unit 3 Bài giảng Anh văn chuyên ngành Tài chính Thư Viện Tài Liệu Tổng Hợp Com UNIT 3

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3 AIMS: Loans and credit ƒ To learn about: lending decisions; key vocabulary of loans and credit ƒ To learn how to: give advice and make suggestions ƒ To practise: making lending decisions; giving advice to client Lead in o How commercial banks make a profit? o How banks decide who to lend money to? o How they decide what rates to lend at? o How large corporations raise finance? o Why large companies generally prefer not to borrow from banks? Reading 1: Banks and bonds Read the texts below and then answer the questions on the opposite page Finance Glossary  Corporate bonds are issued by companies to raise capital They are an alternative to issuing new shares on the stock market (equity finance) and are a form of debt finance A bond is basically an IOU (short for 'I owe you') - a promise to pay back your original investment (the 'principal') at a maturity date, plus interest payments (the 'yield' or 'coupon') at regular intervals between now and then The bond is a tradeable instrument in its own right, which means that you can buy and sell it during its life, and its value will tend to rise and fall as interest rates change Thirty or forty years ago, large companies that wanted to borrow money generally got loans from banks Then they discovered that they could borrow at a lower rate by raising money directly from the public (and from institutional investors like insurance companies and pension funds), by issuing bonds This process of disintermediation - cutting out the Unit 3: Loans and credit 21 intermediary (the bank) between the borrower and the lenders – is obviously not a good thing for commercial banks They now have to lend their money to borrowers that are less secure than large corporations Companies and financial institutions are given investment ratings, reflecting their financial situation and performance, by ratings companies such as Standard & Poor's and Moody's The highest rating (AAA or Aaa) is given only to top-quality institutions, with minimal credit risk Today, only one of these is a bank (Rabobank, in the Netherlands) The only other AAA ratings - and there are very few - belong to large corporations On the other hand, companies use investment banks to issue their bonds for them, permitting banks to make money from fees rather than from interest What are the two main ways in which large companies and corporations raise capital? …………………………………………………………………………………………… What might explain why only one bank has a AAA rating ? …………………………………………………………………………………………… What form of income banks now get from large companies? …………………………………………………………………………………………… Use a word from each box to make word combinations from the text You can use some words more than once Then use some of the word combinations to complete the sentences below credit date debt finance equity instruments financial payments interest performance investment rating maturity risk tradeable situation Bondholders get ……………… ………………… until the bond’s ………………… Because bonds are ………………… ……………………, you can sell them at any time, but their price will depend on the company's ……………… …………… and the level of interest rates Only companies with hardly any ……………… …………….get a AAA …………… Unit 3: Loans and credit 22 Vocabulary You are going to read an interview about lending decisions Before you read, check your understanding of the words and phrases in the box by matching them with their definitions (1-10) collateral credit rating maturity portfolio cost of funds EBIT operating cash flow credit limit margin overhead costs the abbreviation for a company's earnings before interest and taxes all the securities and financial assets held by a financial institution or an individual an evaluation of a borrower's ability to pay interest and pay back a loan in the future something of value that secures a loan or other credit; if the borrower cannot repay, the lender can sell it to payoff the loan the date on which a loan must be repaid, or the length of time until this date the difference between the interest rate a lender pays and the rate it charges its borrowers the expenses of operating a business that are not directly related to individual products or services (e.g electricity, telephones, administrative costs) the maximum amount that a bank will lend to a customer the money generated from a business's normal activities 10 the price (interest rate) that a financial institution must pay for the use of money Reading 2: Lending decisions Gerlinde Igler works for a German bank Read the conversation from Igler about how banks make lending decisions for commercial and corporate customers Interviewer: How banks decide who to lend to? Gerlinde Igler: Normally we analyse the customers That means that we analyse the annual reports, the figures during the year We have to analyse how the company will develop in the future So we evaluate the current situation of the customer and the future situation of the customer We also discuss the loan with the customers - what kind of loan is it? Is it a short-term loan or is it a long-term loan? It's very important to know the maturity of this loan If we lend money for a long time we have to be sure Unit 3: Loans and credit 23 that the customer can repay this loan Normally the company must be able to repay the loan from the operating cash flow, the EBIT of the company Our decision also depends on the bank's portfolio We finance different sectors in industry, and we've got different limits for the sectors And if we overstep this limit with the new customer, we need a new approval for the higher limit for the sector, and we have to decide if it's OK to increase the credit limit for the sector We also have a rating for each sector, and we have to decide if it is a sector with a good rating or a sector with a bad rating If you have a sector with a bad rating we normally only finance the best companies in this sector Sometimes the customer would like to finance some different transactions in foreign countries If we finance transactions in Eastern Europe or in Asia we have to look at the country rating and we have to look at the limit for this country For these countries we have limits or we have no limits If we don't have a limit for this country we can't finance it - it's too dangerous Reading 3: Margins A Read the passage from Igler about how banks determine lending rates and answer the questions below The last important point is that we would like to earn money with the customer; we need an agreement about the margin We have a special system, a special calculation system, in which we calculate the margin, and the margin is added to the cost of funds, and the cost of funds plus the margin is then the interest rate of the customers We need an acceptable margin The cost of funds will depend on the market situation and the bank's rating If you have a good rating you can get money on the capital markets more cheaply than a bank with a bad rating Every bank is rated by the international agencies, Standard & Poor's and Moody's It's a big disadvantage if you don't have a Triple A rating You have to pay higher interest for the money you borrow We calculate a margin and the margin includes the product costs The product costs depend on the product the customer will use Then we have the overhead costs Overhead costs depend on the situation of the bank A smaller bank has a lot of overhead costs and a big bank normally has lower overhead costs Unit 3: Loans and credit 24 The most important point is the risk costs, because the risk costs depend on the customer's rating If I have a bad customer and the customer has a bad rating, in this case the customer has to pay a higher margin If we can get securities or collateral we can reduce our risks, because we can use this collateral if the company goes bust But there is a lot of competition between the banks and it's very hard for small banks to get good customers or to get acceptable margins B Questions: What are the two factors that determine the interest rate a customer is charged? ………………………………………………………………………………………… What is the advantage for a business of having a Triple A or AAA rating? ………………………………………………………………………………………… What are the different costs involved in the calculation of the bank's margin? ………………………………………………………………………………………… How can a bank reduce the risks involved in granting a loan? ………………………………………………………………………………………… Language focus Advising and suggesting Think of some phrases for giving advice and making suggestions or recommendations in a business situation Some common phrases are shown below; you will add more later Phrase Example How about doing How about opening a savings account? I think (that) you should I think you should reduce your spending I think (that) you ought to I think you ought to payoff that debt first It'd (It would) be a good idea to … It'd be a good idea to pay those bills regularly I'd (I would) advise you (not) to … I'd advise you to sell those stocks immediately It's advisable to It's advisable to diversify your portfolio Have you considered doing Have you considered getting life assurance? Unit 3: Loans and credit 25 Note that a verb following how about and consider is always in the -ing form; a verb following should is always the infinitive without to; and a verb following advisable is always the infinitive with to Notice also the difference in spelling between the noun advice and the verb advise The noun is uncountable We not say an advice; we say some advice, a piece of advice, several pieces of advice Which of the phrases opposite are more formal, and which more informal? Which of them would you use in a formal letter? Which would you use with a colleague you know well? Can you think of any phrases using the verbs suggest, recommend and advise? Write them in the table opposite showing the structure that is used, and add an example for each Use a dictionary to help if you need to Use some of the phrases opposite to give advice or make suggestions to the following people: a A customer who has $5,000 in a savings account paying 2.5%p.a and a credit card debt of $3,000 on which she is paying 1.25%per month b A customer who has just had a pay rise of $1,000 a month c A customer who wants to invest $50,000 in the stock of just one company d A customer who has just finished paying off his mortgage and asks for a loan of $50,000 to make improvements to his house e A self-employed customer without any plans for retirement f A customer who wants to take €10,000 cash on a long vacation g A customer who complains about the length of the queues at his local branch h A shopkeeper who always keeps the day's takings at home overnight and pays them in to the bank the following morning Choose the correct answer: Another term used for financial is …………………… A Money B Fiscal C Cash D Debt ……… is a method of payment for work performed by an employee; payment is usually based on a yearly amount, allocated over a number of a pay period, usually fortnightly or monthly A Wage B Sale C PAYG tax D Salary Unit 3: Loans and credit 26 …………is the pay earned by an employee, based on number of hours worked at an hourly rate A Wage B Sale C PAYG tax D Salary Time worked or amount paid for time in excess of the normal or ordinary pay period A overtime B full time C part time D ordinary time Cash, stock or anything else of value that the owner takes out of the business for personal use is the ……… account A net wage B drawings C current assets D ITC …………… is a legal process available to people or businesses whose liabilities exceed their assets A annual leave B bad debt C bankruptcy D capital …………… are losses caused by debtors not paying their accounts due to bankruptcy A allowances B charges C bad debts D awards is a direct tax on income, as distinct from capital A income tax B taxable income C accounting income D tax expense ………… is the income remaining after all legal deductions have been subtracted A Gross income B Gross profit C Net profit D EBIT 10 If the VAT (1/10 value of goods) is $45.00, what are the amounts of the price to be charged and the price including VAT? A $495 / $450 B $450 / $495 C $450 / $405 D $405 / $450 11 If the VAT (1/10 value of goods) is $32.50, what are the amounts of the price to be charged and the price including VAT? A $3.20 / $29.09 B $357 / $325 C $320 / $352 D $325 / 357.50 12 If the price to be charged VAT of 10% is $13,450.00, what are the amounts of VAT and the price of goods sold ? A $1,345 / $14,795 B $134.50 / $147.90 C 14,795.50 / $1,345 D $134.50 / $13,584.50 13 If the price to be charged VAT of 10% is $25,555.00, what are the amounts of price including VAT and VAT ? A $2,555.50 / $2,810.50 B $2,322.70 / $27,872.70 C $28,110.50 / $2,555.50 Unit 3: Loans and credit D $25,552.55 / $2,555.00 27 14 If 10% VAT is $1,250.00, what are the amounts of taxable supplies and the price ? A $1,375 / $125 B $12,500 / $13,750 C $125 / $1,375 D $13,750 / $12,500 New words: − alternative [ɔ:l'tə:nətiv] − principal ['prinsəpl] − maturity [mə'tjuəriti] − yield (n) : vốn gốc (n) : kỳ hạn phải toán : lợi nhuận ['ku:pɔn] − tradeable : lựa chọn (n) [ji:ld] − coupon (n) (n) [‘treidəbl] : lãi phiếu, lãi suất (của trái phiếu có mức lời cố định) (adj) − instrument ['instrumənt] (n) − institution [,insti'tju:∫n] (n) : (thuộc về) buôn bán, giao dịch : công cụ , dụng cụ : quan, thể chế, định chế, chế độ, quy định − institutional investors(n) − disintermediation giới − intermediary − reflect [,disin'tə,mi:di'ei∫ən] [,intə'mi:djəri] [ri'flekt] : nhà đầu tư tổ chức công cộng (n): việc phi trung gian hóa, tác dụng mơi (n) (v) : hình thức trung gian, vật trung gian : phản ánh − credit risk (n) : rủi ro tín dụng − credit rating (n) : việc đánh giá khả chi trả − collateral [kɔ'lætərəl] (n) : vật chấp, đồ ký quỹ − EBIT = Earnings before interest and taxes : mức lời trước trả lãi nộp thuế − margin (n) : biên độ, chênh lệch − portfolio (n) : tổ hợp chứng khoán đầu tư, quỹ đầu tư − overhead costs (n) : chi phí tổng quát, chi phí gián tiếp ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Unit 3: Loans and credit 28 ... (1/10 value of goods) is $32 .50, what are the amounts of the price to be charged and the price including VAT? A $3. 20 / $29.09 B $35 7 / $32 5 C $32 0 / $35 2 D $32 5 / 35 7.50 12 If the price to be... charged VAT of 10% is $ 13, 450.00, what are the amounts of VAT and the price of goods sold ? A $1 ,34 5 / $14,795 B $ 134 .50 / $147.90 C 14,795.50 / $1 ,34 5 D $ 134 .50 / $ 13, 584.50 13 If the price to be... on income, as distinct from capital A income tax B taxable income C accounting income D tax expense ………… is the income remaining after all legal deductions have been subtracted A Gross income
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