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Chapter 02 Evaluating Financial Performance True / False Questions An inventory turnover ratio of 10 means that, on average, items are held in inventory for 10 days True All else equal, an increase in a company's asset turnover will decrease its ROE True False All else equal, a firm would prefer to have a higher gross margin True False Return on assets can be calculated as profit margin times asset turnover True False A company's price-to-earnings ratio is always equal to one minus its earnings yield True False A company's return on assets will always equal or exceed its profit margin True False False The times-interest-earned ratio always equals or exceeds the times-burden-covered ratio True False 2-1 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Multiple Choice Questions The most popular yardstick of financial performance among investors and senior managers is the: A profit margin B return on equity C return on assets D times-burden-covered ratio E earnings yield F None of the above Which of these ratios, or levers of performance, are the determinants of ROE? I profit margin II financial leverage III times interest earned IV asset turnover A I and IV only B II and IV only C I, II, and IV only D I, II, and III only E I, III, and IV only F I, II, III, and IV 2-2 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 10 Ratios that measure how efficiently a firm manages its assets and operations to generate net income are referred to as _ ratios A asset turnover and control B financial leverage C coverage D profitability E None of the above 11 Which of the following ratios are measures of a firm's liquidity? I fixed asset turnover ratio II current ratio III debt-equity ratio IV acid test A I and III only B II and IV only C III and IV only D I, II, and III only E I, III, and IV only 12 Ptarmigan Travelers had sales of $420,000 in 2013 and $480,000 in 2014 The firm's current asset accounts remained constant Given this information, which one of the following statements must be true? A The total asset turnover rate increased B The days' sales in receivables increased C The inventory turnover rate increased D The fixed asset turnover decreased E The collection period decreased 2-3 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 13 In comparison to industry averages, Okra Corp has a low inventory turnover, a high current ratio, and an average quick ratio Which of the following would be the most reasonable inference about Okra Corp.? A Its current liabilities are too low B Its cost of goods sold is too low C Its cash and securities balance is too low D Its inventory level is too high 14 Which one of the following ratios identifies the amount of sales a firm generates for every $1 in assets? A current ratio B debt-to-equity C retention D asset turnover E return on assets 15 A times-interest-earned ratio of 3.5 indicates that the firm: A pays 3.5 times its earnings in interest expense B has interest expense equal to 3.5% of EBIT C has interest expense equal to 3.5% of net income D has EBIT equal to 3.5 times its interest expense 16 At the end of 2014, Stacky Corp had $500,000 in liabilities and a debt-to-assets ratio of 0.5 For 2014 Stacky had an asset turnover of 3.0 What were annual sales for Stacky in 2014? A $333,333 B $1,200,000 C $1,800,000 D $3,000,000 2-4 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 17 Klamath Corporation has asset turnover of 3.5, a profit margin of 5.2%, and a current ratio of 0.5 What is Klamath Corporation's return on equity? A 8.7% B 9.1% C 18.2% D Insufficient information to find ROE 18 Assume you are a banker who has loaned money to a firm, but that firm is now facing increased competition and reduced cash flows Which one of the following ratios would you most closely monitor to evaluate the firm's ability to repay its loan? A current ratio B debt-to-equity ratio C times-interest-earned ratio D times-burden-covered ratio E None of the above 19 Breakers Bay Inc has succeeded in increasing the amount of goods it sells while holding the amount of inventory on hand at a constant level Assume that both the cost per unit and the selling price per unit also remained constant All else held constant, how will this accomplishment be reflected in the firm's financial ratios? A decrease in the fixed asset turnover rate B decrease in the financial leverage ratio C increase in the inventory turnover rate D increase in the days' sales in inventory E decrease in the total asset turnover rate 2-5 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 20 Which one of the following statements is correct? A If the debt-to-assets ratio is greater than 0.50, then the debt-to-equity ratio must be less than 1.0 B Long-term creditors would prefer the times-interest-earned ratio be 1.4 rather than 1.5 C The assets-to-equity ratio can be computed as plus the debt-to-equity ratio D To realize the best risk and reward profile, financial leverage should be maximized E None of the above 21 On a common-size balance sheet, all accounts are expressed as a percentage of: A sales B profits C equity D total assets E None of the above 22 Primavera Holdings has a profit margin of 25%, an asset turnover of 0.5 and financial leverage (assets to equity) of 1.5 Primavera has $20 billion in assets, of which half is in cash and marketable securities Assume that Primavera earns a percent after-tax return on cash and securities What would Primavera's return on equity be if it paid out 90% of its cash and marketable securities as a dividend to shareholders? A Negative B Between 0% and 20% C Between 20% and 40% D between 40% and 60% E Greater than 60% 2-6 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 23 Which one of the following statements does NOT describe a problem with using ROE as a performance measure? A ROE measures return on accounting book value, and this problem is not solved by using market value B ROE is a forward-looking, one-period measure, while business decisions span the past and present C ROE measures only return, while financial decisions involve balancing risk against return D None of these describe problems with ROE E All of these describe problems with ROE 2-7 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 24 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above The current ratio for Link at the end of 2014 is: A 10.21 B 2.31 C 2.76 D 10.30 E None of the above 25 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Which of the following statements best describes how the Link's short-term liquidity changed from 2013 to 2014? A Link's short-term liquidity has improved modestly B Link's short-term liquidity has deteriorated very little, but from a low initial base C Link's short-term liquidity has improved considerably, but from a low initial base D Link's short-term liquidity has deteriorated considerably, but from a high initial base E None of the above 26 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's collection period in days, based on sales, at the end of 2014 is: A 24.3 B 219.6 C 35.7 D 28.8 E None of the above 2-8 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 27 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's inventory turnover, based on cost of goods sold, at the end of 2014 is: A 5.2 B 24.3 C 28.8 D 35.7 E None of the above 28 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's payables period in days, based on cost of goods sold, at the end of 2014 is: A 5.2 B 24.3 C 28.8 D 35.7 E None of the above 29 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's days' sales in cash at the end of 2014 is: A 24.3 B 28.8 C 219.6 D 249.7 E None of the above 2-9 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 30 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Link's gross margin for 2014 is: A -94% B 13% C 26% D 31% E None of the above 31 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Link's profit margin for 2014 is: A -94% B -57% C 13% D 31% E None of the above 2-10 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 16 At the end of 2014, Stacky Corp had $500,000 in liabilities and a debt-to-assets ratio of 0.5 For 2014 Stacky had an asset turnover of 3.0 What were annual sales for Stacky in 2014? A $333,333 B $1,200,000 C $1,800,000 D $3,000,000 Liabilities/Assets = 0.5 = $500,000/$1,000,000 So Assets = $1,000,000 Then, Sales/$1,000,000 = So sales = $3,000,000 Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Medium 17 Klamath Corporation has asset turnover of 3.5, a profit margin of 5.2%, and a current ratio of 0.5 What is Klamath Corporation's return on equity? A 8.7% B 9.1% C 18.2% D Insufficient information to find ROE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Easy 2-21 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 18 Assume you are a banker who has loaned money to a firm, but that firm is now facing increased competition and reduced cash flows Which one of the following ratios would you most closely monitor to evaluate the firm's ability to repay its loan? A current ratio B debt-to-equity ratio C times-interest-earned ratio D times-burden-covered ratio E None of the above The times-burden-covered ratio is the best answer, as it indicates how well the firm's cash flows cover both debt principal and interest payments The times-interest-earned ratio applies most appropriately when we are confident the firm can roll over existing debt; this is not the case here Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Medium 19 Breakers Bay Inc has succeeded in increasing the amount of goods it sells while holding the amount of inventory on hand at a constant level Assume that both the cost per unit and the selling price per unit also remained constant All else held constant, how will this accomplishment be reflected in the firm's financial ratios? A decrease in the fixed asset turnover rate B decrease in the financial leverage ratio C increase in the inventory turnover rate D increase in the days' sales in inventory E decrease in the total asset turnover rate Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Medium 2-22 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 20 Which one of the following statements is correct? A If the debt-to-assets ratio is greater than 0.50, then the debt-to-equity ratio must be less than 1.0 B Long-term creditors would prefer the times-interest-earned ratio be 1.4 rather than 1.5 C The assets-to-equity ratio can be computed as plus the debt-to-equity ratio D To realize the best risk and reward profile, financial leverage should be maximized E None of the above Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Medium 21 On a common-size balance sheet, all accounts are expressed as a percentage of: A sales B profits C equity D total assets E None of the above Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Easy 2-23 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 22 Primavera Holdings has a profit margin of 25%, an asset turnover of 0.5 and financial leverage (assets to equity) of 1.5 Primavera has $20 billion in assets, of which half is in cash and marketable securities Assume that Primavera earns a percent after-tax return on cash and securities What would Primavera's return on equity be if it paid out 90% of its cash and marketable securities as a dividend to shareholders? A Negative B Between 0% and 20% C Between 20% and 40% D between 40% and 60% E Greater than 60% Currently, equity = $13.33 billion (20/13.33 = 1.5), sales = 10 (10/20 = 0.5) and net income = 2.5 (2.5/10 = 25%) Paying a $9 billion dividend would reduce assets to $11 billion and equity to $4.33 billion Net income would fall by 3% × $9 billion = $0.27 billion, to $2.23 billion ROE would then be 2.23/4.33 = 51.50% Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Hard 23 Which one of the following statements does NOT describe a problem with using ROE as a performance measure? A ROE measures return on accounting book value, and this problem is not solved by using market value B ROE is a forward-looking, one-period measure, while business decisions span the past and present C ROE measures only return, while financial decisions involve balancing risk against return D None of these describe problems with ROE E All of these describe problems with ROE Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Difficulty: Medium 2-24 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 24 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above The current ratio for Link at the end of 2014 is: A 10.21 B 2.31 C 2.76 D 10.30 E None of the above 249,801/90,558 = 2.76 Difficulty: Easy 2-25 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 25 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Which of the following statements best describes how the Link's short-term liquidity changed from 2013 to 2014? A Link's short-term liquidity has improved modestly B Link's short-term liquidity has deteriorated very little, but from a low initial base C Link's short-term liquidity has improved considerably, but from a low initial base D Link's short-term liquidity has deteriorated considerably, but from a high initial base E None of the above Difficulty: Medium 26 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's collection period in days, based on sales, at the end of 2014 is: A 24.3 B 219.6 C 35.7 D 28.8 E None of the above 21,655/(274,219/365) = 28.8 Difficulty: Medium 2-26 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 27 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's inventory turnover, based on cost of goods sold, at the end of 2014 is: A 5.2 B 24.3 C 28.8 D 35.7 E None of the above 209,628/40,556 = 5.2 Difficulty: Medium 28 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's payables period in days, based on cost of goods sold, at the end of 2014 is: A 5.2 B 24.3 C 28.8 D 35.7 E None of the above 13,962/(209,620/365) = 24.3 Difficulty: Medium 2-27 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 29 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Assume a 365-day year for your calculations Link's days' sales in cash at the end of 2014 is: A 24.3 B 28.8 C 219.6 D 249.7 E None of the above (164,952 + 22,638)/(274,219/365) = 249.7 Difficulty: Medium 30 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Link's gross margin for 2014 is: A -94% B 13% C 26% D 31% E None of the above (274,219 - 209,628)/274,219 = 23.6% Difficulty: Easy 2-28 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 31 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Link's profit margin for 2014 is: A -94% B -57% C 13% D 31% E None of the above -257,981/274,219 = -94% Difficulty: Easy 2-29 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 32 Please refer to the income statement for VGA Associates below Assuming that cost of goods sold are variable and operating expenses are fixed, what was VGA Associates' breakeven sales volume in 2014? A $20,000 B $80,000 C $150,000 D $180,000 E None of the above Gross margin = 50,000/200,000 = 25% Breakeven sales volume = Operating expenses/Gross margin = $20,000/0.25 = $80,000 Difficulty: Medium Short Answer Questions 2-30 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 33 Answer the questions below based on the following information The tax rate is 35% and all dollars are in millions Assume that the companies have no liabilities other than the debt shown below a Calculate each company's ROE, ROA, and ROIC b Why is Runrun's ROE so much higher than Suunto's? Does this mean Runrun is a better company? Why or why not? c Why is Suunto's ROA higher than Runrun's? What does this tell you about the two companies? d How the two companies' ROICs compare? What does this suggest about the two companies? a b Runrun's higher ROE is a natural reflection of its higher financial leverage It does not mean that Runrun is the better company c This is also due to Runrun's higher leverage ROA penalizes levered companies by comparing the net income available to equity to the capital provided by owners and creditors It does not mean that Runrun is a worse company than Suunto d ROIC abstracts from differences in leverage to provide a direct comparison of the earning power of the two companies' assets On this metric, Suunto is the superior performer Before drawing any firm conclusions, however, it is important to ask how the business risks faced by the companies compare and whether the observed ratios reflect long-run capabilities or 2-31 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education transitory events Difficulty: Medium The financial statements for Limited Brands, Inc follow (fiscal years ending January): 2-32 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 34 Please refer to Limited Brands Inc.'s financial statements above Use the company's operating profit as an approximation of its EBIT, and assume a 40% tax rate for your calculations For the fiscal years ending in January of 2006 and 2007, calculate: a Debt-to-equity ratio b Times-interest-earned ratio c Times burden covered (Note that principal payment in year t equals current portion of long-term debt in year t-1.) Difficulty: Medium 2-33 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 35 Please refer to Limited Brands Inc.'s financial statements above Use the company's operating profit as an approximation of its EBIT, and assume a 40% tax rate for your calculations What percentage decline in earnings before interest and taxes could Limited Brands have sustained in fiscal years ending in January 2006 and 2007 before failing to cover: a Interest and principal repayment requirements? b Interest, principal, and common dividend payments? a For the fiscal year ending January 2006: Interest expense = $94 Principal repayment = $0 (long-term debt due in one year from 2005) EBIT = $947.5, so it could have fallen (947.5 - 94)/947.5 = 90.1% before failing to cover interest and principal For the fiscal year ending January 2007: Interest expense = $102 Principal repayment = $7 (long-term debt due in one year from 2006) EBIT = $1,176, so it could have fallen (1,176 - 102 - 7/0.6)/1,176 = 90.3% before failing to cover interest and principal b For the fiscal year ending January 2006: Interest expense = $94 Principal repayment = $0 (long-term debt due in one year from 2005) Common dividends = Shares outstanding × Dividends per share = 395 × 0.61 = $241.0 EBIT = $947.5, so it could have fallen (947.5 - 94 - 241/0.6)/947.5 = 47.7% before failing to cover interest, principal, and dividends For the fiscal year ending January 2007: Interest expense = $102 Principal repayment = $7 (long-term debt due in one year from 2006) Common dividends = Shares outstanding × Dividends per share = 398 × 0.60 = $238.8 EBIT = $1,176, so it could have fallen (1,176 - 102 - 245.8/0.6)/1,176 = 56.5% before failing to cover interest, principal, and dividends Difficulty: Medium 2-34 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 36 Please refer to Limited Brands Inc.'s financial statements above Prepare common-size financial statements for Limited Brands, Inc for 2006 - 2007 Difficulty: Medium 2-35 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education ... refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above The current ratio for Link at the end of 2014 is: A 10.21 B 2.31 C 2.76 D 10.30 E None of the above 25 Please refer to the financial data for Link,... Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above Link's gross margin for 2014 is: A -94% B 13% C 26% D 31% E None of the above 31 Please refer to the financial data for Link, Inc above... Education 36 Please refer to Limited Brands Inc.'s financial statements above Prepare common-size financial statements for Limited Brands, Inc for 2006 - 2007 2-15 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill
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