Chuyên đề điền từ vào đoạn văn môn tiếng anh nguyễn quỳnh trang

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Chuyên đề điền từ vào đoạn văn môn Tiếng Anh do cô Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang biên soạn giới thiệu tới người đọc nguyên tắc và phương pháp làm bài tập điền từ tiếng Anh, 20 bài tập điền từ vào đoạn văn trong tiếng Anh. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết. GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang CHUYÊN ĐỀ ĐIỀN TỪ VÀO ĐOẠN VĂN Môn: TIẾNG ANH PHƯƠNG PHÁP ĐIỀN TỪ VÀO BÀI ĐỌC  NGUYÊN TẮC CHUNG: Xác định từ loại cần điền cho chỗ trống tìm từtừ loại tương ứng để điền vào chỗ trống Dựa vào hàm ý văn phong đoạn văn để suy luận từ cần điền  XÁC ĐỊNH TỪ LOẠI CẦN ĐIỀN CHO CHỖ TRỐNG * Cấu tạo từ thuộc lĩnh vực từ loại Bước 1: Xác định từ loại Đọc qua câu hỏi quan sát thật kĩ vị trí từ cần điền Việc xác định từ loại từ cần điền vào chỗ trống điểm quan trọng có tính định đến độ xác đáp án Ví dụ1: Some species of rare animals are in _ of extinction A danger B dangerous C dangerously D endanger => Nếu em thành ngữ to be in danger (đang bị đe dọa, tầm nguy hiểm) để ý vị trí từ cần điền từ loại khác danh từ (giữa giới từ) Ví dụ2: Life here is very _ A peace B peaceful C peacefully D peacefulness => Sau động từ to be (is) có từ loại tính từ danh từ Tuy nhiên có trạng từ mức độ very nên từ loại cần điền phải tính từ Bước 2: Quan sát đáp án chọn đáp án Sau xác định từ loại từ cần điền em quay lại quan sát phương án cho, thấy từ phù hợp với từ loại xác định đáp án Trong ví dụ có danger danh từ đáp án câu (Dangerous tính từ, dangerously trạng từ, endanger động từ) Trong ví dụ peaceful tính từ từ cho đáp án câu Lưu ý: Nếu phương án từ loại khác vấn đề thật đơn giản Tuy nhiên có câu mà người đề đòi hỏi thí sinh kết hợp kiến thức ngữ pháp Xét ví dụ sau đây: There are small _ between British and American English A differences B different C difference D differently GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang => Sau xác định từ loại từ cần điền danh từ quan sát phương án em lại thấy có danh từ differences difference Vậy từ đúng? Lúc em cần để ý đến động từ câu – to be chia số nhiều (are) đáp án câu phải danh từ số nhiều – differences * Cấu tạo từ thuộc lĩnh vực ngữ pháp Dạng thứ tập cấu tạo từ phân biệt dạng thức bổ trợ động từ, tính từ, trạng từ hay phương thức so sánh Trong dạng tập em phải nắm vững cấu trúc ngữ pháp, loại bổ trợ động từ hình thức so sánh Dạng 1: Tính từ -ed hay –ing Ví dụ: We are _ of the long journey A tire B tiring C tired D to tire => Chỗ trống cần điền tính từ phương án lại có tính từ tiring tired, từ đáp án câu Lúc lại vận dụng kiến thức ngữ pháp để giải vấn đề Khi chủ ngữ người dùng khứ phân từ; chủ ngữ vật, tượng dùng phân từ Đáp án câu tired Dạng 2: Bổ trợ động từ Ví dụ: Would you mind me a hand with this bag? A to give B give C giving D to giving => Trong dạng tập em cần phải học thuộc loại V với loại bổ trợ Ví dụ: Các Verb mind, enjoy, avoid, finish, keep Verb sau V-ing Các động từ agree, aim, appear, ask, attempt, decide, demand bổ trợ động từ nguyên thể có to Dạng 3: Dạng thức so sánh Ví dụ: Sara speaks so _ that I can’t understand her A fast B fastly C faster D faster Khi câu có dấu hiệu more than tính từ trạng từ câu phải dạng so sánh hơn, có the most trước ô trống tính/ trạng từ phải dạng so sánh Xét câu dấu hiệu câu so sánh nên trạng từ fast đáp án (Lưu ý fastly không tồn tiếng Anh) GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG  Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang XÁC ĐỊNH CẤU TRÚC NGỮ PHÁP CỦA CÂU Ví dụ 1:The equipment in our office needs _ A moderner B modernizing C modernized D modernization => Câu có chủ ngữ vật (The equipment) nên sau need V-ing – Đáp án câu modernizing Mỗi loại động từ với dạng bổ trợ định Khi em biết cấu trúc việc xác định cấu tạo từ sau dễ dàng Các động từ mind, enjoy, avoid, finish, keep động từ sau V-ing Các động từ agree, aim, appear, ask, attempt, decide, demand bổ trợ động từ nguyên thể có to Ví dụ 2: That is the most _ girl I’ve seen A beautifuler B beautiful C beautifulest D beautifully => Từ cần điền tính từ bổ nghĩa cho girl Trước vị trí ô trống the most – dấu hiệu so sánh Đến nhiều em chọn beautifulest nghĩ tính từ dạng so sánh thêm–est cuối từ quy tắc áp dụng với tính từ ngắn, tính từ dài (hai âm tiết trở nên ) cấu trúc the most + nguyên mẫu tính từ CHÚ Ý: * Khi phương án A, B, C, D thuộc loại từ vựng (danh từ tính từ) em phải xem xét ý nghĩa từ để chọn đáp án xác Ví dụ :Computer is one of the most important _of the 20th century A inventings B inventories C inventions D inventor => Sau one of phải danh từ số nhiều Tuy nhiên inventories lại có nghĩa tóm tắt, kiểm kê inventions phát minh, sáng chế Đáp án câu đương nhiên inventions Nếu không em ý đến đuôi –tion, cách cấu tạo danh từ vật từ động từ thông dụng suy đáp án câu * Xem xét ý nghĩa phủ định từ Khi thêm tiền tố in, un, ir, dis nghĩa từ bị đảo ngược hoàn toàn Dựa vào yếu tố em nhận biết nghĩa từ khẳng định hay phủ định Tuy nhiên từ kết hợp với loại phụ tố định Ví dụ responsible kết hợp với tiền tố ir, illegal kết hợp với tiền tố il- Ví dụ: I think it’s very _ of him to expect us to work overtime every night this week A reason B reasonable C unreasonable D inreasonable => Từ cần điền tính từ Cụm từ “work overtime every night this week” mang hàm ý phủ định nên tính từ câu mang nghĩa phủ định – unreasonable (Reasonable kết hợp với tiền tố un- để tạo nên từ trái nghĩa) Để làm dạng tập em phải liên hệ từ cần điền với cụm từ khác câu để nhận biết ý câu khẳng định hay phủ định từ xác định dạng thức từ GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang  XÁC ĐỊNH CỤM TỪ CỐ ĐỊNH, THÀNH NGỮ a) Cấp độ cụm từ Khi học lớp, học sinh thường không ý nhiều đến cụm từ cố định Hầu học sinh dừng lại việc hiểu nghĩa cụm từ chưa đủ Các điền từ thường nhằm vào cụm từ trên, bỏ trống thành phần yêu cầu học sinh chọn từ điền vào Các phương án đưa thường không khác chức năng/ ngữ nghĩa có phương án kết hợp với thành tố xung quanh đáp án Ví dụ: Her parents wanted her to go to university but I know that she was really fed (2) with studying A on B in C up D down => Trong giới từ có up đáp án kết hợp với từ đứng trước từ sau tạo thành cụm từ có nghĩa Chính vậy, trình học tập em cần lưu ý học thuộc cụm từ xuất cố định như: · To be fond of sth = to be keen on sth: yêu thích · To be interested in sth: thích thú, quan tâm · To be good at sth: giỏi lĩnh vực gì, giỏi làm · To be surprised at sth: ngạc nhiên điều gì… · To be fed up with sth: chán điều · To be bored with sth: chán làm · To be tired of sth: mệt mỏi điều · To be afraid of sth: sợ, e ngại điều Ngoài ra, câu hỏi hay tập trung vào cụm động tân cố định cụm động ngữ (phrasal verbs) b) Cấp độ cấu trúc Người đề bỏ bớt từ cấu trúc học sinh học sách giáo khoa đưa phương án lựa chọn Khi làm câu hỏi này, em cần lưuý phân biệt rõ từ đặt vào bối cảnh cụ thể câu lựa chọn đưa hầu hết có ý nghĩa với có từ điền vào chỗ trống để tạo thành cấu trúc Ví dụ 1: It really takes you years to get to know someone well _ to consider your best friend A enough B such C too D so => Trong câu trên, có enough điền vào chỗ trống để tạo thành cấu trúc có nghĩa V + Adv + enough + to sth Trong đó, such so thường kèm với mệnh đề phía sau Too có cấu trúc gần giống nough khác vị trí ý nghĩa Hãy xem ví dụ sau: The coffee is too hot to drink (Cà phê nóng nên uống được) Như vậy, cấu trúc too là: Too + adj + to sth: quá… làm GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang Ngoài ra, chương trình học tiếng Anh phổ thông có nhiều nói cấu trúc so sánh tính từ trạng từ nên mảng kiến thức trọng tâm câu hỏi trắc nghiệm điền từ Người đề bỏ bớt thành tố câu trúc so sánh “than, as” đưa dạng so sánh khác tính từ/ trạng từ yêu cầu học sinh lựa chọn Ví dụ 2: When receiving the exam result, she seemed _ than his sister A more happy B happier C the more happy C the happiest => Rõ ràng câu cần chọn B happier để điền vào chỗ trống câu so sánh tính từ happy (do có than) Ta không dùng more happy tính từ kết thúc chữ “y” c) Cấp độ mệnh đề câu Phổ biến cấp độ câu hỏi hòa hợp chủ ngữ động từ (subject – verb concord) Để làm tốt câu hỏi dạng này, em cần phân biệt danh từ đếm danh từ không đếm được; danh từ số danh từ số nhiều để chia động từ/ trợ động từ cho Các em cần lưu ý có nhiều từ kết thúc –s danh từ số (ví dụ series) hay có danh từ không kết thúc –s mà danh từ số nhiều men (đàn ông), women (phụ nữ), feet(bàn chân), geese(con ngỗng), teeth (răng), lice (con rận), mice (con chuột) Ngoài có số danh từ dùng dạng số số nhiều như: fish (cá),carp (cá chép), cod (cá thu), squid (cá mực), trout (cá trầu),turbot (cá bơn), salmon (cá hồi), mackerel (cá thu), pike (cá chó), plaice (cá bơn sao), deer (con nai),sheep (con cừu) Có số từ/ cụm từ luôn với danh từ đếm (như few, a few, many…) số từ bổ nghĩa cho danh từ không đếm (little, a little, much…) Ví dụ 1: We have cut down _ trees that there are now vast areas of wasteland all over the world A so much B so many C so few D so little => Vì danh từ sau (trees) danh từ đếm số nhiều nên điền phương án B C Dựa vào ý nghĩa câu (vế sau) ta phải chọn B (Chúng ta chặt nhiều xanh ngày có nhiều khu đất hoang rộng lớn toàn giới) Mặt khác, việc xác định tương ứng số chủ ngữ động từ giúp ta chọn đáp án xác từ phương án có nội dung tương tự Ví dụ 2: As you know 75% of the world’s _ is in English A mail B parcels C envelopes D letters Ngoài kiến thức thực tế, học sinh phân tích ngữ pháp câu để chọn từ điền vào chỗ trống Ta thấy động từ to be chia dạng số “is” nên chủ ngữ chắn số không đếm Các phương án B, C, D dạng số nhiều nên danh từ không đếm mail đáp án GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang EXERCISE PASSAGE Education is more important today than ever before It helps people acquire the skills they need for such everyday (1) _ as reading a newspaper or managing their money It also gives them the specialized training they may need to (2) _ for a job or career For example, a person must meet certain educational requirements and obtain a (3) _ or certificate before he can practice law or medicine Many fields, like computer operation or police work, (4) _ satisfactory completion of special training courses Education is also important (5) _ it helps people get more out of life It increases their knowledge and understanding of the world It helps them acquire the skills that make life more interesting and enjoyable, (6) _ the skills needed to participate in a sport, paint a picture, or play a musical (7) _ Such education becomes (8) _ important as people gain more and more leisure time Education also helps people adjust to change This habit has become necessary because social changes today take place with increasing speed and (9) _ the lives of more and more people Education can help a person understand these changes and provide him (10) _ the skills for adjusting to them Question 1: A works B jobs C actions D activities Question 2: A B prepare C make D work Question 3: A license B card C diploma D paper Question 4: A requires B requiring Question 5: A therefore B despite Question 6: A such as B for instance C such that D for example Question 7: A appliance B equipment C instrument D device Question 8: A increased B increasing C increase D increasingly Question 9: A effect B affect Question 10: A with B for C require C although C affective C in D to require D because D effective D to PASSAGE 2: Nearly 200 of the 1500 native plant species in Hawaii are at risk of going extinct in the near future because they have been (1) _ to such low numbers Approximately 90 percent of Hawaii's GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang plants are found nowhere else in the world but they are (2) _ by alien invasive species such as feral goats, pigs, rodents and (3) _ plants The Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group is striving to (4) _ the extinction of the 182 rare Hawaiian plants with fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the (5) _ Since 1990, (6) _ a result of their "Plant Extinction Prevention Program", sixteen species have been brought into (7) _ and three species have been reintroduced Invasive weeds have been removed in key areas and fencing put up in order to (8) _ plants in the wild In the future the Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Program aims (9) _ collecting genetic material from the remaining plants in the wild for storage as a safety net for the future They also aim to manage wild populations and where possible reintroduce species into (10) _ Question 1: A developed B reduced C disappeared D increased Question 2: A conserved B guarded C invested D threatened Question 3: A native B national C international D non-native Question 4: A prevent B influence C encourage D stimulate C hole D atmosphere Question 5:A wild B sky Question 6: A so B due Question 7: A contamination B production C cultivation Question 8: A derive B vary C remain Question 9: A at B on C with Question 10: A shelters C as B reserves C gardens D but D generation D protect D for D halls GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 3: Not everybody recognizes the benefits of new developments in communications technology Indeed, some people fear that text messaging may actually be having a negative (1) _ on young people's communication and language skills, especially when we hear that primary school children may be at (2) of becoming addicted to the habit So widespread has texting become, however, that even pigeons have started doing it (3) _, in this case, it's difficult to view the results as anything but positive Twenty of the birds are about to (4) to the skies with the task of measuring air pollution, each (5) _ with sensor equipment and a mobile phone The (6) _ made by the sensors will be automatically (7) _ into text messages and beamed to the Internet - where they will appear on a dedicated 'pigeon blog' The birds will also each have a GPS receiver and a camera to capture aerial photos, and researchers are building a tiny 'pigeon kit' containing all these (8) _ Each bird will carry these in a miniature backpack, (9) _ , that is, from the camera, which will hang around its neck The data the pigeons text will be displayed in the (10) _of an interactive map, which will provide local residents with up-to-the-minute information on their local air quality B outcome C effect D conclusion Question A result Question A danger B threat C risk D peril Question A Therefore B What's more C Whereas D That is Question A make B launch C reach D take Question A armed B loaded C granted D stocked Question A studies B readings C reviews D inquiries Question A adapted B converted C revised D applied Question A gadgets B utensils C appliances D implements Question A instead B except C apart D besides B way C form D size Question 10 A shape GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang Passage 4: From the seeds themselves to the machinery, fertilizers and pesticides - The Green Revolution regimen depend heavily on technology One (1) , however, depends much (2) on technology - organic farming Many organic farmers use machinery, but (3) chemical fertilizers or pesticides (4) chemical soil enrichers, they use animal manure and plant parts not used as food -,natural,organic fertilizers that are clearly a renewable (5) Organic farmers also use alternatives for pesticides; for example they may rely (6) natural predators of certain insect pests (7) the need arises, they can buy the eggs and larvae of these natural predators and introduce them into their crop fields They use (8) techniques to control pests as well, like planting certain crops together because one crop repels the other's pests Organic farmers not need a lot of land; (9) organic farming is perfectly (10) to small farms and is relatively inexpensive Finally, many organic farmers' average yields compare favorably with other farmers' yields Question A alternative B alternate C alteration D alternation Question A more B less C better D worse Question A also B for C not D all Question A In spite of B On account of C In favour of D Instead of Question A resource B source C matter D substance Question A of B to C on D in Question A Then B If C Because D Though Question A others B another C the others D other Question A instead B in one way C on one hand D in fact Question 10 A suitable B open C likely D suited GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 5: The Industrial Revolution in Britain was built on the use of machines in factories Since the 1950s, Britain's (36) industries have replaced machine operators with computers, and this (37) has led to a decline in the number of (38) .in many factories Goods are bought and used much more than ever before but a lot of these goods are imported By the beginning of the 20th century, other industrial countries like the USA were (39) .with Britain's exports, and countries in the Far East have been able to provide cheaper (40) since the 1970s Areas located with heavy industries are suffering high unemployment During the last 30 years, there has been a constant rise in smaller industries (41) .as "light industries" These ones use electricity and are not (42) on raw materials such as coal so they are "footloose", i.e they can be located anywhere They produce such things as washing machines or spare (43) Some of these industries produce nothing at all, but provide services like distribution The consumer boom of the 1980s and the increased leisure time of most Britons have led to rapid (44) in service industries like banking, tourism, retailing and information processing, and in industries which distribute, maintain, and repair (45) .consumer goods A manufacturing B big C large D running A replacement B change C exchange D automation A employers B employees C labors D servers A working B familiar C competing D fed up A things B products C produce D imports A considered B regarded C known D worked A dependent B reliable C dependable D command A details B parts C sections D gadgets A growth B increase C expansion D extension 10 A everyday B home C household D expensive 10 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 8: POLAR BEARS Polar bears are in danger of dying out (1) _ some other endangered animals, it’s not hunters that are the problem, it’s climate change Since 1979, the ice cap at the Arctic Circle where the polar bears live has (2) _ in size by about 30 percent The temperature in the Arctic has slowly been (3) _ and this is (4) _ the sea ice to melt, endangering the polar bears’ home The polar bears’ main (5) _ of food are the different types of seal found in the Arctic They catch them by waiting next to the air holes the seals have (6) _in the ice (7) _ the bears are very strong swimmers, they could never catch seals in the water This means that the bears (8) _ rely on the ice to hunt Polar bears also need sea ice to travel They can (9) _ a huge territory and often swim from one part of the ice to another They have been known to swim up to 100km, but when there is less ice, they may have to swim further and this can (10) _ fatal to the bears A number of bears have drowned in the last few years and scientists believe that it is because they were not able to reach more sea ice before they became too tired and couldn’t swim any further Question 1: A Opposite B Compared C Unlike D Different Question 2: A cut B reduced C shortened D lost Question 3: A lifting B gaining C advancing D rising Question 4: A resulting B turning C causing D creating Question 5: A sources B means C origins D materials Question 6: A placed B set C brought D made Question 7: A Even B Although C As D Despite Question 8: A really B properly C surely D fully Question 9: A pass B extend C cover D spread Question 10: A prove B happen C come 13 D end GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 9: Getting friends and family to pose for photos is hard enough, but how would you cope with a rabbit, an owl or a butterfly that simply (1) _to keep still? Simon King, wildlife film—maker and photographer, says you don't need any formal (2) _ to get started "The whole idea is that photographing wildlife should be fun" Simon offers the following (3) _ Specialize from the start You're more likely to get good result sooner if you (4) _ on the type of wildlife - insects for instance - (5) _ than just going off to the woods or park with your camera and snapping whatever you see Pick something that isn't hard to photograph Choosing an animal that's hard to (6) _ or will run away if it sees you (7) _ unnecessary problems How about flowers or a group of birds? Search second-hand camera shops and local papers for quality (8) _ You don't need to (9) _ a fortune Simon started with just a second-hand camera that cost around $30 But you will need a single lens reflex camera Remember it's the whole photograph that counts, nor just the subject (10) _ you're composing a picture and try to be as artistic as possible Question 1: A disobeys B dislikes C refuses D avoids Question 2: A training B education C exercise D lecture Question 3: A lessons B facts C warnings D tips Question 4: A think B concentrate C limit D depend Question 5: A more B other C better D rather Question 6:A spot B notice C meet D glance Question 7:A creates B starts C puts D leads Question 8: A instruments B equipment C material D tools Question 9: A cost B make C spend Question 10: A think B guess C invent 14 D lose D imagine GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 10: If you're an environmentalist, plastic is a word you tend to say with a sneer or a snarl It has become a symbol of our wasteful, throw- away society But there seems little doubt it is here to stay, and the truth is, of course, that plastic has brought enormous ( 1) even environmental evil- it's the way society chooses to uses and ( 2) _them Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastic are made from oil, gas or coalnon-renewable natural ( 3) We (4) _well over three million tones of the stuff in Britain each year and, sooner or later, most of it is thrown away A high ( 5) of our annual consumption is in the form of packaging, and this ( 6) _about seven per cent by weight of our domestic refuse Almost all of it could be recycled, but very little of it is, though the plastic recycling (7) _is growing fast The plastics themselves are extremely energy-rich- they have a higher calorific (8) _than coal and one (9) of "recovery" strongly favoured by the plastic manufacturers is the ( 10) of waste plastic into a fuel Question A savings B pleasures C benefits D profits Question A abuse B endanger C store D dispose Question A processes B resources C products D fuels Question A import B consign C remove D consume Question A amount B proportion C portion D rate Question A makes B carries C takes D constitutes Question A industry B manufacture C plant D factory Question A demand B effect C value D degree Question A medium B method Question 10 A melting B conversion C measure C change 15 D mechanism D replacement GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 11: Face-to-face conversation is two-way process: You speak to me, I reply to you and so on Two-way (1) depends on having a coding system that is understood by both (2) and receiver, and an agreed convention about (3) the beginning and end of the (4) In speech, the coding system is the language like English or Spanish; the convention that one person speaks at a time may seem too obvious to (5) In fact, the (6) that people use in conversations and meetings are often non-verbal For example, lowering the pitch of the voice may mean the end of a sentence; a sharp intake of breath may signal the desire to (7) , catching the chairman’s (8) may indicate the desire to speak in a formal setting like a (9) , a clenched fist may indicate anger When these (10) signals are not possible, more formal signals may be needed Question 1: A interchange B exchange C correspondence D communication Question 2: A announcer B transmitter C messenger D sender Question 3: A signing B symbolizingC signalling D showing Question 4: A message B topic C idea Question 5: A judge B mention C recognize D notice Question 6: A signals B symptoms C symbols D theme D signs Question 7: A interchange B interfere C interrupt D intercept Question 8: A elbow B eye C shoulder D hand Question 9: A chat B debate C broadcast D lecture Question 10: A visual B auditory C verbal D sensory 16 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 12: Why people like to chew gum? Some people say they like the taste say they can think better if they chew gum Some people chew it when they have some boring work to .Others chew gum when they are nervous Gum is a of things For many years gum companies made gum from chicle Chicle is a natural gum from a tree in Mexico and Central America Now companies use plastic and rubber made from petroleum _of chicle Gum must be soft you can chew it A softener keeps it soft The gum company makes the softener from vegetable oil A sweetener makes the gum sweet The sweetener is usually sugar Then the company _6 _ the flavor Thomas Adams made the first gum from chicle in 1836 _7 _, chewing gum was not new The Greeks chewed gum from a tree _ 2,000 years ago Mayan Indians in Mexico chewed chicle Indians in the Northeastern United States taught Europeans to chew gum from a tree there People first made bubble gum in 1928 Children like to _ bubble with bubble gum Some university students _10 _ Question 1: A The other B Others C The others D Other Question 2: A make B get C D carry Question 3: A mixture B roll C fix D connection Question 4: A aside B apart C inside D instead Question 5: A so that B then C for D that Question 6: A puts B places C adds D fits Question 7: A However B More C But D Though Question 8: A more B over C above D than Question 9: A turn B set C pass D blow Question 10: A so B too C then D same 17 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 13: Technology is used for the (1) of human needs and production is increased by technology Science and technology, the (2) concerned with know- what and latter with know- how, are continuously conditioning man’s world view and have (3) material standards beyond any earlier vision of man’s potential However, in this science and technology are too much concerned with quantity at the expense of (4) technology has made (5) _ the mass production of articles and mass production seems to have reduced the quality of goods If a motor-car in the past was made to last, today it is made to be thrown away and (6) _ While the quality in terms of new features has improved, (7) is of little concern to manufacturers In their drive to expand markets and be competitive, manufacturers ignore quality and are concerned with quantity or the number of products that can be sold Evolving technology encourages the economy of economy of transience which is fast replacing the economy on permanence of the old world Medical technology prolongs life and reduces the mortality rate, but the quality of life (8) _ Genetics has increased agricultural productivity, and the Green Revolution that it set in motion had resulted in high- yielding variety of wheat, rice paddy, etc., but they (9) the quality which the traditional variety, through low- yielding, had Alvin Toffler in his Future Shock considers the lowering of costs of manufacture and increased demand as factors (10) _ for the sacrifice of quality Science and technology should be concerned equally with quality and quantity This concern is of great importance since science and technology are to make further strides A satisfaction B requirement C disappoinment D.demand A before B older C former D first A raised B risen C lifted D.aroused A number B value C evaluation D.quality A it possible B possible C available A replaced B refunded C repaired D.impossible D refilled A endurance B strength C duration D durability A deteriorates B diminished C loosens D.devastates A insufficient B shortage C lack D miss 10 A used B responsible C asking 18 D.explaining GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 14: In the United States and Canada, it is very important to (1) a person directly in the eyes when you are having a conversation (2) him or her If you look down or to the side when the (3) person is talking, that person will think that you are not interested in (4) he or she is saying This, (5) , is not polite If you look down or to the side when you are talking, it might 6) that you are not honest However, people who are speaking will sometimes look away for (7) seconds when they are thinking or (8) to find the right word But they always turn immediately (9) to look the listener directly in the eyes These social "rules" are (10) for two men, two women, a man and a woman, or an adult and a child Question 1: A talk B notice C get D look Question 2: A with B to C for D about Question 3: A others B another C one D other Question 4: A which B what C that D where Question 5: A yet B in addition C of course D although Question 6: A become B come C seem D turn Question 7: A a little B a few C little D few Question 8: A trying B looking C achieving D managing Question 9: A up B back C down D over Question 10: A like B the same C likely D such as 19 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 15: Looking for an unforgettable way to celebrate that special occasion? Well, the (1) of options open today’s youngster – or even “ oldster” for that matter, is a far cry from the traditional party or restaurant visit No longer is it (2) sufficient to invite your friends round , buy some food and get a barker to produce a cake No, today’s birthday boy or girl is looking for something out of the ordinary, ranging from the (3) expensive to the downright dangerous Anything goes, as long as it is unusual and impressive Top of this year ‘s popular (4) are as follows: taking some friends rally driving , helicopter lessons, plane trip and parachuting , and hot air ballooning Then there is always group bungee jumping or taking your buddies on a stomach – churning , while water rafting (5) down rapids The desire of adventurous celebration is not restricted to the (6) I recently met an octogenarian who celebrated (7) the milestone of eighty by having a fly lesson Of course, if you have money the world is your oyster A very rich relation of mine flew fifty of his friends to a Caribbean island to mark the passing of his half century Unfortunately I was only a (8) relation Undoubtedly, the more traditional forms of celebration continue to (9) the less extravagant or less adventurous among us However, with my own half century looming on the horizon I would not say no to a weekend in Paris and a meal at the Eiffel Tower I can (10) dream Perhaps by the time I’m eighty I’ll be able to afford it Question 1: A scale B degree C range D variance Question 2: A hoped B decided C marked D considered Question 3: A perfectly B dearly C outrageously D.explicity Question 4: A experiments B extravagances C exposures D expenses Question 5: A ride B travel C voyage D crossing Question 6: A adolescents B teenagers C youth D young Question 7: A attaining B arriving C reaching D getting Question 8: A distant B remote C faraway D slight Question 9: A pacify B satisfy C distract D absorb Question 10:A however B but C nevertheless D.anyway 20 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 16: COULD COMPUTER GAMES BE GOOD FOR YOU AFTER ALL In Britain, the average young person now spends more money on games each year than on going to the cinema or renting videos But is this _ a bad thing? For years, newspaper reports have been _ that children who spend too much time playing computer games become unsociable, bad- tempered, even violent as a _ But new research, _ out in both Europe and the USA, suggests that the opposite may be true Indeed, playing some of the more complicated games may help people of all ages to improve certain skills Researchers claim that this is because the games _ the brain work harder in certain ways, like _ sounds and movements quickly and identifying what they are The fact that people play the games repeatedly _ that they get a lot of practice in these skills which are therefore likely to become highly developed Social skills may benefit, too Researchers in Chicago think that fans of first- person shooter games _ “Counterstrike” are better than non-players when it comes to building trust and co-operation, and that this _ them to make good friendships and become strong members of their communities So rather than 10 _ up computer games, perhaps young people need to spend more time on them? Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question Question 10 A necessarily A speaking A product A worked A make A realizing A means A in order to A supports A giving B certainly B informing B result B thought B force B noticing B asks B such as B helps B ending C fully C telling C reason C turned C push C imagining C brings C due to C shows C taking 21 D nearly D saying D conclusion D carried D keep D solving D causes D as well as D serves D stopping GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 17: Everybody has heard about the Internet, you know that an “intranet” is? It is this: just as the Internet connects people around the world, intranets connect people within a (1) company In fact, intranets make use of the same software programs as the Internet to (2) computers and people This (3) that you not have to buy a lot of additional programs to set up an intranet service If your intranet is working properly, it can link together a huge amount of (4) which is stored in different places in the company In this way, people can get the information they need, regardless (5) where it comes from A company intranet can , of course, be used for unimportant information like office memos or canteen menus But an intranet should (6) important information which people need to make decision about new products, costs and so on The intranet is (7) to share their information with other people (8) , many departments don’t want to share their specialist knowledge with others Another problem which often occurs is (9) top managers like to use the intranet to “ communicate down” rather than to “ communicate across” That is, they use the intranet to give orders, not to (10) information between themselves and others working in the same organization Question A large B jointed C single Question A contact B introduce C distinguish D.compare Question A is B is said C indicates D means Question A parts B information C elements D.properties Question A on B with C of D to Question A bring B provide C give D take Question A likely B willing C going D.happened Question A Luckily B Consequently C However D.Unfortunately Question A that B what C which D.it Question 10 A change B exchange C transform D.transit 22 D branch GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 18: GLOBAL WARMING Few people now question the reality of global warming and its effects on the world's climate Many scientists (1) the blame for recent natural disasters on the increase (2) the world's temperatures and are convinced that, more than ever before, the Earth is at (3) from the forces of the wind, rain and sun According to them, global warming is making extreme weather events, (4) as hurricanes and droughts, even more (5) and causing sea levels all around the world to (6) Environmental groups are putting (7) on governments to take action to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide which is given (8) by factories and power plants, thus attacking the problem at its source They are in (9) of more money being spent on research into solar, wind and wave energy devices, which could then replace existing power (10) Some scientists, however, believe that even if we stopped releasing carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere tomorrow, we would have to wait several hundred years to notice the results Global warming, it seems, is to stay Question 1: A give B put C takes D has Question 2: A in B at C by D to Question 3: A danger B harm C risk D threat Question 4: A just B well C such D even Question 5: A strong B strict C heavy D severe Question 6: A raise B lift C rise D arise Question 7: A pressure B force C persuasion D encouragement Question 8: A off B up C over D away Question 9: A request B suggestion C belief D favor Question 10: A houses B factories C stations D generations 23 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 19: Interpreting the feelings of other people is not always easy, as we all know, and we (1) as much on what they seem to be telling us, as on the actual words they say Facial (2) and tone of voice are obvious ways of showing our (3) to something, and it may well be that we unconsciously express views that we are trying to hide The art of being (4) lies in picking up these signals, realizing what the other person is trying to say, and acting so that they are not embarrassed in any way For example, we may understand that they are in fact (5) to answer our question, and so we stop pressing them Body movements in general may also indicate feelings, and interviewers often pay particular attention to the way a candidate for a job walks into the room and sits down However it is not difficult to present the right kind of appearance, while what many employers want to know relates to the candidate’s character traits, and (6) stability This raises the awkward question of whether job candidates should be asked to complete psychological tests, and the further problem of whether such tests actually produce (7) results For many people, being asked to take part in such a test would be an objectionable (8) into their private lives After all, a prospective employer would hardly ask a candidate to run a hundred meters, or expect his or her family doctor to provide (9) medical information Quite apart from this problem, can such tests predict whether a person is likely to be a (10) employee or a values colleague? Question 1: A reckon B rely C trust D estimate Question 2: A manner B image C expression D looks Question 3: A notion B feeling C view D reaction Question 4: A successful B humble C good at D tactful Question 5: A hesitant B reluctant C tending D used Question 6: A psychological B physical C similar D relevant Question 7: A reliable B predictable C faithful D regular Question 8: A invasion B infringement C intrusion D interference Question 9: A confidential B secretive C reticent D classified Question 10: A laborious B particular C thorough D conscientious 24 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang PASSAGE 20: If you can roll a ball, you can play bowls Everyone can play: young and old, men and women, the fit and the not so fit It is the (1) outdoor game that really is a sport for all What other sports can grandparents play on equal terms with their grandchildren? What other game is so simple that you could take up it today and be (2) in the national championship tomorrow? Simple? Perhaps that is not the (3) word There are bowls players in their thousands (4) will tell you that, although bowls is a game that anyone can (5) in five minutes, it takes a lifetime to (6) it They are the people who have developed a passionate interest in the game (7) for outsiders, bowls is another word, and a strange and puzzling one They see a bowl game in action and wonder what is going on What the players are trying to is easy to explain Their (8) is to roll their bowls, called wood, as near as possible to the little white ball, called the jack If one of your bowls finishes nearer to the jack than your opponent's, you score one point and he or she scores (9) If you have the two nearest, you score two, and so on The skill involved in rolling a bowl that weighs around kilos across about 40 meters so that it stops only a very short (10) from the target is just as impressive as the skills required in other sports Question A special B one C alone D individual Question A entering B precisely C competing D accurately Question A right B genuine C just D suitable Question A when B whose C which D who Question A see through B pick up C catch on D find out Question A tame B manage C master D control Question A However B Although C Unlike D Besides Question A point B attempt C scheme D aim Question A something B anything C nothing D everything Question 10 A extent B distance C range D length 25 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang ĐÁP ÁN Câu Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage Passage 10 Câu Passage Passage 11 Passage 12 Passage 13 Passage 14 Passage 15 Passage 16 Passage 17 Passage 18 Passage 19 Passage 20 10 D B C A A A D C C C B D C B D B C B A A A D B C B D A D D B C A D D C D B C B A D A A B A C C B D D B A A B B B A C C C B D D D B C A B A C A A A D B B C D A D D B B A A B A A B C A B C C B C C A D B 10 D B A D C A C B B D D C C A D D A A C C C A A D C B D C D A A D D B B D B C D D B A B C A C C A B B B A D B A D A C B C B A B B A D C A B B A C D B B B B C A C A B A A A B D A C D B A D A C A B C D B 26 GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang 27 ... phân biệt danh từ đếm danh từ không đếm được; danh từ số danh từ số nhiều để chia động từ/ trợ động từ cho Các em cần lưu ý có nhiều từ kết thúc –s danh từ số (ví dụ series) hay có danh từ không...GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang => Sau xác định từ loại từ cần điền danh từ quan sát phương án em lại thấy có danh từ differences difference Vậy từ đúng?... liên hệ từ cần điền với cụm từ khác câu để nhận biết ý câu khẳng định hay phủ định từ xác định dạng thức từ GV NGUYỄN QUỲNH TRANG Facebook: www.facebook.com/lopcoquynhtrang  XÁC ĐỊNH CỤM TỪ CỐ
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