Kiểm tra ngữ pháp chapter 1 tenses

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Chuẩn kiến thức 12 nghiệp 12 n thi tốt CHỦ ĐỀ 1: TENSES (CÁC THÌ) I-THE PRESENT SIMPLE(THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN) a/ Form: S+V- S/ES + Positive:  I/we/you/they + verb ex: I work in a bank  She/he/it + verb-s/es ex1: She works in a bank ex2: He watches television evary night + Negative:  I/we you they + don’t + verb ex: I don’t work every day She/he/it + doesn’t + verb ex1: She doesn’t work every day ex2: He doesn’t watch television every day + Question:  Do + I/we/you/they + verb ? ex: Do you work every day? Yes,I do./ no,I don’t Where they work? Does + she/he/it + verb ? ex: Does she work in a bank? Yes,she does./ No,she doesn’t Where does she work? She works in a bank b/USE :Chỉ thói quen,sự thật đúng, trạng thái việc bền lâu Ex1: He smokes 20 cigarettes a day Ex2: we go to the country every weekend Ex3: We live in Ho Chi Minh city Ex4: He works for a foreign company Ex4: She comes from China Ex5: I speak two languages Ex6: The sun rises in th East Ex7: Water boils at 1000 centigrade c/ Adverbs of time: EVERY(DAY,NIGHT,WEEK,MONTH,YEAR…),ALWAYS,USUALLY, OFTEN,SOMETIMES,RARELY,ONCE A WEEK,TWICE A WEEK … * Quy tắc thêm s/es vào động từ thứ số đơn : Quy tắc thông thường thêm -s vào hình thức động từ : Ex: wants , works ,drives…… Thêm –es vào động từ tận kí tự :O,CH,SH,S,X Ex: goes , teaches , washes , kisses , fixes ……… 3)Đối với động từ PHỤ ÂM +Y -ies Ex:carry carries ; fly flies ; study studies *Tuy nhiên , Đối với động từ NGUYÊNÏ ÂM +Y,ta thêm _s theo quy luật thông thường.Ex :stays,buys……………… II- THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS:(THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN) a/FORM: Subject + am/is/are + present participle(V –ING ) ex: - 14 - - I am writing a letter now Chuẩn kiến thức 12 nghiệp 12 n thi tốt They are working at the moment She isn’t going home Are you learning English? Yes,I’m Is Maria reading at the moment? No, she isn’t Where are they going? They are going to the zoo b/USE: Chỉ việc diển việc tạm thời Ex1: - I can’t answer the phone I’m having a bath Ex2 : Peter is a student, but he is working as a waiter during the holiday Ex3: I’m working hard these days Ex4: Please don’t take that book Ann is reading it now Ex5: What’s the smell? Something is burning ex2: Why are you wearing that funny hat? * A future arrangement (sự xếp tương lai) Ex1: What are you doing tonight? Ex2: I am going to the party at his house c/ Một sô từ dấu hiệu NOW, RIGHT NOW, AT THE MOMENT… LOOK, LISTEN, BE QUIET… ex1: Look! The train is coming ex2: Listen! They are singing a song ex3: Be quiet! The baby is sleeping *QUY TẮC THÊM –ING VÀO ĐỘNG TỪ: 1) Theo quy luật thông thường thêm _ING vào động từ gốc Ex: going; doing; reading, playing…………… 2)Đối với động từ có âm tiếc mà tận NGUYÊN ÂM+1 PHỤ ÂM ta phải gấp đôi phụ âmtrước thêm _ING Ex:swim………….swimming ;sit……….sitting;get…………….getting;……… 3)Còn động từ tận 2NGUYÊN ÂM+1PHỤ ÂM ta không gấp đôi phụ ● ● ● ● ● âm Ex :read………reading ; speak………….speaking ;wear……….wearing;… 4) Đối với động từ tận –e ta phải bỏ _e thêm _ing Ex:write………writing ; come……….coming;take……… taking… 5) Đối với động từ có âm tiếc :phụ âm phải gấp dấu trọng âm(stress)nằm âm tiếc thứ hai,examlpe :ad’mit…………admitting ; pre’fer………… preferring;… Nếu trọng âm đặt vần đầu ta không gấp đôi phụ âm.Ex:’listen…………listening;’enter….entering… *NOTE :NHỮNG ĐỘNG TỪ ÍT DÙNG TRONG THÌ TIẾP DIỄN : 1/ Verbs of the mind (động từ trí tuệ): know,understand,think,believe,forget,remember,mean,doubt 2/Verbs of emotion and feeling (động từ cảm xúc tình cảm ):like,love,dislike,prefer,want,care 3/Verbs of the five senses(động từ giác quan ):see,smell,taste,hear ,touch 4/Verbs of possession(động từ sở hữu):have ,own, belong to 5/Other verbs :cost, need , contain(chứa đựng)depend (on)(tuỳ thuộc vào),consist of (bao gồm),seem=appear (dường như) MORE EXERCISES: EXERCISE 1: GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple present or present continuous 1/ I (have)…………………………………coffee for breakfast every morning 2/My brother (work) …………………………………in a shoes store this summer 3/The student (look up) …………………………………that new word right now 4/It (rain) …………………………………very much in the summer.It (rain) …………………………………now 5/We seldom (eat) ………………………………… before 6.30 - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 6/Be quiet !The baby (sleep) ………………………………… 7/Look ! A man (run) ………………………… after the train.He (want) …………………………………to catch it 8/I (need) …………………………………some money for my text books 9/Excuse me ,I(have) …………………………………to help a customer 10/John (like) …………………………………to go to museums 11/ Mother (cook) …………………………………some food in the kitchen at present She always (cook) …………………………………in the morning 12/Listen !I (hear) …………………………………some body knocking at the front door 13/I (see) …………………………………that you (wear) …………………………………your best clothes 14/I (do) …………………………………an exercise on present tense at this moment and I (think) ………………………………… that I (know) …………………………………how to use it now 15/She sometimes (buy) …………………………………vegetables at this market III- THE PRESENT PERFECT (THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH ) a/FORM: Subject + have/has + past participle(V3/ed) ex: - I’ve studied English for year - She has worked as a flight attendant ● I haven’t been to Dalat yet ● He hasn’t visited the capital ● Have you done your homework ? Yes, I have / No, I haven’t ● Has she arrived yet? Yes, she has / No, she hasn’t b/USE:có cách dùng bản: -Chỉ việc vừa xảy (JUST,RECENTLY,LATELY…) ex1: Have you ever seen a fire? Yes, I have ex2: I have seen that film several time ex1: The taxi has arrived ( It’s outside the house now) ex2: She has broken her leg ( That why she can’t walk) ex3: They have just built this house.(The paint is very new) Chỉ việc xảy xảy thời điểm không xác đònh khứ(ALREADY…) Ex1: I have seen that film Ex2: They have visited HaNoi several times Chỉ hành động khứ ….kéo dài đến …và tương lai(NEVER,EVER,SINCE ,FOR.,NEVER…BEFORE,YET, NOT…YET,SINCE WHEN,HOW LONG…) ex2 : We’ve studied English since last year ex3: She’s been a teacher for 10 years IV- THE PRESENT PEFECT CONTINUOUS: a/FORM: Subject + have/ has + been + present participle(V-ING) ex: - I have been working ● She has been working ● I haven’t been working ● She hasn’t been working ● What have you been doing? ● Have you been painting? - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 nghiệp 12 n thi tốt Yes, we have/ No, we haven’t ● Has he been crying? Yes, he has/ No, he hasn’t b/USE:GIỐNG NHƯ THÌ HTHT ,CHỈ NHẤN MẠNH SỰ LIÊN TỤC ● Thì hoàn thành tiếp diễn dùng để diễn tả hoạt động mà mà tiếp diễn hay gọi Quá khứ lưu ex1: I’ve been working for the same company for 12 years ex2: How long have you been playing football? + Sự khác hoàn thành đơn hoàn thành tiếp diễn Simple or continuous? Thật khác khác nhỏ hai , hai câu viết lại : ex1: I’ve worked for the same company for 12 years ex2: How long have you played football? Tuy nhiên ,nếu Người Anh thích dùng hoàn thành tiếp diễn Cách dùng :chỉ hoạt động khứ kết hành động trước mắt ex1: She’s been crying (Her eyes are red) ex2: You’ve been fighting again ( You’ve got cut and bruises on your face) A: What’s that smell ( I can smell it now) B: I’ve been cutting the grass Chúng ta hiểu hoạt động vừa hoàn tất ex1: Look! It’s been snowing (The ground is all white) ex2: Look! It’s snowing (Present continuous- It is still snowing) *Ghi ( Notes): i/ Cũng tất tiếp diễn khác , hoàn thành tiếp diễn hành động xảy khoảng thời gian ,những động từ kéo dài mà hành động kết thúc nhanh chóng sau không dùng hoàn thành tiếp diễn Die / start / begin / finish / stop / find / lose / break ii/ Thì hoàn thành đề cập đến hoàn tất hành động ,do túc từ động từ có kèm với từ số lượng dùng HTHT đơn ex1: I’ve eaten five pieces of toast this morning Not: I’ve been eating five pieces of toast this morning ex2: I’ve been cutting down trees this morning I’ve cut down ten ex3: She’s been smoking ever since she arived She’s smoked already EXERCISE :GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:Present perfect or present perfect continuous: 1/ I (try) ……………………………to learn English for years,but I (not suseed) ………………………………… yet 2/ I (wait ) …………………………………for two hours,but she (not come) …………………………………yet 3/She (read) ……………………all the works of Dickens.How many ………………you(read) …………………………? 4/I (wait) …………………………………here nearly half an hour for my girl-friend Anna 5/Jack (go) …………………………to Paris for a holiday ;I…………………never(be) ……………………………there 6/That book (lie) ……………………on the table for weeks ………… you (not read) ………………………it yet? 7/He (not be ) ………………………here since Chrismas,I wonder where she(live) ……………… - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 since then 8/Mary (rest) …………………………………in the gardent all day because she (be) …………………………………ill 9/She (work) …………………so hard this week that she (not have) ………………time to go to the movies 10/We (live) ………………………here for the last six months and I (just decide) ……………………to move EXERCISE3 : GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:Present tenses 1/ I (be) ……………………………sorry.I (forget) …………………………… that fellow ‘s name already 2/Jack (look) ……………………………no trouble with my English lesson up to now 3/Michael (work) ……………………………thirty-eight hours a week 4/At present ,that author (write) ……………………………a historical novel 5/The weather generally(get) ……………………………quite hot in July and August 6/How long……………………………you(learn) …………………………… English? V- PAST SIMPLE : a/FORM: S + V-2/ed Negative: S + didn’t + v Question: Did + s + v ? ex: - I/she worked hard ● I/she told him a good story ● I/she didn’t work hard ● I/she didn’t tell him a good story ● Did you/she work hard? Did you/she tell him a good story? * Quy tăc thêm _ED vào động từ hợp quy tắc : 1)Theo quy luật thông thường thêm _ED vào động từ gốc Ex: worked ,helped,washed…………… 2)Khi động từ –E ta cần thêm _D mà Ex:bake baked ;like liked ; use used 3) Đối với động từ có âm tiếc mà kí tự tận 1nguyên âm +1phụ âm ta phải gấp đôi phụ âm trước thêm _ED Ex: stopped , planned , grabbed ……………… *Nếu tận NGUYÊN ÂM+1PHỤ ÂM ta không gấp đôi phụ âm trước thêm-ED Ex: cooked, looked, loaded……… * Nếu phụ âm Y W ta không gấp đôi Ex: played, showed, ………… 4) Đối với đông từ có âm tiếc :phụ âm phải gấp dấu trọng âm(stress)nằm âm tiếc thứ hai,examlpe :Pre’fer preferred ;admit admitted … Tuy nhiên,khi dấu trọng âm nằm âm tiếc thứ ta không gấp đôi phụ âm,examlpe:’enter entered ,’visit visited 5) Đối với động từ PHỤ ÂM+Y ta biến Y -i+ed ex:carry……… carried ; burry……….burried ;study………… studied… b/USE:chỉ hành động xảy thời điểm xác đònh khứ: Ex1: I saw that film last night Ex2: He visited me yesterday Ex3: She went to Cantho days ago LAST(NIGHT/WEEK/MONTH/ YEAR), ( YEARS/3 MONTHS/4 WEEKS ) AGO, YESTERDAY, IN ( SUMMER), (IN 1980); WHEN (I) WAS YOUNG ) EXERCISE :GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple past or - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 Present perfect 1/We (study) ……………………………a very hard lesson the day before yesterday 2/We(study) ……………………………almost every lesson in this book so far 3/We(watch,never) …………………………… that television Program 4/We(watch) ……………………………an interesting program on television last night 5/My wife and I(travel) ……………………………by air many times in the past 6/My wife and I(travel) ……………………………to Mexico by air last Summer 7/I (read) ……………………………that novel by Hemingway several times before 8/I (read) ……………………………that novel again during my last vacation 9/I (have) ……………………………a little trouble with my car last week 10/However,I (have) ……………………………no trouble with my car since then VI- THE PAST CONTINUOUS: a/FORM: ● Possitive: subject + was/ were + present participle ● Negative: subject + wasn’t/weren’t + present participle ● Question: was/were + subjest + present participle ? ex: + The birds were singing + He was wearing a uniform + He wasn’t working + They weren’t working + Where was she going? +Were they having a bath? Yes, they were/ No, they weren’t b/USE:có cách dùng -Chỉ hành động động xảy thời điểm xác đònh khứ ex1: What were you doing at 8.00 last night? I was watching television -Chỉ hành động xảy (dùng QKTD),thì có hành động khác xen vào (dùng QK) ex: While I was having a bath, the telephone rang The students were working when the teacher walked in -Chỉ hai hành động đồng thời diển khứ Ex1: While I was reading book,my wife was writing a letter EXERCISE :GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple past or past continuous: 1/He (work) ……………………………all day yesterday 2/When I(arrive) ……………………………at his house,he (still sleep) …………………………… 3/As we (cross) ……………………………the street,the policeman(shout) ……………………………at us 4/The light (go) ……………………………out while we (have) …………………………… dinner 5/The children (do) …………………their homework when their father (come) ……………back from the office 6/Bill (have) ……………………………breakfast when I (stop) ……………………………at his house this morning 7/While I(walk) ……………………………around the park, I(see) …………………………… Mrs John 8/When I (go) ……………………………out the sun (shine) …………………………… 9/Just as I (leave) ……………………………for home,a student (stop) ……………………………me in the hall 10/When the student (hear) ………………the bell ,they(get) …………………up and (leave) ……………… VII- THE PAST PERFECT: - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 nghiệp 12 a/FORM: n thi tốt Subject + had + past participle ex: - By the time I got to airport, the plane had already taken off ● She had learned English before she came here b/USE:Chỉ việc xảy trước hành động khứ thời điểm khứ khác Ex1: Before I went to England,I had learned English very hard Ex2: After we had finished our work, we went out c) Dấu hiệu nhận biết QKHT: BY ( YESTERDAY, LAST MONTH(WEEK), LAST NIGHT ) AFTER + S+ HAD +V3/ed, S + V2 BEFORE +S +V2, S+HAD +V3/ed BY THE TIME WHEN ONCE PAST CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE(S+HAD+ V3/ed(DÙNG QKHT) AS SOON AS UNTIL EXERCISE : GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:simple past or past perfect: 1/They(go) ……………………………home after they (finish) ……………………………their work 2/He (do) ……………………………nothing before he (see) …………………………… 3/He (thank) ……………………………me for what I(do) …………………………… 4/ I (be) ……………………………sorry that I(hurt) …………………………… him 5/After they (go) ……………………………,they (sit) ……………………………down and rest) …………………………… 6/My friend (not see) ………………………me for many years when I (meet) ………………… him last week 7/In England he soon (remember) ……………………………all he (learn) …………………………… 8/They (tell) ……………………………him they (not meet) …………………………… before 9/He (ask) ……………………………why we(come) …………………………… so early 10/She (say) ……………………………that she already(see) …………………………… Dr Rice EXERCISE 7: GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS: past tenses: 1/When the phone (ring) ……………………………,I(have) …………………………… a bath 2/You (wear) ……………………………your new hat when I(meet) …………………………… you yesterday 3/When it (rain) ……………………………,she (carry) ……………………………an umbrella 4/The house(be) …………………………… much smaller than he (think) ……………………………at first 5/While you (play) ……………………………the piano,I (write ) ……………………………a letter 6/Before you (mention) ……………………………him,I (never hear) …………………………… of that author 7/When they (go) ………………to see them last night ,they (play) …………………………cards They (say)…………………they(play) ……………………………since six ‘o clock 8/My friend (sing) ……………………………when I (come) ……………………………into the room 9/The little girl (ask) ……………………………what (happen) ……………………………to her ice cream 10/He (eat) ……………………………dinner when I(go) ……………………………to see him - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 nghiệp 12 VIII- THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ( CONTINUOUS) : a/FORM: n thi tốt Subject + had been + present participle b/USE:CÓ CÁCH DÙNG GIỐNG NHƯ THÌ QKHT NHƯNG CHỈ NHẤN MẠNH SỰ LIÊN TỤC CỦA HÀNH ĐỘNG.(Cho vài ví dụ ) IX- THE SIMPLE FUTURE: Will and Be going to a/ Will is used to: + Express a future prediction (một dự đoán) ex: - I think it will rain tomorrow ● You’ll feel beeter after you’ve taken this medicine + Express a future intention: ( dự đònh) ex: - I will see you next week ● I will bring her a birthday cake + Express a promise, a threat, or a decision: ex: - I’ll bring a book tomorrow (a promise) ● If you that again, I will punish you.( a threat) ● We’ll go back home at 8.00 (a decision) ● Note: Will express an intention or decision made at the moment of speaking, that is, not planned or premediated i(không đònh trước) ex: A: can I ring you tonight? B: Yes, I will give you my number It’s 3871425 b/Be Going to: is used to express future intention, plan or decision thought about before the moment of speaking ex: We’re going to get married in June When I grow up, I’m going to be a doctor ● Note: a/ Using will or Be going to concerns when the decision was made : ex1: A: We’ve run out of sugar B: Have we?I didn’t know.I’ll buy some when I go shopping ex2: A: We’ve run out of sugar B: I know I’m going to buy some whe I go shopping b/ Notice that going to go and going to come are often shortened ex1: When are you going home (not when are you going to go home) ex2: He is coming to see me this afternoon (not he’s going to come to see ) EXERCISES 8: I/ Complete these sentences ,using Will or Going to Poor Sue went to hospital yesterday I ‘m sorry to hear that.I…………………………………… some flowers 2)This room is very cold You are right.I…………………………………the heater 3)Are you still going out with Alice ? Oh,yes We…………………………………get married next year 4)Oh dear.I can’t this homework Don’t worry.I…………………………………you 5)Did you remember to book seats for the theater ? No,I forgot.I………………………………… now 6)It ‘s John ‘s birthday tomorrow Is it ?I can’t afford a present but I………………………………… a card 7)How old are you ? I ‘m 64.I …………………………………retire next year 8) Why are you buying so much food ? Because I …………………………………cook for ten people 9) Jack is very angry with you - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 Is he ?I didn’t realize.I………………………………… ring him and apologize 10) Why are you leaving so early ? Because the teacher gave us a lot of homework and I …………………………………very carefully II/ Complete the second line of these dialogues : I ‘ve got a terrible headache I ‘ll get you an aspirin 2)I haven’t got any money at all I ‘ll…………………………………………………………………………………………… 3)John and Ann have just had a baby Have they ?I ‘ll…………………………………………………………………………………………… 4) What ‘s Jeremy ‘s phone number ? Just a minute I’ll …………………………………………………………………………………………… 5)I ‘ve lost my dog Don’t worry I ‘ll…………………………………………………………………………………………… III/ Answer the questions about your next holiday : I ‘m going on holiday next week Where to ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… That sounds lovely Where are you going to stay ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… And what are you going to ?Relax or see the sights or both ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… How are you getting there ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… And how long are you away for ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… Lucky you Have a good time I ‘ll send you a postcard IX- THE FUTURE PERFECT: Subject + will have + V3/ed a/.FORM: b/USE: The future perfect is used express a future action which will be finished before an other action or time in the future ex1: By the time you arrive I will have finished my work ex2: By 12.00 we will have arrived there c/ Some time expressions are often used in the future perfect: By monday, by that time, by then, in a few hour, EXERCISES 9: GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS: Simple Future or Simple Present 1/We ‘ll go out when the train(stop) ………………………… 2/I(stay) …………………………here until he (answer) …………………………me 3/Wait until I (catch) …………………………you 4/I ‘ll be ready before you (count) …………………………ten 5/John must eat his breakfast before he (go) …………………………out 6/Miss Helen (help) …………………………you as soon as she (finish) …………………………her letter 7/I (get) …………………………a new one before tonight 8/She (not come) …………………………until you (be) …………………………ready - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 9/ After the class (be) …………………………over,ask the teacher about that sentence 10/I (come) ………………………… and (see) …………………………you before I(leave) …………………………for England EXERCISES 10: GIVE THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS: 1/I (not see) …………………………him since last Monday 2/ They had sold all the books when we (get) …………………………there 3/ I think he (leave ) …………………………as soon as he (know) …………………………the news 4/When my friend grows beard ,even his closest friends (not recognize ) ………………………… him 5/I (never read) ………………a story that interested me so much as the one I (read) ……………last night 6/He (sleep) ………………………… so he didn’t understand what you said to him 7/I (finish) …………………………the book before my next birthday 8/Some animals (not eat) …………………………during the Winter 9/Why didn’t you listen while I (speak ) …………………………to you? 10/This time next week,we (walk) …………………………about in HCM City 11/What happened next was what everyone (fear) ………………………… 12/Will you wait a minute while I (look) …………………………through the text ? 13/Hurry up! The train (come) …………………………in 14/I (wait ) …………………………for at the hotel at midday tomorrow 15/ He said he (do) …………………………his homework since o’clock 16/They (build) …………………………a new house in this corner of the street right now 17/How many films ………you (see) ………………………… this month ? 18/When George (come) …………………………this afternoon ,he (bring) ………………………… his friends 19/I (speak) …………………………to you about that matter after the meeting tonight 20/ They (not come) …………………………home until they (see) …………………………every thing 21/ Tom was very tired because he (run) ………………………… for an hour 22/ His health has improved since he (leave) …………………………India 23/I then saw him more frequently than I (see) …………………………him now 24/When you (be) …………………………all this morning ?It ‘s nearly midday now 25/Where are you ?I ‘m upstairs.I (have) …………………………a bath IV) Subject – verb agreement SỰ HOÀ HP CHỦ NGỮ – ĐỘNG TỪ Sự hoà hợp chủ ngữ - động từ gây khó khăn cho phần lớn người học tiếng Anh số chủ ngữ đòi hỏi động từ số ít, số khác có động từ số số nhiều, số khác đòi hỏi động từ số nhiều i) Chủ ngữ đòi hỏi động từ số Một số từ tận có –s đòi hỏi động từ số ít: News Politics Economics Statistics Physics Mumps Measles mathematics The news was very alarming Physics is difficult Tựa đề sách, kòch, phim v.v… luôn có động từ số ít: The Los Angeles Time is on the desk Gulliver’s Travels is a well-known children’s book +Danh từ số lượng thời gian, tiền, đo lường, dù chúng số nhiều, luôn đòi hỏi động từ số ít: Ex:Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt Ex:Four hundred miles is too much to drive in one day Ex:Five minutes is not enough to this exercise - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 +Khi các từ dùng làm chủ ngữ, chúng đòi hỏi động từ số ít: One Each Any + sing noun Some + sing noun Every Nobody Either Anybody Somebody Everybody No one Neither Anyone Someone Everyone Nothing Anything Something Everything Ex :No one was absent in class Ex :Everything is in its place +It giới thiệu câu luôn có động số ít: Ex :It was the children who made that mess Ex :It is these questions that are difficult +Khi hai chủ từ nói với giới từ động từ phải hoà hợp với chủ từ trước: Together with As well as Along with In addition to Accompanied by Ex :The new manager, accompanied by his wife, Is arriving to day Ex :The teacher, along with his students, is watching the procession ii) Chủ ngữ đòi hỏi động từ số nhiều Chủ ngữ nối and both… and đòi hỏi động từ số nhiều: Ex :Fruit and vegetables are good for you Ex :Both my sister and my brother are here iii)Các từ several ,both ,many ,và few luôn với động từ số nhiều : Ex :Many are volunteering to help Ex :A few have failed the test Từ police có động từ số nhiều EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Choose the correct form from the parenthe ses: Chọn dạng cho từ ngoặc: Every participant (has/have) been notified of the chage in schedule The old lady and her twelve cats (was/were) evicted from the apartment Everyone (is/are) bringing a homemade dish Neither of the cars in the accident (was/were) insured Most of the rooms in the hotel (have/has) air-conditioing John, together with his wife and two children, (is/are) going to the dinner One of the speakers (is/are) not here yet No news (is/are) good news iv) Subjects which may take either a singular verb or a plural verb: +Chủ ngữ có động từ số số nhiều Một số danh từ có động từ số có cụm từ pair of word of, có động từ số nhiều từ này: Pants Shorts Glasses Thans Trousers Jeans Pliers Means These glasses are new But This pair of glasses is new Many thanks were given But A word of thanks was given A number of có động từ số nhiều The number of có động từ số ít: Ex:A number of people have called about the advertisement Ex:The number of people at the exhibit was amazing +Các từ có động từ số tuỳ theo danh từ theo sau chúng: - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 nghiệp 12 n thi tốt None No All Some Most Half Any Majority -Nếu sau động từ danh từ không đếm động từ số ,ngược lại động từ số nhiều Ex:None of the information was made public (sing non-count) Ex:None of the answers are correct (plural) +Khi hai chủ ngữ nối either… or, neither…nor, not only… but also, động từ số số nhiều tuỳ thuộc vào chủ ngữ gần nhất: Ex:Either my parents or my brother is coming Ex:Neither the table nor the chairs are here Ex:Not only the child but also the grandparents were enjoying the game +Danh từ quốc tòch có tận –ese, -ch, -sh (ví dụ Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, French, English) có động từ số ngôn ngữ, có động từ số nhiều + the người: Ex:Japanese is a difficult language to write Ex:The Japanese are famous for their beautiful gadens Ex:French is spoken in parts of Canada +Phân số số phần trăm có động từ số chúng bổ nghóa danh từ không đếm có động từ số nhiều chúng bổ nghóa danh từ đếm số nhiều: Ex:More than 50 percent of the pollution in this river comes from industrial waste Ex:More than half of the pollution in this river comes from industrial waste Ex:Three-quarters of the students speak another language Ex:Seventy-five percent of the students speak another language +Danh từ tập hợp có động từ số số nhiều tuỳ thuộc vào nghóa chúng Nếu chúng hiểu nhóm, động từ số ít, thành viên xếp riêng, động từ số nhiều Sau số danh từ tập hợp: Class Team Committee Family Gang Faculty Majority Audience Group Choir Ex:Our team is winning (the team as a group) Ex:The team are going back to their homes (meaning individual members of the team) v) Một số danh từ số nhiều bất quy tắc : Child-children man-men woman-women Foot-feet tooth-teeth mouse-mice Ox-oxen goose-geese datum-data vi) Một số danh từ không đếm luôn với động từ số Advice Sadness Meat Music Food fruit luck rice air fun luggage bread furniture machinery salt butter happiness cheese homework milk money coffee housework sugar information tea pepper equipment knowledge progress water EXERCISE BÀI TẬP MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST : SINGULAR AND PLURAL “Who has been planning the dance?” “Everyone in the club -.” A is B have C has D are “How much money did you spend?” “As much as there .” A were B has C was D have “Did you hear about the fire down the street?” “There a lot of news about it on TV last night.” - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 A was B had C is D were “Why are you buying all that food?” “Because a lot of people - over for dinner.” A are coming B coming C comes D is coming “Where are the hamburgers?” “Over there And the bowls of fruit on the table” A are being B is C are D have The children’s bedroom upstairs on the second floor A is B are C there are D it is “Why did they close the center of the city to automobiles?” “Because the number of contaminants in the air -.” A was increasing B will increasing C were in an increase D were increasing “The cupboards are really empty.” “Yes, all the food - eaten.” A have been B is been C has been D been The forest trails any signs for campers A doesn’t have B doesn’t C don’t have D have 10 “Why did you change your major from economics to law?” “Because economics as interesting to me as law.” A isn’t B doesn’t C are D aren’t 11 A special license is needed to drive trucks and A bus B buses C a bus D the buses 12 Every enjoyed the lesson A students B student’s C student D of students 13 We are looking for - in formation about apartments for rent A Þ B an C a D a few 14 Mathematics courses - generally required in American high schools A is B was C were D are 15 Usually - begin to take an interest in reading around the age of five A child B the child C a child D children 16 Statistics a difficult course for people to understand A is B are C were D being 17 Not even one of the hundred students passed the test A have B has C to have D having 18 The number of women increased A has B have C having D to have 19 My daughter’s instructor very competent A seem B to seem C seeming D seems 20 People - worried about the high rate of unemployment A.be B is C are D being EXERCISE BÀI TẬP Choose the correct form of the verb from the parenthese: Chọn dạng động từ ngoặc: Neither Mary nor her friends (is/are) going to the party A number of graduates (have/has) received scholarships from this deparment All of the money (was/were) found Every man and woman (has/have) the right to vote The number of car accidents (is/are) increasing every year Both corn and wheat (is/are) grown in Kansas Most of our furniture (is/are) in storage My new pair of pants (is/are) at the cleaners The Chinese (was/were) drinking tea in the year 2000 B.C 10 The police (is/are) on the alert for the escaped convict MORE EXERCISES: EXERCISE 1: Choose the correct form of the verbs in paretheses in the following sentences : 1)John along with twenty friends (is/are ) planning a party - 14 - Chuẩn kiến thức 12 n thi tốt nghiệp 12 2)The picture of the soldiers (bring/brings) back many memmories 3)The quality of these recordings (is/are )not very good 4)If the duties of these officers (isn’t/aren’t) reduced ,there will not enough time to finish the project 5)Neither Bill nor His parents (is /are )going to the play tonight 6)Anything (is /are ) better than going to another movie tonight 7) A number of reporters (was /were ) at the conference yesterday 8) There (was /were ) some people at the meeting last night 9) Each student (has /have) answered the first three questions 10) EitherJohn or his children (make /makes) breakfast each morning 11) The army (has /have ) eliminated this section of the training test 12) The number of students who have withdrawn from class this quarter (is /are ) appalling 13) Every elementary school teacher (has/ have ) to take this examination 14) The police (come /comes) to the site of the accident 15) These pictures as well as photograph (brighten /brightens) the room 16) What he told you (seems /seem) to be of no importance 17) Two years (is/are )a long time to wait 18) Bread and butter (is /are ) what she asks for 19) Measles (is /are ) cured without much difficulty now adays EXERCISE :Insert “ am , is are , was ,were ,has ,have ,do or does “ That clown shows that either snow or rain …………………………… about to fall Neither the cock nor the hens………………….in the ward By what time …………………………either you nor your father decided to go ? Either one or two apples ……………………… been picked up ripe Neither the moon nor stars ……………………………… visible in this dark night 6)The horse as well as the rider ………………………… hurt by the fall 7)James as well as Mary ……………………………….won a prize this term 8)Beauty as well as health …………………………… fallen to her lot in life 9)The hens as well as the cock ……………………calling for food - 14 -
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