unit 9 Bài giảng Anh văn chuyên ngành Tài chính Thư Viện Tài Liệu Tổng Hợp Com UNIT 9

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9 AIMS: Mergers and acquisitions ƒ To learn about: mergers and acquisitions; key vocabulary of mergers, takeovers and buyouts ƒ To learn how to: talk about cause and effect ƒ To practise: talking about the effects of takeovers Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 75 a Successful companies generally want to diversify: to introduce new products or services, and enter new markets Yet entering new markets with new brands is usually a slow, expensive and risky process, so buying another company with existing products and customers is often cheaper and safer If a company is too big to acquire, another possibility is to merge with it, forming a new company out of the two old ones Apart from diversifying, reasons for acquiring companies include getting a stronger position in a market and a larger market share, reducing competition, benefiting from economies of scale, and making better use of plant and equipment b There are two ways to acquire a company: a raid and a takeover bid A raid simply involves buying as many of a company's stocks as possible on the stock market Of course if there is more demand for stock than there are sellers, this increases the stock price A takeover bid is a public offer to a company's stockholders to buy their stocks at a certain price (higher than the current market price) during a limited period of time This can be much more expensive than a raid, because if all the stockholders accept the bid, the buyer has to purchase 100% of the company's stocks, even though they only need 50% plus one to gain control of a company (In fact they often need much less, as many stockholders not vote at stockholders' meetings.) If stockholders accept a bid, but receive stocks in the other company instead of cash, it is not always clear if the operation is a takeover or a merger - journalists sometimes use both terms c Companies are sometimes encouraged to take over other ones by investment banks, if researchers in their Mergers and Acquisitions departments consider that the target companies are undervalued Banks can earn high fees for advising on takeovers d Yet there are also a number of good arguments against takeovers Diversification can damage a company's image, goodwill and shared values (e.g quality, good service, innovation) After a hostile takeover (when the managers of a company not want it to be taken over), the top executives of the newly acquired company are often replaced or choose to leave This is a problem if what made the company special was its staff (or 'human capital') rather than its products or customer base Furthermore, a company's optimum size or market share can be quite small, and large conglomerates can become unmanageable and inefficient Takeovers not always result in synergy In fact, statistics show that most mergers and acquisitions reduce rather than increase the company's value Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 76 e Consequently, corporate raiders and private equity companies look for large conglomerates (formed by a series of takeovers) which have become inefficient, and so are undervalued In other words, their market capitalization (the price of all their stocks) is less than the value of their total assets, including land, buildings and - unfortunately - pension funds Raiders can borrow money, usually by issuing bonds, and buy the companies They then split them up or sell off the assets, and then pay back the bonds while making a large profit Until the law was changed, they were also able to appropriate the pension funds This is known as asset-stripping, and such takeovers are called leveraged buyouts or LBOs If a company's own managers buy its stocks, this is a management buyout or MBO Vocabulary Find words or phrases in the text that mean the following: adding new and different products or services a company's sales expressed as a percentage of the total sales in a market reductions in costs resulting from increased production money paid to investment banks for work done all the individuals or organizations that regularly or occasionally purchase goods or services from a company best, perfect or ideal [adjective] combined production or productivity that is greater than the sum of the separate parts people or companies that try to buy and sell other companies to make a profit large corporations or groups of companies offering a number of different products or services 10 buying a company in order to sell its most valuable assets at a profit Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 77 Reading 2: The role of banks You are going to read a passage about the role of banks in mergers and takeovers Before you read, check your understanding of the words and phrases (1-5) below by matching them with their definitions (a-e) a buying spree a a period when an economy is doing badly boom b buying a lot in a short period cyclical [adjective] c to try to get new customers slump d a period when an economy is doing very well to drum up business e going round and round or repeating Well, the role of the investment banks; yes, they're certainly big, important players in mergers and acquisitions, and yes, they may sometimes try and drum up business, but I think that no well-run firm will want to engage in this kind of activity unless they see merit in doing so So it isn't all driven by the banks What we note - and that is really interesting - is that when a company goes for a takeover, tries to take over another, the thing that's most important is its share price, the share price of the company doing the takeover So if the share prices well- which they did in the 80s and 90s, most of the time companies feel richer, their shares are more valuable, so they tend to go out on a buying spree and they will get advice from big investment banks and merchant banks about when to buy and what to buy And the potential victim of a takeover bid will obviously want to get advice from another national institution about how to defend itself, assuming that's what it wants to So we've seen a lot of acquisitions and mergers, some friendly mergers and some contested takeovers, a lot of them happening in a strong stock market In the early twenty-first century, so far, we have been seeing share prices slide a bit and so mergers and acquisitions are becoming less frequent and of course less valuable The value of companies has fallen so the value of the activity for the merchant banks, investment banks, has been slipping too It is very much a cyclical phenomenon boom for shares means more takeovers, slump for shares means less Now read the passage, and look at the following statements Are they true or false? Investment banks sometimes encourage companies to acquire other ones, because this creates business for the bank The acquisitions policy of well-managed companies can be influenced by banks Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 78 There are more takeovers when share prices are high Share prices were high all through the 1980s and 1990s When share prices are high, investment banks tell companies what to buy A company that doesn't want to be taken over will get advice from a large financial institution such as an investment bank The value of merchant banks has recently gone down Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 79 New words: − hostile bid = hostile takeover bid (n) : việc chào giá mua lại (quyền kiểm sốt) cơng ty có tính thù địch − acquisition : việc mua lại Ỉ acquire (v) − to snap up : chộp, mua nhanh − raid (v) : đột kích − raider = raider firm : cơng ty giặc − to gobble up : nuốt − make – or – buy decision : định tự chế hay mua Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 80 − assets – stripping : việc tháo dỡ tài sản (việc mua rẻ tháo dỡ tài sản công ty làm ăn thua lỗ để bán) − diversify (v) : đa dạng hóa − diversification (n) : − brand (n) : nhãn hiệu − existing (adj) : hữu, có − possibility (n) : khả − market share (n) : thị phần − economies of scale : hiệu kinh tế quy mô lớn − innovation (n) : đổi − human capital : vốn người − optimum (adj) : thích hợp nhất, tối ưu − synergy : hợp lực − statistics (n) : thống kê − corporate raider (n) : “kẻ cướp” công ty (cá nhân hay công ty mua lại phần lớn cổ phần cơng ty khác nhằm mục đích chi phối cơng ty theo hướng có lợi cho mình) − undervalue (v) : đánh giá thấp − market capitalization (the price of all the stocks) : thị giá vốn − to split up : chia − leveraged buyout = LBO : việc mua lại công ty cấp vốn nợ − management buyout =MBO : việc mua lại quyền quản lý (của cơng nhân xí nghiệp) − buying spree : cuồng nhiệt mua sắm − boom (v/n) : phồn vinh, thịnh vượng, vọt giá − cyclical (adj) Ỉ cycle (n) : theo chu kỳ − slump : sụt mạnh − to drum up business : quảng cáo kinh doanh rùm beng − to engage : tham gia − merit : xứng đáng, công lao − : bảo vệ to defend − To assume : cho − contest : cạnh tranh − phenomenon (n) : tượng Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions 81 ... prices are high Share prices were high all through the 198 0s and 199 0s When share prices are high, investment banks tell companies what to buy A company that doesn't want to be taken over will get... from a company best, perfect or ideal [adjective] combined production or productivity that is greater than the sum of the separate parts people or companies that try to buy and sell other companies... corporations or groups of companies offering a number of different products or services 10 buying a company in order to sell its most valuable assets at a profit Unit 9: Mergers and acquisitions
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