Human resource management disease ch 15

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Chapter 15 Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System Structure and Function  Interaction of Bones, Joints and Muscles     Provide body with sturdy framework Skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons, muscle movement moves the skeleton Movement of joints permit movements of some framework Extention, Flexion – muscles stabilize joints by preventing or aiding in movement Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc Structure and Function  Bones – Development, growth and homeostasis rely on:     Minerals – Calcium,phosphate Proteins – Collagen Living cells – Mature bone cells (osteocytes), bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) Bones are long, flat or irregular in shape    Covered in compact bone Inside: spongy bone Periosteum covers the bones Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc Structure and Function     Ligaments – Hold bone to bone Synovial membrane – inner surface of joints, secretes synovial fluid for lubrication Bursa – sac holding synovial fluid Tendons – Attach muscle to bone Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc Fractures of the Bone         Closed – cleanly, no skin penetration Open – Ends protrude Comminuted – Fragmented Compression – Crushed Impacted – broken ends forced into each other Depressed – pressed inward Spiral – Jagged break due to twisting force Greenstick – Incomplete as a green twig Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc Diseases of the Bone     Osteomyelitis – Pain, redness, heat, chills, fever, tachycardia, nausea, weight loss Rickets – (vitamin D deficiency in childhood) deformation of bones, knock-knee, bow-leg, curved spine, enlarged/square head, flaccid muscles, node-swelling at rib ends and joints Osteoporosis- Decreased height from vertebral compression fractures, curvature of spine, easily fractured bones Osteomalacia – Muscle weakness, weight loss, pain in bones, deformed bones, easily fractured bones Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc     Paget’s Disease – Enlarged skull, nerve compression curvatures in spine, deformed legs Bone tumors – Painless lump in bone tissue, fx without trauma Rheumatoid arthritis – Pain and stiffness in joints; swollen, red, warm joints; bilateral involvement exacerbation and remission, rheumatoid nodules, crippling deformities Osteoarthritis – Aches, pain, stiff joints, limited ROM, muscle weakness around joint, enlarged joints, bone spurs, can be one or many joints Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc       Gout – Severe pain, heat, swelling, redness in joint, acute onset Septic arthritis – Pain, redness, swelling, bone and joint destruction Bursitis- Pain at joint, especially during use Carpal tunnel syndrome - Numbness and tingling of hand, pain radiating to shoulder, limited finger movement, severe at night Muscular Dystrophy – Weakened muscles, muscles may enlarge as fat is deposited, muscles degenerate Myasthenia gravis – Fatigue, muscle paralysis Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc ... imprint of Elsevier Inc Diseases of the Bone     Osteomyelitis – Pain, redness, heat, chills, fever, tachycardia, nausea, weight loss Rickets – (vitamin D deficiency in childhood) deformation... joints, secretes synovial fluid for lubrication Bursa – sac holding synovial fluid Tendons – Attach muscle to bone Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc... Ends protrude Comminuted – Fragmented Compression – Crushed Impacted – broken ends forced into each other Depressed – pressed inward Spiral – Jagged break due to twisting force Greenstick – Incomplete
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