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This page intentionally left blank ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING Technology, Architecture, Applications Cloud computing promises to revolutionize IT and business by making computing available as a utility over the internet This book is intended primarily for practicing software architects who need to assess the impact of such a transformation It explains the evolution of the internet into a cloud computing platform, describes emerging development paradigms and technologies, and discusses how these will change the way enterprise applications should be architected for cloud deployment Gautam Shroff provides a technical description of cloud computing technologies, covering cloud infrastructure and platform services, programming paradigms such as MapReduce, as well as ‘do-it-yourself’ hosted development tools He also describes emerging technologies critical to cloud computing The book also covers the fundamentals of enterprise computing, including a technical introduction to enterprise architecture, so it will interest programmers aspiring to become software architects and serve as a reference for a graduate-level course in software architecture or software engineering Gautam Shroff heads TCS’ Innovation Lab in Delhi, a corporate R&D lab that conducts applied research in software architecture, natural language processing, data mining, multimedia, graphics and computer vision Additionally he is responsible for TCS’ Global Co-Innovation Network (COIN), which works with venture-backed emerging technology companies to create and take to market solutions that have disruptive innovation potential Further, as a member of TCS’ Corporate Technology Board, he is part of the process of recommending directions to existing R&D efforts, spawning new R&D efforts, sponsoring external research and proliferating the resulting technology and intellectual property across TCS’ businesses ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE, APPLICATIONS GAUTAM SHROFF CAMBRI D GE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521760959 © G Shroff 2010 This publication is in copyright Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press First published 2010 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-76095-9 Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-13735-5 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate Contents Preface page xi List of abbreviations xiv Part I Computing platforms Chapter Enterprise computing: a retrospective 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introduction Mainframe architecture Client-server architecture 3-tier architectures with TP monitors Chapter The internet as a platform 10 16 2.1 Internet technology and web-enabled applications 2.2 Web application servers 2.3 Internet of services Chapter Software as a service and cloud computing 3.1 Emergence of software as a service 3.2 Successful SaaS architectures v 16 19 22 27 27 29 vi CONTENTS 3.3 Dev 2.0 platforms 3.4 Cloud computing 3.5 Dev 2.0 in the cloud for enterprises 31 32 36 Chapter Enterprise architecture: role and evolution 39 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Enterprise data and processes Enterprise components Application integration and SOA Enterprise technical architecture Data center infrastructure: coping with complexity 40 40 42 44 47 Part II Cloud platforms 49 Chapter Cloud computing platforms 51 5.1 Infrastructure as a service: Amazon EC2 5.2 Platform as a service: Google App Engine 5.3 Microsoft Azure Chapter Cloud computing economics 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Is cloud infrastructure cheaper? Economics of private clouds Software productivity in the cloud Economies of scale: public vs private clouds 51 56 60 64 64 67 71 73 Part III Cloud technologies 75 Chapter Web services, AJAX and mashups 77 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Web services: SOAP and REST SOAP versus REST AJAX: asynchronous ‘rich’ interfaces Mashups: user interface services 77 83 85 87 CONTENTS Chapter Virtualization technology 8.1 Virtual machine technology 8.2 Virtualization applications in enterprises 8.3 Pitfalls of virtualization Chapter Multi-tenant software 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Multi-entity support Multi-schema approach Multi-tenancy using cloud data stores Data access control for enterprise applications vii 89 89 95 103 104 105 107 109 111 Part IV Cloud development 115 Chapter 10 Data in the cloud 117 10.1 Relational databases 10.2 Cloud file systems: GFS and HDFS 10.3 BigTable, HBase and Dynamo 10.4 Cloud data stores: Datastore and SimpleDB Chapter 11 MapReduce and extensions 11.1 Parallel computing 11.2 The MapReduce model 11.3 Parallel efficiency of MapReduce 11.4 Relational operations using MapReduce 11.5 Enterprise batch processing using MapReduce Chapter 12 Dev 2.0 platforms 12.1 Salesforce.com’s Force.com platform 12.2 TCS InstantApps on Amazon cloud 118 121 123 128 131 131 134 137 139 142 144 145 148 viii 12.3 More Dev 2.0 platforms and related efforts 12.4 Advantages, applicability and limits of Dev 2.0 CONTENTS 153 154 Part V Software architecture 159 Chapter 13 Enterprise software: ERP, SCM, CRM 161 13.1 Anatomy of a large enterprise 13.2 Partners: people and organizations 13.3 Products 13.4 Orders: sales and purchases 13.5 Execution: tracking work 13.6 Billing 13.7 Accounting 13.8 Enterprise processes, build vs buy and SaaS Chapter 14 Custom enterprise applications and Dev 2.0 14.1 Software architecture for enterprise components 14.2 User interface patterns and basic transactions 14.3 Business logic and rule-based computing 14.4 Inside Dev 2.0: model driven interpreters 14.5 Security, error handling, transactions and workflow Chapter 15 Workflow and business processes 15.1 Implementing workflow in an application 15.2 Workflow meta-model using ECA rules 15.3 ECA workflow engine 15.4 Using an external workflow engine 15.5 Process modeling and BPMN 15.6 Workflow in the cloud 161 164 167 168 170 172 174 176 178 178 180 188 194 198 203 203 205 207 210 211 216 18.2 Future of enterprise cloud computing 259 important concern for enterprise adoption of cloud computing is the physical location of data centers on which clouds operate In certain industries, such as financial services and health-care, many governments regulate the location of physical storage of data to be within a specified geographical area, such as a country or continent As a result, cloud providers such as Amazon maintain data centers in different geographical regions, and allow users to choose which ‘regions’ their virtual resources and data will be provisioned in At the same time, a large number of enterprises already rely on managed hosting providers instead of housing their servers in-house, and as we have seen, many of these are already beginning to exploit virtualization and automated provisioning technologies These data centers also need to be physically located so as to conform to the same regulations The resulting possibility for evolution of the cloud ecosystem is outlined below: 18.2.2 Inter-operating Virtualized Data Centers So far, data centers managed by different providers operate in isolation in the sense that while end-users can often provision resources on-demand in these facilities, trading of capacity between such facilities, such as is the case for electricity or even data communications bandwidth, does not take place The key technology elements that could enable on-demand exchange of capacity are already in place: It is possible to programmatically provision and access resources using web services, as demonstrated by IaaS providers and frameworks such as Eucalyptus What is missing is standardization of such APIs so that business models and trading can be based on a non-proprietary mechanism of making requests and ensuring service levels However, we believe this is not far away What could become possible if and when such standardization does happen? Recall that the larger data centers (such as maintained by cloud providers) are almost always located near cheap power sources, thereby significantly lowering their running costs Now, we speculate whether a natural evolution of such an ecosystem might not see data center owners, be they providers of dedicated hosting or cloud computing, begin leasing data center resources to each other and not only to end-users From an enterprise perspective this could, for example, enable a managed hosting provider to ensure that a customer’s applications are run on a mix of servers, some physically nearby, while others are leased from a larger-scale provider who reaps economies of scale, while also ensuring that any geographical constraints on data storage are maintained 260 ROADMAP FOR ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING Shared DCs? US DC Google cloud EU DC Amazon cloud India DC Company A private cloud Microsoft cloud Company C private cloud Company B private cloud FIGURE 18.2 Future of enterprise cloud computing? Further, with standardization of the virtualized data center and capacity exchange APIs, it should also become possible for different cloud providers to either co-locate or cross-lease their data centers, so that, for example a portal running on Google App Engine can communicate with a database running on an Amazon EC2 virtual server without having to traverse the public internet: In other words, while these services are managed by different providers, the servers they happen to use for a particular user reside in data centers that are ‘near’ each other from a network perspective, i.e on a high-speed LAN rather than a WAN Speculating even further, even some of the servers that an enterprise considers ‘in-house’ may also actually reside in the same or ‘nearby’ data centers, as part of a managed hosting service Finally, of course, users connect to applications using VPNs over the internet, or through dedicated leased lines for better performance Such a scenario is illustrated in Figure 18.2 18.2.3 Convergence of private and public clouds As we have mentioned earlier in Chapter 6, all but the largest enterprises are unlikely to enjoy economies of scale similar to public clouds, and those who may end up becoming public cloud providers themselves in the future 18.2 Future of enterprise cloud computing 261 Further, the virtualized data center with on-demand provisioning may end up being a commodity that one can buy off the shelf, much like a basic server today As we have discussed above, it may become the case that enterprises will use servers in managed data centers, be they based on dedicated hosting or clouds, with many of these servers naturally being co-located or at least ‘near’ each other from a network perspective Moreover, whether or not servers are dedicated to an enterprise, or are virtual servers on shared resources, they can all be connected on the same virtual private network so that from both a performance as well as network address space perspective, they are essentially indistinguishable What this means is that the distinction between public and private clouds becomes blurred, just as it is today for communications: Users are essentially oblivious as to exactly which physical cables their data traffic travels on, even on an internal corporate WAN, and whether or not at the lowest levels it is multiplexed with traffic from other users So, what technologies should an enterprise focus on when exploring how their data centers will be managed? Virtualization and on-demand provisioning, we believe, will become available off the shelf The areas to focus on when exploring private clouds are the higher layers of Figure 18.1, i.e cloud management, dynamic load balancing, application virtualization and software tools These are more complex features, where there is likely to be more competition and value addition, and where standardization is unlikely, at least in the near future At the same time, it is also precisely these areas where the cloud ecosystem will provide many alternative solutions to choose from Finally, the cloud ecosystem itself will become far more usable once such services deployed ‘in the cloud’ appear, for all practical purposes, to be ‘inside’ the enterprise, from either a network address or performance perspective 18.2.4 Generalized ‘cloud’ services As we conclude our exploration of cloud computing, it is natural to ask whether the efficiencies promised by the cloud computing model can, in any way, be generalized to other arenas of knowledge-based work Recall the key elements of cloud computing, as we outlined at the outset of our journey in Section 1.1: • Computing resources packaged as a commodity and made available over the internet • Rapid provisioning of resources by end-users 262 ROADMAP FOR ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING • A usage-based pricing model that charges consumers only for those cloud resources they actually use In Chapter 12 and 14 we introduced and described Dev 2.0 platforms In a sense, Dev 2.0 platforms offer similar ‘cloud-like’ features, but in the domain of software development: • Application functionality packaged as re-usable templates; a commodity of sorts • Rapid provisioning of new applications using multi-tenant platforms • Usage-based pricing, on the basis of the number of users, transaction volume or application complexity Can such ‘cloud-like’ features be achieved in other arenas? We consider here the case of services, such as those often outsourced to a software development provider, a call-center or an insurance claims processor; more generally, any other knowledge-based task that can be outsourced using information technology The traditional outsourcing model has been that of ‘time-and-materials’ (T&M) billing Using cloud vs in-house resources as an analogy, T&M is the equivalent of deploying an ‘in-house’ data center, where the onus of making efficient use of the resources deployed lies entirely with the customer rather than the provider Another outsourcing model is that of fixed-price projects, where detailed specifications are drawn up by the customer and executed in by the services provider according to a pre-determined price and schedule A fixed-price project is analogous to a data center managed by a dedicated infrastructure provider at a fixed price while adhering to stringent SLAs1 In the fixedprice model, all the risk lies with the supplier, be it a data-center provider or services contractor Naturally, providers of fixed-price projects account for their risks within their pricing models Further, the onus of providing detailed specifications or defining service levels falls on the customer Thus, even the fixed-price model has inefficiencies built into it Is there something better, i.e., a model for outsourcing services that exhibits some of the ‘cloud-like’ features described above? For example, how can we define services as a composition of commodity tasks? How can end-users easily request for and ‘provision’ services once having broken up their project into such tasks? And finally, how can the price of such tasks be objectively Service-level agreements 18.2 Future of enterprise cloud computing 263 estimated, as unambiguously as, say, the price per cpu-hour in the domain of cloud-based resources? Hopefully such questions can and will be answered Perhaps the modelbased abstractions used to architect Dev 2.0 platforms may also have a role to play in the process Only time will tell how far and how rapidly the transition to ‘cloud-like’ infrastructure, development tools and services will take place in the complex world of enterprise IT References [1] A Leff and J Rayfield WebRB: Evaluating a visual domain-specific language for building relational web-applications In Proceedings, OOPSLA, 2007 [2] Azza Abouzeid, Kamil BajdaPawlikowski, Daniel Abadi, Avi Silberschatz and Alexander Rasin Hadoopdb: An architectural hybrid of MapReduce and dbms technologies for analytical workloads In International Conference on Very Large Databases (VLDB), 2009 [3] Sanjay Agrawal, Surajit Chaudhuri and Gautam Das Dbxplorer: enabling keyword search over relational databases In Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 2002 [4] M Armbrust, A Fox, R Griffith, et al 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languages to be used in the definition of reference business processes International Journal of Software and Informatics, 1(1), 97–121, 2007 Index AJAX and layered MVC, 182 architecture, 86 description, 85 emergence of, 24 rich internet application, 86 Amazon EC2, 51–55 Auto Scale, 54 Cloud Watch, 54 DevPay, 54 Elastic Block Storage, 53 Simple Queue Service, 53 SimpleDB, 53, 60 Virtual Private Cloud, 55 Amazon’s Dynamo, 126–128 eventual consistency model, 128 and SimpleDB, 128 application server and EJBs, 21 Apache Tomcat, 20 J2EE, 21 JBoss, open source, 22 Microsoft NET framework, 21 architecture 3-tier, 10 and aspect oriented programming, 202 application server, 20 client-server, 7–10 error handling, 201 function access control, 200 Kerberos authentication, 199 layered web applications, 179 layering and AJAX, 182 layering and MVC, 182 mainframe, 5–6 MVC: model/view/controller, 182 of business logic, 190 soft locking, 202 transaction isolation, 202 web-enabled, 18 BigTable, 123–125 and HBase, 123 BPMN, 212–216 and exceptions, 213 and transactions, 215 business intelligence data mart, 221 data warehousing tasks, 220 MDX query language, 222 269 270 business intelligence (cont.) multidimensional databases, 222 OLAP, 219 star schema, 222 cloud economics economies of scale, 73 elasticity quantified, 69 public vs private clouds, 69 cloud management tools 3tera, 246 Appistry, 246 Enstratus, 246 Kaavo, 246 Rightscale, 246 ServiceMesh, 246 Ylastic, 246 cloud providers Amazon, 245 GoGrid, 245 Google, 245 Microsoft, 245 vs dedicated or web hosting, 245 cloud-like properties, 4, 261 for services?, 262 in software development, 262 components application, 41 business, 41 enterprise, 41 entity and process, 41 software, 41 CRM, 176 components of, 163 data mining, 226 anomaly detection, 234 using the SVD, 234 classification, 227 INDEX using the SVD, 229 clustering, 233 using the SVD, 233 databases B+ -tree index, 119 file structures, 118 Ingres, 117 parallel database models, 120 row vs column stores, 119 System R, 117 dedicated hosting Rackspace, 245 Savvis, 245 Voxel, 245 Dev 2.0 and SaaS, 37 available platforms, 154 definition, 145 implementation of, 194 model driven interpreters, 150, 194–195 overview, 31 versus code generation, 155, 195 enterprise architecture application integration, 23, 43 defined, 39 security, 45 SOA, 44 technical standards, 44 enterprise cloud computing and electricity grid, 258 concerns, 253 convergence of private and public clouds, 261 data center commoditization, 259 inter-operation of clouds, 259 quick wins, 253 analytics, 255 INDEX development and test, 254 disaster recovery, 255 enterprise data model, 162 accounting model, 175 billing model, 172, 173 order model, 168, 169 partner model, 164, 165 product model, 167, 168 work/projects model, 171 enterprise search inverted index, 236 latent semantic indexing (LSI), 237 matrix formulation, 236 structured data, 239 search vs SQL, 239 using MapReduce, 237 vs web search, 235 ERP, 163 components of, 163 Force.com business logic using APEX, 148 form design, 147 Google App Engine, 56 Google Datastore, 58–59 use of Google File System, 57 Google Datastore, 128–130 Google File System, 121–123 and Hadoop HDFS, 121 Hadoop, 121, 123 infrastructure as a service Amazon EC2, 51 defined, 35 InstantApps business ‘logic maps’, 153, 192 271 cloud deployment model, 151 WYSIWYG form design, 151 knowledge discovery tasks, 218 latent semantic indexing, 238 MapReduce, 134–143 and batch processing, 142 and HadoopDB, 141 and HiveQL, 141 and OLAP, 223 and Pig Latin, 141 definition, 136 joins using, 139 parallel efficiency, 137 performance vs databases, 141 mashups architecture, 87 defined, 87 enterprise adoption, 88 Google Search mashup, 87 meta-models for business logic, 192 for user interfaces, 186–187 rule-based abstractions, 191 Microsoft Azure, 61 application roles, 62 SQL Azure, 62 SQL Data Services, 62 model driven architecture and Dev 2.0, 150, 195 MRP, 161, 163 multi-core, 98, 100 multi-tenancy and cloud databases, 110 and data access control, 111–113 and Dev 2.0, 108, 197 and multi-entity, 105 and virtualization, 104 272 multi-tenancy (cont.) using a single schema, 106 using multiple schemas, 108 multi-threading in application servers, 20 on multi-core, 100 open source Apache community, 18 Apache HTTPD web server, 18 parallel computing, 131–134 parallel databases, 120 parallel efficiency, 132 of MapReduce, 137 of OLAP, 225 platform as a service cost advantages, 70 defined, 35 Google App Engine, 56 Microsoft Azure, 61 REST services and JSON, 81 Google REST API, 82 structure, 81, 82 Yahoo REST API, 82 SCM, 169, 176 components of, 163 singular value decomposition and latent semantic indexing, 238 singular value decomposition (SVD), 229 using MapReduce, 231 SOAP/WSDL services and RPC/CORBA, 80 INDEX structure, 78–80 WS* specifications, 80 software as a service, 27–31 vs ASP, 27 software productivity using cloud infrastructure, 71 using Dev 2.0, 72 using PaaS, 72 tools for private clouds AppScale, 251 Eucalyptus, 249 UML, 164 aggregation, 165 association class, 167 generalization, 165 virtual machine in mainframes, virtualization efficient, definition of, 92 and multi-tenancy, 104 in mainframes, application level, 102, 104, 197 application streaming, 97 formula for virtual capacity, 68 hardware support for, 92 host vs native VMMs, 90 hypervisors, VMM, 90 in Amazon, 33 live migration of VMs, 95 pitfalls and dangers of, 103 server consolidation, 98 and power consumption, 100 queuing analysis, 99 system vs process VMs, 90 INDEX VMWare, 91 Xen, 91 web services emergence of, 23 REST, 80 SOAP/WSDL, 78 273 workflow and BPMN, 212 ECA rules, 206 functions of, 210 implementation of, 207 meta-model for, 205 ... Get Extensible Hypertext Markup Language Extensible Markup Language PART I Computing platforms Barely 50 years after the birth of enterprise computing, cloud computing promises to transform computing. .. Enterprise cloud computing ecosystem 243 17.1 Public cloud providers 17.2 Cloud management platforms and tools 17.3 Tools for building private clouds Chapter 18 Roadmap for enterprise cloud computing. .. maybe a technical book on cloud computing was more the need of the hour And thus this book was born In my attempt to present cloud computing in the context of enterprise computing, I have ended
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