Conversion of english words denoting human body parts and the vietnamese equivalents hiện tượng chuyển đổi từ loại các từ chỉ bộ phận cơ thể tiếng anh và các hình thức diễn đạt tương đươ

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PART 1: INTRODUCTION1. Rationale of the study Nowadays, learning English plays an essential role in education and training in many countries in the world. Therefore, a good knowledge of English language becomes a must for learners, especially those of English. Among the four aspects of language, namely phonology, syntax, and lexicology, the last one provides us with information about the form, the formation and the meaning of the word. It is no doubt that the success of a learner of English is not separated from hisher good knowledge of English lexicology in general and English word formation in particular.Today English vocabulary exceeds the number of one million words. The fastgrowing stock of English words is the result of its variety of ways of forming words. Of all the ways of forming new words in English, conversion, a case of coining new words by turning words into different parts of speech, seems to be one of the most productive phenomena. And that English nouns denoting human body parts are converted into other parts of speech, particularly verbs is also a common trend in English language. As a consequence, if the learner of English has a good command of conversion, especially that of words denoting human body parts, heshe can not only understand new words formed in this way, but also produce new words via conversion by himherself. In addition, from my teaching experience, I realize that my students often make mistakes when working with words made from conversion of those denoting human body parts as well as when translating these words into English.For all the above reasons, I have decided to choose the topic: Conversion of English words denoting human body parts and the Vietnamese equivalents for my Master’s Thesis. This thesis is conducted with the hope that the research findings will provide both theoretically and practically useful knowledge for Vietnamese learners and translators of English.2. Aims of the studyThe aims of the study are: to provide an insight into English conversion as a way of forming new words in general and conversion of words denoting human body parts in particular, together with their Vietnamese equivalents. to explore how meanings are changed via conversion of words denoting human body parts. to find out the similarities and differences between English conversion of words denoting human body parts and their Vietnamese equivalents. to survey the students’ problems and mistakes in learning and translating English words of human body parts and suggest some solutions.3. Research questionsTo fully achieve these aims, the study should answer the following questions:(i) What is conversion and what is the position of conversion in word formation and semasiology?(ii) How are English nouns denoting human body parts converted into other parts of speech? And what are their Vietnamese equivalents?(iii) What are some main ways of semantic change in conversion of English words denoting human body parts?(iv) What are the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese in terms of conversion of words denoting human body parts?(v) What are the students’ problems and mistakes in learning and translating English words of human body parts and how can they overcome them?4. Scope of the studyThe study is intended to cover conversion of only English nouns denoting human body parts, especially those with high frequency of use. It is the fact that conversion may occur among different parts of speech, but in this study conversion mainly takes place from nouns to verbs. Finally, examples for illustration are mostly given in full sentences and quoted from literary works and dictionaries. 5. Methods of the study In the implementation of the study, a number of methods will be adopted. Firstly, the study will make use of descriptive method to describe different features of English conversion in general and conversion of words denoting human body parts in particular. Secondly, in order to find out the similarities and differences between conversion of English words denoting human body parts and the Vietnamese equivalents, the study will adopt contrastive analysis. Finally, techniques of statistics will also be employed to show major ways of semantic change in conversion of English words denoting human body parts and to explore common mistakes made by Vietnamese learners of English in translating words of human body parts. 6. Design of the studyThe study has three main parts: Part I is the introduction to the study, including rationale of the study, aims of the study, research questions, scope of the study, methods of the study and design of the study.Part II, the development of the study, consists of three main chapters. Chapter 1 provides the theoretical background of the study, namely word formation, semasiology (semantic structure of the word and semantic change), conversion and the human body.Chapter 2 discusses how English nouns of human body parts are converted into other parts of speech together with their new meanings.Chapter 3 reveals the findings of the study. In this chapter, we will find out the major ways of semantic change in conversion of English words denoting human body parts and explore the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese regarding conversion of words denoting human body parts. The implication of the study is also included in this chapter. Part III, the conclusion of the study, gives a brief summary and conclusion of the study as well as some suggestions for further study PART 1: INTRODUCTION Rationale of the study Nowadays, learning English plays an essential role in education and training in many countries in the world Therefore, a good knowledge of English language becomes a must for learners, especially those of English Among the four aspects of language, namely phonology, syntax, and lexicology, the last one provides us with information about the form, the formation and the meaning of the word It is no doubt that the success of a learner of English is not separated from his/her good knowledge of English lexicology in general and English word formation in particular Today English vocabulary exceeds the number of one million words The fast-growing stock of English words is the result of its variety of ways of forming words Of all the ways of forming new words in English, conversion, a case of coining new words by turning words into different parts of speech, seems to be one of the most productive phenomena And that English nouns denoting human body parts are converted into other parts of speech, particularly verbs is also a common trend in English language As a consequence, if the learner of English has a good command of conversion, especially that of words denoting human body parts, he/she can not only understand new words formed in this way, but also produce new words via conversion by him/herself In addition, from my teaching experience, I realize that my students often make mistakes when working with words made from conversion of those denoting human body parts as well as when translating these words into English For all the above reasons, I have decided to choose the topic: Conversion of English words denoting human body parts and the Vietnamese equivalents for my Master’s Thesis This thesis is conducted with the hope that the research findings will provide both theoretically and practically useful knowledge for Vietnamese learners and translators of English Aims of the study The aims of the study are: - to provide an insight into English conversion as a way of forming new words in general and conversion of words denoting human body parts in particular, together with their Vietnamese equivalents - to explore how meanings are changed via conversion of words denoting human body parts - to find out the similarities and differences between English conversion of words denoting human body parts and their Vietnamese equivalents - to survey the students’ problems and mistakes in learning and translating English words of human body parts and suggest some solutions Research questions To fully achieve these aims, the study should answer the following questions: (i) What is conversion and what is the position of conversion in word formation and semasiology? (ii) How are English nouns denoting human body parts converted into other parts of speech? And what are their Vietnamese equivalents? (iii) What are some main ways of semantic change in conversion of English words denoting human body parts? (iv) What are the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese in terms of conversion of words denoting human body parts? (v) What are the students’ problems and mistakes in learning and translating English words of human body parts and how can they overcome them? Scope of the study The study is intended to cover conversion of only English nouns denoting human body parts, especially those with high frequency of use It is the fact that conversion may occur among different parts of speech, but in this study conversion mainly takes place from nouns to verbs Finally, examples for illustration are mostly given in full sentences and quoted from literary works and dictionaries Methods of the study In the implementation of the study, a number of methods will be adopted Firstly, the study will make use of descriptive method to describe different features of English conversion in general and conversion of words denoting human body parts in particular Secondly, in order to find out the similarities and differences between conversion of English words denoting human body parts and the Vietnamese equivalents, the study will adopt contrastive analysis Finally, techniques of statistics will also be employed to show major ways of semantic change in conversion of English words denoting human body parts and to explore common mistakes made by Vietnamese learners of English in translating words of human body parts Design of the study The study has three main parts: Part I is the introduction to the study, including rationale of the study, aims of the study, research questions, scope of the study, methods of the study and design of the study Part II, the development of the study, consists of three main chapters Chapter provides the theoretical background of the study, namely word formation, semasiology (semantic structure of the word and semantic change), conversion and the human body Chapter discusses how English nouns of human body parts are converted into other parts of speech together with their new meanings Chapter reveals the findings of the study In this chapter, we will find out the major ways of semantic change in conversion of English words denoting human body parts and explore the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese regarding conversion of words denoting human body parts The implication of the study is also included in this chapter Part III, the conclusion of the study, gives a brief summary and conclusion of the study as well as some suggestions for further study PART 2: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW In order to create the theoretical foundation for the study on Conversion of English words of body parts in the main part, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the relevant literature review This chapter, therefore, is intended to give an overview of Conversion in English The concept of conversion as a word formation process will be regarded and revealed with the provision of definitions and types 1.1 Word formation In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word’s meaning The boundary between word formation and semantic change can be difficult to define: a new use of an old word can be seen as a new word derived from an old one and identical to it in form Word formation can also be contrasted with the formation of idiomatic expression, although words can be formed from multi-words phrases In English, we have different ways of forming new words, such as affixation, word composition (word compounding), shortening, conversion, sound imitation, sound and stress interchange and back derivation 1.1.1 Affixation Affixation is the formation of new words with the help of affixes As affixes consist of prefixes and suffixes, affixation is further divided into prefixation and suffixation Prefixation is the formation of new words by adding prefixes to the roots Prefixes mainly modify the lexical meaning of the root and rarely form new parts of speech For example: un + happy (adj) → unhappy (adj) re + (v) → redo (v) Prefixes are classified in many ways, either according to their origin (native or borrowed: Romance/Latin) or meaning or function (verb-forming, adjective-forming…) Based on meaning, English prefixes are divided into three groups: (i) negation, (ii) reversal or repetition, and (iii) space and time relationship, for example: (i) Negation : un-, dis-, non-, mis-, in-, il-, im-, irun-: unhappy, uneven, dis-: dishonest, disaffection, non-: non-stop, non-party, mis-: misunderstand, mis-use, in-: in-active, in-accurate, il-: il-legal, il-logical, im-: im-possible, im-proper, ir-: ir-regular, ir-responsible (ii) Reversal or repetition: un-, dis-, re-, de-, anti-, counterun-: unbind, unmask, unpack dis-: disgorge, dishouse, disengage re-: rearrange, remarried, reassemble, rebirth de-: demobilize, decentralize, decontaminate anti-: anti-war, anti-aircraft, anti-thesis counter-: counter-attack, counter-weight, counter-revolution (iii) Space and time relationship: pre-, post-, fore-, over-, super-, pre-: pre-tax, pre-set, pre-record, pre-christian, post-: post-graduate, post-impressionism, post-industrial, postscript, fore-: forearm, forehead, forecast, foreword, foreknow, over-: overcook, overheat, overnight, super-: super-computer, super-glue, super-human, super-man, superstar With respect to suffixation, it is the formation of words by adding suffixes to the roots The most distinctive feature of suffixes is that they usually change the meaning of the roots both lexically and grammatically In other words, they modify the lexical meaning of the roots and transfer words to different parts of speech, for example: to eat (verb) → eat + able = eatable (adjective); eat + er = eater (noun) green (adjective) → green+ ish =greenish (adj); green+ ness = greenness (noun) nation (noun) → nation + al = national (adj); national + ize = nationalize There are, however, some cases in which suffixes not change the part of speech For example: child (noun) + hood = child-hood (noun) tiger (noun) + ess = tiger-ess (noun) movie (noun) + dom = movie-dom (noun) Suffixes can be classified in different ways according to different principles The most practical principle for us is the part of speech formed Within this scope, suffixes fall into the following groups: (i) Noun- forming suffixes: - age: block-age -ess: tigeress, actress -or, -er: visitor, teacher -ice: service, justice (ii) adjective- forming suffixes -able: fashionable, eatable, drinkable -al: national, classical, economical -ese: Vietnamese, Saigonese -ive: active effective, productive -ly: lovely, lively (iii) Numeral- forming suffixes: -teen: fourteen -th: fourth -ty: sixty (iv) verb-forming suffixes -ate: facilitate -fy: beautify -en: quicken, lessen -ize: industrialize (v) Adverb-forming suffixes -ly: coldly, quickly -ward: upward -wise: likewise, clockwise -long: sidelong -way(s): crossways 1.1.2 Word-composition/Compounding Compounding (or word-composition) is the building of a new word by joining two or more words As a result, a compound word is a word consisting of at least two stems (roots) which occur in the language as free forms e.g classroom, time-table, bedroom, schoolgirl, passer-by, aircraft-carrier, kind-hearted, handwash, sunbeam, etc - The components of a compound may be either simple or derived words or even other compound words - In a sentence, compounds may function as separate lexical units - English compounds have two stems: determinant (the first stem) and determinatum (the second stem, expressing a general meaning and undergoing inflection) e.g blackboard(s): determinant black and determinatum board 1.1.3 Shortening Shortening is a productive way of building words in English, especially in colloquial speech and advertisement e.g ad (advertisement), TV, I.O.U Shortening includes abbreviation and blending The former includes Acronyms and Clipping Acronyms are words built from the initials of several words, for example: USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) UN (United Nations) UNO (United Nations Organization) NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization0 EPA (Environment Protection Agency) S.O.S (Save Our Souls) MP (Member of Parliament) VOA (Voice of America) BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) There are two special cases of acronyms, namely monograms and homonymy-based acronyms Monograms are the cases in which two or more letters combined in one design, often found in handkerchiefs, note-paper Wedding invitation cards Homonymy-based acronyms are those acronyms based on the use of identical sounds of words and letters, e.g IOU (I owe you) Clipping refers to the case in which some part of the word or expression is clipped to form a new word Clipping is further classified into Initial, Final, Initio-final, Medial, and Elliptico-conversional clipping Initial clipping is the case in which the first part of the word is clipped, for example: Phone (telephone), cute (acute), fend (defend), mend (amend), story (history), sport (disport), tend (attend), cello (violoncello), chute (parachute), car (motorcar), plane (aeroplane) Final clipping is the case in which the last part of a word is clipped, for example: ad, advert (advertisement), coke (coca cola), ed (editor), fab (fabulous), gym (gymnastics), lab (laboratory), mac (mackintosh), ref (referee), vegs (veggies, vegetables), sis (sister), doc (doctor), prof (professor), uni (university) Initio-final clipping is the case in which both the first and the last parts are clipped, for example: frig/fridge (refrigerator), flu (influenza), tec (detective) Medial clipping refers to the case in which the medial part is clipped, for example: maths (mathematics), specs (spectacles), V-day (victory day), Hbomb (hydrogen bomb), fancy (fantasy), ma’am (madam) Finally, elliptico-conversional (or phrasal clipping) is a combination of ellipsis, conversion and clipping, for example: open on (open fire on), daily, weekly (daily, weekly paper), finals (final examinations), prelims (preliminary 10 head (n) to head đánh đầu, dẫn đầu, đứng đầu, lãnh đạo nose (n) to nose đánh hơi, rẽ chầm chậm eye (n) to eye nhìn, quan sát face (n) to face đối mặt, đối diện brain (n) to brain đánh vỡ đầu, đánh vỡ óc shoulder (n) to shoulder khoác, lấy vai đẩy, lách vào stomach (n) to stomach ăn, tiêu hóa, nuốt, cam chịu arm (n) to arm…… trang bị, vũ trang leg (n) to leg chạy, 3.3 Implications of the study for EFL teaching and learning The topic of word formation covers a significant area in the field of foreign language learning and teaching If learners understand how the word formation process works, they possess one of the most powerful understandings necessary for vocabulary growth However, the importance of the process of how a word is shaped in English is still underestimated by planners, book writers, and teachers The word-formation is usually taken for granted and words are still assigned to categories e.g verb, noun, adverb, adjective etc In EFL, most language teaching materials are taken from grammatical syllabuses, which accept the view that language is a grammatical system and that learning a language consists of learning that system The development of new approaches to language teaching, such as communicative approach, which originates from the purpose of language as communication yielded situational and notional syllabuses In these approaches word formation processes are not considered 52 in the name of communicative language, and EFL materials vary depending on how the textbook designers and developers conceptualize them which is often the focus on the situations and notions to be utilized in communicative language According to these new approaches, EFL mostly consists of teaching patterns of social use and how to use them to express meaning Therefore, neither grammatical syllabuses nor the more recent ones give attention or importance to word formation Students are left to their abilities to use dictionaries and guessing skills to understand such processes The EFL teacher should attribute much importance to the word formation processes The rationale behind teaching word formation processes is that learners are likely to attach meanings to words which they have never encountered before if they can recognize within them the presence of familiar morphemes A finite number of word formation processes in English can be introduced and taught directly in EFL purposes Each process has its own characteristics and usage Therefore, they should not be confused These processes are an essential aspect of the English language that no teaching approach could be neglecting them In the case of N-V conversion, students need to know the fact about this word formation processes and how to put words to fit different grammatical contexts as words can change their grammatical and semantic value without changing their shapes This study, to some extent, can contribute as referenced document to the aspect of N-V conversion in terms of grammatical and semantic features in implicating for EFL teaching and learning 3.3.1 Major problems facing Vietnamese learners of English in learning English words of human body parts 53 Many people want to learn conversion in English, but they have met with a lot of difficulties in understanding and using English conversion phenomena In general, learners often not feel comfortable using conversion of English They find it difficult to believe that the unusual combinations of words can be used with the special meaning of the conversion Anyone who wants to use English, however, must be ready to understand English conversion If they are used by other speakers very often, native speakers of English not even know that they are “difficult” so they not know that a foreign listener may have trouble with them For this reason, it is extremely important for students to learn and to hear and understand the conversion of English in natural context 3.3.2 Some common mistakes made by Vietnamese students of English in translating words of human body parts Translating conversion phenomena is a very head-aching process because it involves many problem-solving and decision-making tasks which seem to drive the translator’s mind simultaneously during the translating process Furthermore, what seems to be more problematic for the translator is that when translating an English case of conversion of words denoting human body parts, he will have to create in the target language (Vietnamese) an equivalent context which is foreign to the target language itself since in Vietnamese words denoting body parts are not often converted into other parts of speech From my teaching experience, the following mistakes are commonly made by Vietnamese students of English in translating words of human body parts (i) Mistakes caused by negative transfer: Under the influence of the source language (English) the learners tend to use the same word in the 54 original part of speech in the target language without being aware that the word has been converted into another part of speech with a different meaning The same type of mistake can be made when the students translate from Vietnamese into English Under the influence of Vietnamese, they fail to notice that the Vietnamese expression can be rendered into English by means of conversion They may, for example, translate đánh đầu into English as hit the head instead of to head (ii) Mistakes caused by the polysemantic nature of the converted word: English converted words of body parts can have more than one meaning (for example, to head or to face may have several meanings) Without recognizing this fact the students are very much likely to commit mistakes when translating these words into Vietnamese (iii) Mistakes caused by wrong identification of the way of semantic change on which the conversion phenomenon is based: a converted word may be the result of several ways of semantic change, hence the different meanings As discussed in the previous chapter, the converted head, for example, may reflect at least four ways of semantic change: (i) the direction of the movement of the part, (ii) the function of the part, (iii) the position of the part, and (iv) the part as an instrument A wrong identification of the way of semantic change in the verb head will surely bring about a mistake in translation from English into Vietnamese In order to overcome these difficulties, Vietnamese learners of English should study the features of conversion carefully and categorize them according to their different aspects that have been mentioned Learning by heart is also a good way to help learners to remember them 55 3.3.3 Some suggested solutions to the problems of translating words of human body parts Of all difficulties, the most popular one is that of meaning in understanding and using conversion of English words denoting human body To the learners, conversion such as “fill the bill” does not mean what they appear to mean The sense of the whole cannot be arrived at from a prior understanding of the parts In those examples, a special meaning is attached to the whole expression In others, one word may have a common, literal meaning, while the other has a specialized sense which may be difficult to grasp Furthermore, it is also not easy for Vietnamese learners to identify conversion If the learner can not identify them, they will misunderstand the meaning and translate incorrectly But one learner doesn’t know, so he translates into Vietnamese incorrectly Therefore, learners have to learn conversion of English carefully and distinguish them from other kinds of set (free phrase… etc) to identify them better In terms of structure, there are many terms of English expression which the learner can only learn to use if he is bought into direct contact with them A learner may know a larger number of verbs and nouns but may not know exactly how they can put together to form typical English expressions Certain verbs are followed automatically by certain nouns The verb may have different meanings While most of these not cause difficulties and not require explanations, others must be noted and distinguished carefully, as they are similar in form but different in meaning In addition, the way in which the words are put together is also often odd, illogical or even grammatically incorrect English native speakers are usually unaware of this Thus, learners should guess the meaning of the word basing on the context Some conversions are too difficult to guess the meaning correctly because they have no association with the ordinary 56 meaning of the individual words They can only be guessed if we hear them in the context, eg: when we know they are used in a particular situation It is obvious that Vietnamese learners will have many difficulties if they have not heard them before seeing them in the context Therefore, the learners can analyze the meaning of all components and the relationship among them or study the meaning in the context The learner’s poor knowledge of Vietnamese leads to difficulty in finding Vietnamese equivalents This may be caused by the fact that they are not sufficiently provided with the fundamental Due to the limitation of their mother tongue, they are incompetent in comprehending and conveying the meaning Therefore, it is not easy for Vietnamese learners to find Vietnamese equivalents suitable to the nuance of meaning of conversion of English words In that case learners should be well-equipped with the Vietnamese translation equivalents of their English counterparts 3.3.4 Some suggested types of exercises The below exercises are designed to help raise Vietnamese learners’ awareness of English human body parts in general, and N-to-V conversion of English words denoting human body parts in particular Exercise 1: Match the beginning of the sentence on the left with the ending on the right The average heart Blood The skin The heart a helps to regulate body temperature b beat more than 100,000 times a day c pumps blood around the body through the arteries d circulate around the body supplying oxygen to the cells Exercise 2: Fill in each blank with one suitable verb coined from conversion of words denoting human body parts 57 Could you …….me that book on the table next to you? In the final minute, Robson ……….the ball in to the back of the net After his father’s death, Tom had to …… the responsibility for his family’s debt She … the car carefully out of the garage and drove off The bank robber was……… with a knife and a gun Exercise 3: Match the verbs on the left with a suitable part of the body on the right to form common expressions Use each verb and noun once only shake a your arms nod b your head bend c your knees fold d your nose blow e hands Exercise 4: There are fourteen words describing parts of the body, either across or down, in this word square Can you find them? C H I N I K C E T O E H C H L B O I A E P C Y C K E A N K H E S E E K W A N R A M I H L E T E A L 58 PART III: CONCLUSION A brief summary of the thesis and main conclusion English and Vietnamese are different types of languages Each has its own ways of word formations However, conversion is a common phenomenon of both languages This study, in its scope, has attempted to make a contrastive analysis of this phenomenon to find out the similarities and differences between them Based on the relevant literature review of N-V conversion, N-V conversion guiding principles in particular, conversion as a word formation process, word meaning, and verb class, N-V conversion in English and Vietnamese were analyzed in terms of grammatical and semantic features The thesis has solved all the aims mentioned in the introduction Some findings were drawn out and are as follows: (i) Conversion is a universal phenomenon, popular in both English and Vietnamese It is a good example of the economical feature of language: making new words using the existing words Through conversion, new words are coined from the old words in a different part of speech Most cases of conversion are the result of semantic change of the word (ii) Words denoting human body parts are a good source of conversion in English language The majority of English conversions of words denoting body parts are from nouns to verbs The Vietnamese equivalents of the English phenomenon take many forms, such as combinations of Verbs plus names of body parts or verbs related to the function or symbolic expression of the parts (iii) There are several main ways of semantic change on which conversion of English words denoting human body parts are based Among 59 them are the direction of the movement of the part, the function of the part, the position of the part, and the part as an instrument (iv) Whereas conversion of words denoting human body parts is popular in English, it is hard to find a similar case in Vietnamese Rather, the Vietnamese equivalents make use of verbs showing the function of the concerned body part (v) Conversion of English words denoting human body parts usually causes many difficulties for Vietnamese learners of English due to the lack of such phenomenon in Vietnamese For this reason, the learners should be wellinformed of the phenomenon and well-equipped with the Vietnamese equivalents Limitations of the study Although the study has offered some insightful findings, it still has limitations The study lacks discussion of semantic limitation of N-V conversion, of factors inhibiting the production of N-V conversion, and of construction of meaning during N-V conversion The connection between derivation and N-V conversion, the relation between N-V conversion and metaphor, metonymy are not fully taken into consideration The different classification of the denominal verbs should be elaborated Suggestions for further study The further research into this kind of conversion in both English and Vietnamese may include the following areas: + Factors inhibiting the production of N- V conversion + Construction of meaning during N-V conversion 60 + Relation between N-V conversion and metaphor For the difficulties that students majoring in Translation have when facing conversion in general and conversion of English words denoting human body parts in particular, a research about solutions for them can be considered in the future 61 REFERENCES [1] Aichison, J (1989), Words in the Mind - An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon, Oxford: Basil Blackwell [2] Allen, Margaret Reece (1978), ''Morphological Investigations'', Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut [3] Baker, Mona (1992), In Other Words: A Course book on Translation, London: Routledge [4] Bauer, Laurie (1983), English Word-Formation, Cambridge: CUP [5] Biese, Yrjoe M (1941), “Origin and development of conversions in English”, Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae B XLV-2 [6] Canon, G (1985), “Functional Shift in English”, Linguistics 23-3 (411431) [7] Canon, G (1987) Historical Change and English Word-Formation, American University Series; series IV:6 New York and Frankfurtam Main: Peter Lang [8] Chaturvedi, M.G (1973), A Contrastive Study of Hindi – English Phonology, Delhi: National Publishing House [9] Clark, Eve V & Clark, Herbert H (1979) ‘When Nouns Surface as Verbs.’ Language 55 (767-811) [10] Cuong D.T (2001), Lectures on Lexicology, Hanoi Open University [11] Don, J (1993), Roots, Deverbal Nouns and Denominal Verbs, University of Amsterdam [12] Fisiak J (1981), Contrastive Linguistics and The Language Teacher, Oxford: Pergamon Press [13] Jovanović, Vladimir Ž (2003), “On Productivity, Creativity and Restrictions on Word Conversion in English”, Facta Universitatis Series in Linguistics and Literature 2.10 [14] Katamba, Francis (1993), Morphology, New York: St Martin’s Press [15] Kiparsky, Paul (1982) “From Cyclic Phonology to Lexical Phonology.” In van der Hulst, Harry & Smith, Norval (eds.), The Structue of 62 Phonological Representations (vol.1(131-175) Dordrecht: Foris Publications [16] Kiparsky, Paul (1997), “Remarks on denominal verbs”, in Alsina, A, Bresnan, J and Sells, P (eds.), Argument Structure, Stanford: CLSI [17] Lieber, Rochelle (2005), “English Word-Formation Processes: Observations, Issues, and Thoughts on Future Research”, in Štekauer, Pavol and Lieber, Rochelle (eds.), Handbook of English Word-formation, Dordrecht: Springer, 375-427 [18] Lyons, J (1977), Semantics, Cambridge: CUP [19] Lyons, J (1995), Linguistics Semantics: An Introduction, Cambridge: CUP [20] Marchand, Hanns (1969), The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation, A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach, 2nd edition, Munich, Germany:Beck [21] Marchand, Hanns (1972) Studies in Syntax and Word-Formation, München: Wilhem Fink [22] Pennanen, Esko V (1971), “Conversion and Zero-Derivation in English”, Acta Universitatis Tamperensis, series A, vol.40, Tampere: Tampereen Yliopisto [23] Plag, Ingo (2003), Word-Formation in English, Cambridge: CUP [24] Quang, V D (2006), Lectures on English Grammar, Hanoi: Vietnam National University Publishing House [25] Quang, V D (2006), Semantics, Hanoi: Vietnam National University Publishing House [26] Quirk, R et al (1997), A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Essex: Longman [27] Quirk, R et al (1972), A Grammar of Contemporary English, London: Longman [28] Quirk, R and Greenbaum, S (1973), A University Grammar of English, London: Longman 63 [29] Richard, J.C et al (1992), Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, London: Longman [30] Valera, Salvador (2005) ‘Conversion vs unmarked word-class change’ SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, vol 1, no 1, 20-42 (Available at www.skase.sk) [31] Whorf, B.L (1941), “The Relation of Habitual Thought and Behaviour to Language”, in Leslie Spier (ed.), Language, Culture and Personality: Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir, Menasha, WI: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund [32] Zandvoort, Reinard W (1972), A Handbook of English Grammar, 6th edition, London: Longman In Vietnamese and Bilinguals [33] Bùi Đức Tịnh (1996), Văn phạm Việt Nam, Hà Nội: Nxb Văn hoá [34] Diệp Quang Ban & Hoàng Văn Thung (2002), Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt, Tập 1& Hà Nội: Nxb Giáo Dục [35] Diệp Quang Ban (1998), Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt phổ thông, Tập 2, Hà Nội: Nxb Giáo Dục [36] Hà Quang Năng, “Đặc trưng ngữ nghĩa tượng chuyển loại đơn vị từ vựng tiếng Việt”, Tiếng Việt ngôn ngữ Đông Nam Á, Hà Nội: Nxb Khoa học xã hội [37] Hồ Lê (1976), Vấn đề cấu tạo từ tiếng Việt đại, Hà Nội: Nxb Khoa học xã hội [38] Lê Biên (1999), Từ loại tiếng Việt đại, Hà Nội: Nxb Giáo Dục [39] Lê Hiếu Ánh (1996), Hướng dẫn dịch đọc báo chí tiếng Anh, Nxb Đồng Nai [40] Nguyễn Công Hoan, Truyện ngắn chọn lọc, Nxb Văn học [41] Nguyễn Đình Hòa (1996), "Vietnamese verbs", in The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, volum 25(141-159) [42] Nguyễn Hồng Cổn (2003), “Tóm tắt việc xác định từ loại tiếng Việt”, Ngôn ngữ, Số 02 ( Available at http://ngonngu.net/) 64 [43] Nguyễn Kim Thản (1977), Động từ tiếng Việt, Hà Nội: Nxb Khoa học xã hội [44] Trương Thị Diễm, Các cấp bậc khác tượng chuyển loại tiếng Việt, trường ĐH sư phạm, ĐH Đà Nẵng, (Available at www.kh-sdh.udn.vn) [45] Uỷ ban Khoa học xã hội Việt Nam, Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt (1983), Hà Nội: Nxb Khoa học xã hội Sources of examples [46] Ca dao trữ tình Việt Nam (1994), Hà Nội: Nxb Giáo Dục [47] Phạm Văn Bình (2001), Vietnamese proverb, Hà Nội:Nxb Văn hóa Thông tin [48] Phạm Xuân Thảo (1996), Luyện đọc phiên dịch báo chí Anh My, Đồng Nai: Nxb Đồng Nai [49] Sarah Bales, Đỗ Thị Nữ & Hà Kim Anh, English in Economics and Business, Hà Nội: Nxb Giáo Dục [50] Trung tâm Khoa học xã hội và Nhân văn Quốc gia-Viện Ngôn ngữ học, Từ điển Anh-Việt (1993) Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh: Nxb Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh [51] Trung tâm Khoa học xã hội và Nhân văn Quốc gia-Viện Ngôn ngữ học, Từ điển Việt-Anh (1993) Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh: Nxb Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh [52] Procter, Paul (ed.) (1995), Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: CUP [53] Sinclair, John (ed.) (1990), Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, London and Glasgow: Collins [54] Cowie, Anthony P (ed.) (1990), Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford: OUP [55] http://en.wikipedia.org/ [56] http://grammaabout.com/ [57] Lacviet Mtd 2009-EVA 65 66 ... changed via conversion of words denoting human body parts - to find out the similarities and differences between English conversion of words denoting human body parts and their Vietnamese equivalents. .. in conversion of English words denoting human body parts and to explore common mistakes made by Vietnamese learners of English in translating words of human body parts Design of the study The. .. translating English words of human body parts and how can they overcome them? Scope of the study The study is intended to cover conversion of only English nouns denoting human body parts, especially
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Xem thêm: Conversion of english words denoting human body parts and the vietnamese equivalents hiện tượng chuyển đổi từ loại các từ chỉ bộ phận cơ thể tiếng anh và các hình thức diễn đạt tương đươ, Conversion of english words denoting human body parts and the vietnamese equivalents hiện tượng chuyển đổi từ loại các từ chỉ bộ phận cơ thể tiếng anh và các hình thức diễn đạt tương đươ, Conversion of english words denoting human body parts and the vietnamese equivalents hiện tượng chuyển đổi từ loại các từ chỉ bộ phận cơ thể tiếng anh và các hình thức diễn đạt tương đươ

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