a lean medium works better Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Selecting the Right Media High Media Richness (Best for nonroutine, ambiguous situations) Face-to-face presence McGraw-Hill/Irwin Videoconferencing Low Media Richness (Best for routine, clear situations) Telephone Personal written media (e-mail, memos, letters) Impersonal written media (newsletters, fliers, general reports) Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights rese 15.2 Barriers To Communication ARE THERE DIFFERENCES IN HOW MEN & WOMEN COMMUNICATE? There are a number of general differences in how men and women communicate Men tend to be more direct and blunt, women have a softer approach, for example Similarly, men tend to be stingy with praise while women hand out lots of compliments Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.3 How Managers Ft Into The Communications Process HOW DO MANAGERS USE THE DIFFERENT CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION? There are both formal and informal channels of communication Formal communication channels follow the chain of command and are recognized as official There are three types of formal communications: vertical, horizontal, and external Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.3 How Managers Ft Into The Communications Process Vertical communication flows up and down the organizational hierarchy Downward communication flows from a higher level to a lower level while upward communication flows from a lower level to a high level Horizontal communication flows within and between work units - its main purpose is coordination Horizontal communication is encouraged through the use of committees, task forces, and matrix structures External communication flows between people inside and outside the organization It involves people like customers, suppliers, and shareholders Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.3 How Managers Ft Into The Communications Process Informal communication channels develop outside the formal structure and not follow the chain of command Two informal channels are the grapevine (the unofficial communication system of the informal organization) and management-by-wandering around (a manager literally walking around and talking with people across all lines of authority) Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Communication In The Information Age HOW CAN MANAGERS USE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO COMMUNICATE? Information technology can allow managers to communicate more effectively There are several types of information technology including: The internet, intranets, & extranets The Internet is a network of computer networks Two private uses of the Internet are intranets (an organization’s private Internet) and extranets (an extended intranet that connects internal employees with selected customers, suppliers, and other strategic partners) Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Communication In The Information Age E-mail E-mail (electronic mail that is sent via the Internet) reduces the cost of distributing information, increases teamwork, reduces paper costs, and increases flexibility However, it can also lead to wasted time dealing with spam (unsolicited jokes and junk mail), information overload, and neglect of other media Videoconferencing Videoconferencing or teleconferencing uses video and audio links along with computers to enable people in different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Communication In The Information Age Group Support Systems Group support systems use state-of-the-art computer software and hardware to help people work better together They allow people to share information without time or space constraints Companies with these systems can create virtual teams Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Communication In The Information Age Telecommuting Telecommuting involves doing work that is usually done at the office away from the office Telecommuters use phone, fax, and the Internet to communicate Telecommuting can: reduce capital costs, increase flexibility and autonomy for workers, provide a competitive advantage when recruiting, increase job satisfaction, increase productivity, and allow companies to tap nontraditional workers Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Communication In The Information Age Handheld Devices Handheld devices like PDAs and smartphones allow workers to work from anywhere Blogs A blog is an online journal in which people write whatever they want about any topic Blogs give people an informal means of discussing issues However, they’re not always accurate, they can be used to say unflattering things about the company, and there aren’t any guidelines about what is acceptable to post Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.4 Communication In The Information Age WHAT PROBLEMS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY? Information technology can be problematic in the workplace when it interferes with productivity One of the biggest time killers in the workplace is personal use of the Internet Trying to get online connections to work, dealing with spam and viruses, and so on also detract from an employee’s productivity Information overload occurs when the amount of information received exceeds a person’s ability to handle or process it Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness HOW CAN YOU BE A BETTER LISTENER? To be a better listener, managers should: -judge content, not the delivery -ask questions and summarize remarks -listen for ideas -resist distractions and show interest -give a fair hearing and correct for personal biases Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness HOW CAN YOU BE A BETTER READER? To streamline reading, managers should -be savvy about periodicals and books - focus on the important stuff -transfer their reading load - get employees to write up summaries of important books -make internal memos and e-mail more efficient -use the five steps of the top down reading system: rate reasons to read, question and predict answers, survey the big picture, skim for main ideas, and summarize Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin Effective Reading Top-Down Reading – RQ3S      Rate reasons to read Question and predict answers Survey the big picture – get overview Skim for main ideas Summarize as you skim McGraw-Hill/Irwin Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights rese 15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness HOW CAN YOU BE A BETTER WRITER? Don’t show your ignorance - be sure to proofread and use spelling and grammar checks before sending e-mails Understand your strategy before you write - when writing, lay out ideas: most important to least important, least controversial to most controversial, and negative to positive Start with your purpose - state your purpose and what you expect of the reader Write simply, concisely, and directly - be direct and use an active voice Telegraph your writing with a powerful layout - make your writing easy to read by using highlighting and white space Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15.5 Improving Communication Effectiveness HOW CAN YOU BE A BETTER SPEAKER? Tell them what you’re going to say - the introduction of your speech should prepare listeners for the rest of the speech It should take about 5-15 percent of your time Say it - this part of the speech should take 75-90 percent of your time Be succinct Tell them what you said - the conclusion can be as important as the introduction It should take about 5-10 percent of your time Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin ... channels are the grapevine (the unofficial communication system of the informal organization) and management- by-wandering around (a manager literally walking around and talking with people across all... provide a competitive advantage when recruiting, increase job satisfaction, increase productivity, and allow companies to tap nontraditional workers Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction. .. suppliers, and other strategic partners) Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 15. 4 Communication In The Information Age E-mail E-mail (electronic mail that
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