MCAT verbal test (23)

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MCAT Section Tests Dear Future Doctor, The following Section Test and explanations should be used to practice and to assess your mastery of critical thinking in each of the section areas Topics are confluent and are not necessarily in any specific order or fixed proportion This is the level of integration in your preparation that collects what you have learned in the Kaplan classroom and synthesizes your knowledge with your critical thinking Simply completing the tests is inadequate; a solid understanding of your performance through your Score Reports and the explanations is necessary to diagnose your specific weaknesses and address them before Test Day All rights are reserved pursuant to the copyright laws and the contract clause in your enrollment agreement and as printed below Misdemeanor and felony infractions can severely limit your ability to be accepted to a medical program and a conviction can result in the removal of a medical license We offer this material for your practice in your own home as a courtesy and privilege Practice today so that you can perform on test day; this material was designed to give you every advantage on the MCAT and we wish you the best of luck in your preparation Sincerely, Albert Chen Executive Director, Pre-Health Research and Development Kaplan Test Prep © 2003 Kaplan, Inc All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by Photostat, microfilm, xerography or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical without the written permission of Kaplan, Inc This book may not be duplicated, distributed or resold, pursuant to the terms of your Kaplan Enrollment Agreement Verbal Reasoning Time: 85 Minutes Questions 1-60 DO NOT BEGIN THIS SECTION UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO VERBAL REASONING DIRECTIONS: There are nine passages in the Verbal Reasoning test Each passage is followed by several questions After reading a passage, select the best answer to each question If you are not certain of an answer, eliminate the alternatives that you know to be incorrect and then select an answer from the remaining alternatives Indicate your selection by blackening the corresponding oval on your answer document Passage I (Questions 1-7) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 In the course of the twentieth century, increasing awareness of how chemical wastes can affect public health and the environment resulted in restriction of dumping However, where dumping had already occurred, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous wastes remained at sites such as warehouses, landfills, and even rivers To locate, investigate, and clean up the worst of these sites nationwide, Congress in 1980 established the Superfund Program, administered by Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) Under Superfund, companies found responsible for pollution can be financially liable for the cost of cleanup Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are heavy, syrupy hydrocarbons that were first synthesized in the 1880s Because they conduct heat but not electricity and are water-insoluble, fire-resistant, and extremely stable (withstanding temperatures of up to 1600° F), PCBs were found, in the 1930s, to be extremely useful as components in cooling systems and electrical equipment (transformers and capacitors) They were widely used for these purposes and also in the composition of sealants, rubber, paints, plastics, inks, and insecticides PCBs were banned in 1979, after researchers linked them to cancer and developmental problems in humans However, PCBs persist in the environment for extremely long periods Because PCBs have an affinity for fat, they have a marked tendency to accumulate in living organisms; increasing in concentration as they move up the food chain While avoiding release of PCBs into the environment is today a well-settled principle, what to about those already in the environment can be controversial 45 50 55 60 65 70 is prohibited But, while fish consumption remains the most potent route of PCB exposure, exposure can also occur through other routes Eight municipalities currently draw drinking water from the Hudson and another, New York City, draws it during emergencies Furthermore, air along the river contains elevated concentrations of PCBs, and individuals living along the River show PCB residue in their bodies, paralleling the river's contamination EPA has recommended that PCBs be removed from the river bottom by dredging, thus reducing contamination and possibly eventually permitting revitalization of commercial fishing, which once generated $40 million income annually However, the corporation blamed for the dumping argues that dredging may “stir up” the PCBs (which they describe as now “lying undisturbed” in the riverbed), causing the water, air, and riverbanks to become even more contaminated Some area residents echo these concerns and also argue that dredging will subject them to years of unacceptable noise, disruption, and curtailed recreational activities Although many take positions on whether dredging will have positive or negative consequences to the Hudson River Valley, there is only perfunctory attention to the ultimate fate of the dredged PCBs EPA’s report recommending dredging indicates that, due to opposition of local residents, neither a landfill nor a thermal treatment facility (for high temperature incineration) can be locallysighted and the PCBs should therefore be transported to a Toxic Substances Control Act or solid waste landfill outside of the area The report does not, however, identify a specific location Due to dumping over a period of 35 years by two capacitor manufacturing plants located along the northern part of the Hudson River in New York State, EPA has estimated that 1.1 million pounds of PCBs have accumulated Field surveys of the river have found substantial contamination in 40 submerged sediment “hot spots,” exposed shoreline remnant deposits, dredge spoils on riverbanks, and estuary sediments Today, because of PCB contamination, human consumption of fish caught in the most affected areas of the Hudson River GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE I II III A B C D following pieces of additional information would be most helpful to it in determining whether it should support the EPA recommendation to remove PCBs from the Hudson River by dredging? It can be inferred from the passage that PCBs are: heavier than water toxic to fish readily biodegradable A how present PCB levels in the river compare to levels that existed prior to industrialization B to what extent equipment to be used for dredging can remove the PCBs without causing their release into the air and into upper river currents C how the PCBs will be disposed of after removal from the river D the expected cost of the dredging operation I only I and II only I and III only II and III only An “estuary” is defined as the part of a wide, lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides Information contained in the passage indicates that PCBs in estuary sediments most probably: A originate from an additional source of pollution not yet discovered B indicate that PCBs in the river not necessarily remain where they were originally deposited C are present at a background level typical of the earth’s environment as a whole D indicate that all the PCBs currently in the river can be expected to eventually end up in the ocean A reduce the level of PCBs in their bodies B avoid any further increase in the level of PCBs in their bodies C mitigate the accumulation of PCBs in their bodies D prevent cancer and developmental problems Based on information contained in the passage as a whole, it can be inferred that the opinion of the company responsible for PCB pollution of the Hudson River, with respect to the appropriateness of clean-up, is most probably: Which of the following is stated in the passage but is not explained by facts or data contained in the passage? A Individuals who live along the Hudson have a concentration of PCBs in their bodies that parallel the concentration of the substances in the river B PCBs were useful as components of electrical equipment and cooling systems C PCBs accumulate in living organisms D What should be done about PCBs which contaminate the environment is controversial A at least as objective as the opinion of area residents B reflective of its overriding concern with its public image C financially motivated D indicative of its lack of connection to commercial fishing interests It can be inferred from the passage that the justification used for prohibiting individuals from consuming fish caught in contaminated sections of the Hudson River is that the individuals may thereby: According to the passage, the EPA differs from local residents and the company responsible for PCB contamination in that it affirms that it bases its recommended action on benefit to: A commercial fishing interests B residential interests C the environment as a whole D recreational activities Suppose a local newspaper in a Hudson River community was preparing an editorial Which of the GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE Passage II (Questions 8–14) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and Avignon; the conclave was unanimous in the choice of Alexander V, and his vacant seat was soon filled by a similar election of John XXIII, the most profligate of mankind But instead of extinguishing the schism, the rashness of the French and Italians had given a third pretender to the chair of St Peter Such new claims of the synod and conclave were disputed; three kings, of Germany, Hungary, and Naples, adhered to the cause of Gregory XII; and Benedict XIII, himself a Spaniard, was acknowledged by the devotion and patriotism of that powerful nation It can be inferred that a goal shared by the Council of Pisa and the Council of Constance was to: A reunite the Catholic Church under a single pope B forge an alliance between the most powerful nations in Europe C obtain for the Catholic Church the protection of the Emperor Sigismond D appoint a native Roman to the papacy The rash proceedings of Pisa were corrected by the council of Constance; the emperor Sigismond acted a conspicuous part as the advocate or protector of the Catholic church; and the number and weight of civil and ecclesiastical members might seem to constitute the statesgeneral of Europe Of the three popes, John XXIII was the first victim: he fled and was brought back a prisoner: the most scandalous charges were suppressed; the vicar of Christ was only accused of piracy, murder, rape, sodomy, and incest; and after subscribing his own condemnation, he expiated in prison the imprudence of trusting his person to a free city beyond the Alps Gregory XII, whose obedience was reduced to the narrow precincts of Rimini, descended with more honour from the throne; and his ambassador convened the session, in which he renounced the title and authority of lawful pope To vanquish the obstinacy of Benedict XIII or his adherents, the emperor in person undertook a journey from Constance to Perpignan The kings of Castile, Arragon, Navarre, and Scotland, obtained an equal and honourable treaty; with the concurrence of the Spaniards, Benedict was deposed by the council; but the harmless old man was left in a solitary castle to excommunicate twice each day the rebel kingdoms which had deserted his cause According to the passage, why was the Council of Constance more successful than the Council of Pisa? I II III A B C D 10 After thus eradicating the remains of the schism, the synod of Constance proceeded with slow and cautious steps to elect the sovereign of Rome and the head of the church On this momentous occasion, the college of twenty-three cardinals was fortified with thirty deputies; six of whom were chosen in each of the five great nations of Christendom, – the Italian, the German, the French, the Spanish, and the English: the interference of strangers was softened by their generous preference of an Italian and a Roman; and the hereditary, as well as personal, merit of Otho Colonna recommended him to the conclave Rome accepted with joy and obedience the noblest of her sons; the ecclesiastical state was defended by his powerful family; and the elevation of Martin V is the era of the restoration and establishment of the popes in the Vatican The Council of Constance made sure that it had the support of the most important European powers The Council of Constance elected a pope who was more virtuous than any of his rivals The Council of Constance elected a pope who was already respected by the Roman people I and II I and III II and III I, II, and III Why does the author distinguish between “the most scandalous charges” against John XXIII, and the charges of which he was actually accused? A to demonstrate the leniency of the Council of Constance B to suggest how serious the suppressed charges must have been C to give an example of John XXIII’s political influence D to show the importance of electing an Italian to the papacy GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 11 How did the Spanish contribute to the resolution of the division within the Catholic Church? 13 A They encouraged the cardinals to revolt, and they deposed the two reigning popes B They opposed the French and Italians, and they supported Benedict XIII C They protected the Catholic Church, and they prosecuted John XXIII D They agreed to the deposal of Benedict XIII, and they helped to elect Martin V 12 A Benedict XIII and Gregory XII would not have been deposed B the Council of Constance would not have taken place C the Catholic Church would not have been reunited D the papal seat would not have been moved back to Rome It can be inferred that the author would agree with which of the following statements about Benedict XIII, Gregory XII, and John XXIII? A B C D The passage suggests that if John XXIII had been generally acceptable to Catholics throughout Europe, which of the following would have resulted? 14 Benedict XIII was the best of the three Gregory XII was the best of the three None of the three deserved to be pope John XXIII had the best claim to having been legitimately elected At the Council of Constance, why were the 23 cardinals joined by 30 deputies? A to make sure that their choice for pope was acceptable to the most important European states B to prevent them escaping C to protect them from governmental interference D to make sure that they maintained a proper level of decorum GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE Passage III (Questions 15–21) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Until recently, most scientists believed that memory inevitably deteriorates with age One commonly cited example of this deterioration is the fact that elderly people often cannot remember recent events, even though they may recall details from the distant past But contemporary research into how the mind stores and retrieves information refutes the notion of the inevitable decline in memory New studies suggest that we have more than one kind of memory, and imply that elderly people who suffer from forgetfulness can utilize other types of memory to compensate for the decline 55 60 This new conception of memory stems from a shift in methodology of memory research While older studies of memory and aging involved comparisons between different age groups, recent investigations tested the same group of people over a number of years Such longitudinal data more clearly establishes the relationship between memory and aging Through these studies of older adults, researchers concluded that there exist three major kinds of memory, only one of which declines in old age 65 Previous investigations into the workings of memory usually tested “episodic” memory, which describes the recall of specific events, as well as the ability to remember names and the whereabouts of items like car keys This ability usually remains intact until the mid-sixties, when people often become forgetful of things like recent events and minor details While some researchers suggest that this well-known decline in episodic memory in the elderly stems from degeneration of the frontal lobes of the brain, many scientists believe that such memory loss is largely due to retirement: after the demands of work stop, most people no longer exercise their mental faculties as strenuously Thus, regular mental “exercise” might curtail memory loss 75 70 A third type of memory, “implicit” memory, deals with the tremendous variety of mental activities we perform without making any intentional effort Examples of these include actions like driving a car, touch-typing, or riding a bicycle Scientists have learned through observations of amnesiacs that this type of memory is distinct from both episodic and semantic memory In one such study, an amnesiac patient who had been an avid golfer before developing a memory problem remembered which club to use for each stroke; however, he forgot that he had played a hole within minutes of having done so In addition, further studies of amnesiacs have shown that people with these disorders can learn new facts but cannot remember when and where they had learned them Studies of people in their sixties and seventies showed similar results: like amnesiacs, older people are able to learn from new experience as well as younger people, but often have difficulty remembering the source of their knowledge or skill Such studies into the structure of memory shed new light on the problems of memory loss in the aged While the findings are encouraging, it must be noted that such studies not deal with memory problems associated with illness, disease, or injury to the brain 15 The passage implies that advanced age might adversely affect which of the following? I But episodic memory comprises only part of this intricate brain function Memory researchers have identified two other types of memory, neither of which seems to deteriorate with age “Semantic” memory, which describes our ability to recall knowledge and facts as well as events in the distant past, does not seem to lessen over the course of a lifetime In fact, such memory may be even sharper in elderly people than in the young or middle-aged When a group of men and women in their sixties were tested on a specific vocabulary list and retested on the same list a decade later, the group had improved their scores by an average of six words—an increase researchers consider substantial Such studies suggest that by taking notes or mulling over events, elderly people who suffer from forgetfulness can store more information in the semantic memory, thus compensating for episodic memory loss II III A B C D memory of details of a recent conversation recollection of childhood memories ability to perform routine tasks I only II only III only I and II only GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 16 The author’s attitude might be described as one of: A B C D 17 20 unbridled enthusiasm wary skepticism reserved optimism unbiased objectivity A B C D 21 Based on the information in the passage, the author would probably agree with which of the following statements regarding memory problems associated with illness, disease, or injury? A Since many elderly suffer from such organic dysfunctions, memory research remains more theoretical than practical B Scientists hope that these studies will contribute to our understanding of these disorders as well C It is likely that researchers will turn toward these more critical problems in the near future D Since such disorders not conform to the tripartate model of memory, most researchers are not interested in them It can be inferred from the passage that recent developments in memory research can be attributed largely to: A scientists’ efforts to dismantle stereotypes regarding the abilities of elderly persons B recent discoveries that distinguish age-related forgetfulness from disease and injury-related memory loss C the realization that mental exercise frequently diminishes memory loss D new methodologies that clarify the relationship between memory and aging 19 amnesia semantic memory loss episodic memory loss implicit memory loss The primary purpose of the passage is to: A discuss the ways in which a new theory of memory challenges common assumptions regarding memory and aging B explain why past investigations into memory tested only episodic memory C describe recent research into the functioning of the brain D consider the reasons why episodic memory diminished in later years 18 The passage suggests that an elderly person who cannot remember how to tie her shoes is most probably suffering from: According to the passage, older people often forget recent events but remember the distant past because: A childhood events exist as part of implicit memory B episodic memory declines while implicit memory does not C episodic memory declines but semantic memory improves with age D retired elderly people make few demands on their semantic memory GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE Passage IV (Questions 22–28) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 What is the value of learning about hypotheses that were once espoused to explain an observed phenomenon, but that have now been long disproved and invalidated? Some students may feel that we should not focus on the past, and that our thoughts should be trained on new knowledge and invention, rather than antiquated ideas What these students not understand is the importance of the old ideas in shaping our current understanding of the world around us, and that an outright dismissal of past theories simply because they have been rejected by new evidence may limit our understanding of current theories 55 60 Darwin’s theory of natural selection as the mechanism for evolution is all too often taught in a vacuum in high school biology classrooms, as if this brilliant naturalist developed a groundbreaking theory on natural order which had never before been contemplated in any form It is only by learning about the gradual development of evolutionary theory, and the role of some rather religious individuals in shaping this theory, that students may come to see the logic and power behind Darwin’s relatively simple ideas the only reason mountains and other features of the Earth’s terrain had been built the way they had was because of long, gradual processes that shaped these structures There was no way, he felt, that the Earth could be several thousand years old as asserted in the Bible In addition, the discovery of new plants, animals, and fossils as explorers traveled to uncharted regions of the world aroused suspicion about the paucity of animal and plant “kinds” in the Bible Improvements in scientists’ abilities to estimate the age of the Earth and the relative ages of fossils also pushed people to question old assumptions 22 The main idea of this passage is that: A religious scientists before Darwin greatly influenced his formation of the theory of natural selection B similarities between species of plants and animals were too great to ignore as people attempted to explain relationships in nature C Darwin relied on a great deal of information from those who lived before him as he formed his well-known conclusions about the mechanisms of evolution D old ideas should not be dismissed simply because they are old and disproved Many of the contributions upon which Darwin built his ideas came from scientists who were staunch creationists themselves These scientists believed that all organisms on Earth had been placed here by “special creation,” by God, because there was little evidence at the time to support evolution Carolus Linnaeus, who developed a framework for modern systems of taxonomy and classification in the 1700s, actually undertook his research with the hope of discovering patterns of God’s creation Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the age of the Earth using molten spheres of iron and measuring cooling times, after which he proposed that the Earth was at least 75,000 years old and perhaps as old as three million years LeClerc also perceived that species were not fixed and could change over time; he even proposed that closely related species, such as the horse and donkey, had developed from a common ancestor and had been modified by different climactic conditions Yet, LeClerc was a devout Christian creationist and devoted much of his writing to the debunking of evolutionary ideas Despite their commitments to religion, LeClerc and Linnaeus both gave Darwin crucial raw material to work with – their ideas concerning the similarities between related species and possible connections with common ancestors cried out for a reasonable explanation 23 Findings that challenged Biblical accounts of creation included all of the following EXCEPT: A similarities between related species, such as donkeys and horses B indications that mountain building processes took tens of thousands of years C findings of a great diversity of new plants and animals across a variety of habitats D fossil findings indicating that the Earth was, in fact, tens of thousands of years old or more For centuries before Darwin, data that challenged the biblical account of creation was surfacing in many fields of research As explorers began to study the forces that shape the Earth, such as mountain building and volcanic eruptions, accounts from scripture and assertions that the Earth was very young began to be called into question Uniformitarian geologists such as Charles Lyell felt that GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 24 If the author were teaching a class on evolution, the passage suggests that the class would spend a significant amount of time discussing: 27 With respect to his claim that students need to understand and appreciate old theories, the author asserts that: A the origins of Darwin’s theory of natural selection B details of Darwin’s theory of natural selection C the Biblical account of creation D taxonomy and classification and their importance in Darwin’s ideas 25 I II Georges Le Clerc’s ideas on evolution may have been closest to those of: III A Darwin, because LeClerc focused much of his research on understanding similarities between related plants and animals B Linnaeus, because they were both devout Christians who attempted to explain natural phenomena in a supernatural light C Lyell, because both scientists concluded that the supposed age of the Earth could not account for certain measured features D Linnaeus, because both scientists gave Darwin important raw material to work with as Darwin formulated his ideas on natural selection 26 A B C D 28 I and II II only II and III I, II, and III According to the passage, the idea that mountains and other structures take a great deal of time to form was an idea championed by: A B C D The author’s discussion of Darwin’s theory in paragraph of the passage suggests that: Darwin’s theory of natural selection cannot be understood or applied without the knowledge of evolutionary hypotheses that came before him Even now-debunked concepts, such as LeClerc’s melting iron spheres to calculate Earth’s age, are important in building a complete picture of how Darwin came to his revolutionary theory Learning about Linnaeus’ classification schemes would help students see how Linnaeus’ work gave Darwin a body of knowledge that needed proper explaining catastrophists Darwinists creationists uniformitarians A Darwin does not deserve the credit he is given for his ideas on evolutionary theory B Darwin’s theories should be presented in the context within which they were originally conceived C Darwin’s ideas would be properly devalued if people knew the religious background from which his ideas stemmed D Darwin’s ideas are simple enough that he didn’t need much help in formulating them GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE Passage V (Questions 29–33) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 In the fast new choreography of American compassion, explanation is twirled into excuse, and the spotlight’s shine endows feelings with a prominence that facts could only hope for Perception has become more important than reality In homes, classrooms, and workplaces, we prefer to understand viewpoints rather than discern truths To judge from the popularity of Y S Bark’s Nicholas the Unlucky, the compassion craze, barely a decade old, has swept up biography as well 55 60 Bark’s main contention is that Nicholas II was a doomed figure who had the misfortune of presiding over, but not responsibility for significantly contributing to, the calamitous demise of Czarist Russia in 1917 After recounting the prevalent view of Nicholas, which faults the last czar for failure to recognize dire conditions of the day, neglect of astute advisors, and reliance instead on sources incompetent to influence state behavior, Bark concedes that Nicholas was a poor leader She then adds, “What few acknowledge is that none of this mattered By Nicholas’s time, and surely unbeknownst to Nicholas, czarism had become an anachronism Its collapse was inevitable.” 65 70 75 The product of an accomplished historian known for nice scholarship on inter-war diplomatic history, Bark’s first foray into popular political biography proceeds with a deft review of the social, economic, and political conditions of Nicholas’s day In every respect but governance, Nicholas’s Russia was, or was rapidly becoming, modern Political alliances with Europe proper had existed for centuries, as had kinship with European art and literature Developments in technology, communication, and transportation only increased the magnitude of Russia’s Europeanness After 1860, even Russian economic life began, however embryonically, to resemble Western forms Only governance remained unchanged, yet it was governance that most needed transformation 80 singular influence on Nicholas’s own development, Pobedonostsev in his memoirs wrote of “…Parliamentarism, which…has deluded much of the socalled ‘intelligence’…although daily its falsehood is exposed more clearly to the world.” Grounded in the inalienable Russian truth that the czar was “the Little Father, God’s chief earthly agent and protector,” Nicholas’s commitment to autocracy, in Bark’s view, rendered major reform unthinkable Nicholas the Unlucky is ultimately unsatisfying because Nicholas is a poor choice for arguing historical inevitability and historical compassion Like monarchism at the same time, czarist absolutism may have been doomed Perhaps no czar after 1895 could have saved it But citing the size and force of a tidal wave does nothing to exonerate a leader who all but tore down the dyke and let it in Worthwhile sources claim, not that Nicholas originated the causes of the revolution, but that at best he did nothing to alleviate them, and at worst he intensified them Monarchists’ astute, if reluctant, embrace of modernity in Prussia and Japan attests to how the demise of monarchy could be delayed And while, like Nicholas, the Hohenzollerns of Austria-Hungary did not outlast World War I, they had faced the assault of modernity beginning much earlier, and probably would have fallen earlier, in 1848, had they behaved as Nicholas did These facts deserve some room in the spotlight For all of us, from schoolchildren to leaders and even historians, perception may seem to be more important than reality Sooner or later, reality avenges itself 29 As used in the passage, the words “The rest is detail” (line 48) refer to: A Bark’s belief that popular commitment to core values, even though the values are subjective, is essential to persevering through periods of national turmoil B Bark’s implication that policies advanced by Woodrow Wilson, though more successful than those of Nicholas, similarly reflected a strong commitment to traditional beliefs C the author’s contention that weighing the merits of alternative reform policies is less important than a ruler’s overall commitment to reform D the author’s assumption that Woodrow Wilson’s activist policies not constitute a reasonable basis for comparison to Nicholas’s conservative policies But then begins a confused and confusing attempt to vindicate Nicholas: “At the time, calls came for a compromise of czarism, yet it was in their tradition that the czars saw the sine qua non of Russian life This was the impossible situation confronting Nicholas Given these circumstances, it is implausible to suppose that Nicholas should have viewed the abandonment or even compromise of autocracy as Russia’s salvific hope To the contrary, turbulent times are perfect for redoubling the faith of ages; the first reaction to discomforting ideas is hatred (The rest is detail—witness history’s smile on stalwart Woodrow Wilson.)” To demonstrate Nicholas’s unshakable faith in the czarist tradition, Bark devotes an entire section to Count Pobedonostsev, by whom Alexander III, Nicholas’s father, was tutored in childhood and closely advised as czar A 30 The author’s discussion of the Hohenzollerns assumes which of the following? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 10 32 A In at least some significant ways, the political challenges faced by the rulers of AustriaHungary around 1848 resemble those faced by Nicholas around 1917 B Like Nicholas, Hohenzollern rulers perceived themselves as having not only a historical, but also a divine, mandate C For the purposes of historical analysis, modernity and Europeanness can be treated as interchangeable terms D Nicholas should have implemented the same policy reforms as those affected by rulers in Japan, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary Suppose that a chapter in Nicholas the Unlucky recounted the following episode In 1915, a group of advisors urged Nicholas to address the concerns of urban workers, who had been participating in increasingly widespread and violent strikes In response to the advisors’ urgings, the Empress Alexandra, Nicholas’s wife, advised, “You are the Autocrat and they dare not forget it.” The advisors were soon dismissed, replaced with “more biddable, less able men.” The strikes eventually contributed to the onset of the Russian Revolution What relevance would this information have to the passage? A It would provide counter-evidence to Bark’s contention that Nicholas was a misunderstood but able leader B It would be consistent with reasons for which Nicholas has traditionally been regarded as a poor ruler C It would contradict Bark’s claim that, after 1860, the Russian economy slowly began to modernize D It would confirm Bark’s view that, by the time of Nicholas’s reign, czarism was doomed 31 The author claims (lines 70–73) that Nicholas at least failed to alleviate, and at most exacerbated, the causes of the collapse of czarism in 1917 The support offered for this conclusion is: A weak; the author neglects to name a czar in the period after 1895 who could have saved czarism from collapse B weak; the author fails to acknowledge the depth of the reluctance with which monarchists in other nations confronted modernity C strong; by asserting that reality avenges itself, the author directly undermines the primary hypothesis of Nicholas the Unlucky D strong; the author provides several comparative illustrations of cases in which collapse was averted or forestalled 33 Which of the following, if true, would most challenge the author’s assertion that “the compassion craze has swept up biography?” A Most readers regard as unflattering Bark’s portrayal of Count Pobedonostsev in Nicholas the Unlucky B For their subjects, many biographers choose figures who the biographers believe ought to be viewed in a forgiving and sympathetic light C Nicholas genuinely believed that his attempt to preserve czarism was in the best interests of the Russian people D Several decades ago, when Bark wrote Nicholas the Unlucky, she had very little exposure to American cultural values GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 11 Passage VI (Questions 34–39) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 The extent to which analysis of social phenomena is compatible with the scientific method is a hotly contested question Among international relations scholars, historico-deductivist opponents of positivism claim that in the pursuit of objective depictions of the causes, course, and consequences of international phenomena the character and operation of which are purported to exist independently of the observer, positivists miss or dismiss the implicit attitudes, values, and ideologies embedded in their work, which personalize and subjectivize their conclusions Positivism, these critics contend, attempts to impose on world politics a coherent facticity akin to that of the natural sciences, but to which the basic nature of world politics is indisposed As Dougherty put it, “Aristotle warns in the Nichomachaean Ethics that the precision of an answer cannot exceed that of its question, but the positivists want clocks and necessity where there are really clouds and contingency.” 60 65 70 For historico-deductivists, the problem of a posteriori overdetermination is a case in point In the natural sciences, replicability and verifiability afford the findings of laboratory experimentation potentially nomothetic status In international relations, however, such lawlike generalizations about cause and effect are rarely if ever possible, not only because events are unique, but also because of the multiplicity of potential causes Whether World War I resulted from a disequilibrium in the international distribution of power, the ascendancy of government factions committed to aggression, or the accuracy of an assassin’s bullet, is, ultimately, unknown For opponents of positivism, it is better to recognize darkness than to pretend to see light 75 cooperation and reciprocity Even as Nash’s confederates praised the “illuminating evolution” in her thinking, many positivists questioned whether Nash’s antipodal findings corresponded to a shift in her initial assumptions over time The implication, of course, is that if positivists’ commitments at the level of proto-theory color their eventual conclusions, then they are not alone in this regard Finally, positivists point to the potential of scientific analysis to yield counterintuitive truths A frequently cited example is Grotsky’s study of the role of non-state actors in international trade Published at a time when many scholars were convinced that multinational organizations had effectively “elbowed the traditional sovereign nationstate…out of analytical existence in our field,” Grotsky’s research of the structure, timing, and variance of state expenditures on foreign direct investment effectively restored the state to its position as the dominant unit in international relations scholarship Despite several efforts, historico-deductivists who had championed the new relevance of non-state actors have not, as yet, successfully refuted Grotsky’s findings—a consideration that bodes well for those of us who believe that an end to this longstanding debate, which has produced much timely and relevant research, is not necessarily to be desired While some leading positivists, most notably Pastore, admit as “knowledge” only the sum of all tested propositions, for most it is the very cloudlike nature of political phenomena that requires a clocklike approach Conceding that their subject does not permit nomothetic propositions, the majority of positivists appear committed to Williams’ more moderate rule: “The propensity to error should make us cautious, but not so desperate that we fear to come as close as possible to apodictic findings We needn’t grasp at the torch with eyes closed, fearing to be blinded.” In addition to claiming that critics have mischaracterized their methodological commitments, positivists also contend that the historico-deductivist approach is subject to many of the same criticisms leveled against positivism For example, on the twentieth anniversary of her seminal article depicting the Peloponnesian War as the archetypal case of power politics in action, Nash, perhaps the exemplar of the historico-deductivist school, revisited her earlier findings, only to conclude that the interaction between the Athenians and Spartans included significant instances of GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 12 34 According to the passage, which of the following is true of a posteriori overdetermination? I II III A B C D 35 It presents a challenge to scholars’ ability to produce nomothetic statements about world politics It exemplifies the analytical confusion created by unique events that often have multiple effects It suggests that the historico-deductivism is better suited than is positivism to the study of international relations Which of the following would Dougherty be most likely to describe as “clocks and necessity where there are really clouds and contingency?” A a historico-deductivist study of World War I B a historico-deductivist study of the Peloponnesian War C a positivist study of the nature of reciprocity in the relations among sovereign states D a chemist’s study of the behavior of a certain gas under conditions of standard temperature and pressure I only III only I and II only II and III only 38 The principle underlying which of the following is most analogous to “Williams’s more moderate rule (lines 43-44)?” A A student’s estimation of her work is more important than either the grade awarded the work by the student’s instructor or the opinion of the work expressed by the student’s peers B The proficiency of an expert musician may reflect intelligence different in form from, but nonetheless equal in degree to, that of an accomplished painter or a pioneering physicist C If a worker were certain that he could never earn more than $50,000 per year, this in itself would not be a reason for him to refrain from trying to improve his lot at $20,000 per year D Hazardous road conditions constitute sufficient reason for a motorist to cancel her travel plans, even if the motorist is extremely reluctant to so As used in the passage, the word “torch” (line 47) refers to: A B C D 36 37 propensity to error nomothetic propositions political phenomena methodological commitments As described in the passage, historico-deductivist claims about the problem of a posteriori overdetermination in the study of political phenomena depend on the unstated assumption that: A positivists’ methodological commitments preclude positivists from providing a fully scientific account of the onset of World War I B complex social occurrences such as wars are ultimately insusceptible to scholarly analysis C replicability is a more severe obstacle than is verifiability to the scientific study of world politics D a causal claim that stipulates multiple indistinguishable causes for a certain effect is not likely to be a nomothetic proposition 39 It can reasonably be inferred that the author of the passage is a: A B C D professor of history professor of international relations diplomat journalist GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 13 Passage VII (Questions 40–47) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Between 1965 and 1970, welfare caseloads more than doubled and costs tripled The Nixon administration was unable to secure a legislative majority for comprehensive welfare reform that, among other things, would have capped federal welfare expenditures Legislative welfare reform raised contentious issues of who is entitled to support, how much, and on what terms—precisely the types of issues that have defied political resolution throughout welfare’s history Part of the administrative strategy employed by Nixon in his second term involved efforts to circumvent legislative obstacles and begin to curb the provision of welfare administratively 55 60 65 As a mechanism of policy change, the Nixon administration turned to a common managerial tool— performance monitoring Middle-level officials at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) crafted quality control—a system for monitoring the accuracy of state welfare payments—into an instrument for indirectly influencing states to become more restrictive in the provision of welfare 70 Quality control’s manifest purpose was to achieve fiscal accountability Through this instrument HEW could monitor state welfare payments and withhold federal reimbursement for those that it deemed to be improper However, quality control also served a latent, political function, partly reflected in its design It penalized states only for overpayments and payments made to ineligible individuals It was not used to hold states accountable for underpayments, erroneous denials, unreasonable delays, or administrative practices that discouraged applications Quality control’s effectiveness depended on the uncoordinated responses of street-level bureaucrats in hundreds of local welfare offices to new demands that administrative reform imposed at the workplace For example, welfare workers translated administrative concern for procedural uniformity into demands that welfare applicants routinely produce scores of documents of dubious relevance to their eligibility Applicants who could not meet these procedural demands, whether reasonable or not, were denied welfare by adding substantial procedural hurdles to financial and categorical requirements Quality control did not overtly breach the integrity of theoretical entitlement to welfare promised by statute and supported by legal precedent Rather, it seemed designed to protect this promise But in practice, quality control appears to have initiated a process of effective disentitlement Its adverse effects were unmeasured and unobserved, leaving quality control’s manifest legitimacy unimpaired Government institutions and officials were thus insulated from the effects of their actions In this sense, quality control ironically eroded the government accountability that it was ostensibly intended to guarantee Furthermore, through quality control, federal authorities could indirectly influence state administrative practices without directly encroaching on areas of nominal state authority Performance measurement backed by fiscal sanctions proved to be a relatively potent, if imperfectly cast, instrument for penetrating a decentralized bureaucracy and systematically restricting the provision of welfare 40 According to the passage, which of the following led directly to the implementation of quality control in the welfare system? A difficulty in passing legislation to address the growing problems with the welfare system B additional costs and less federal support for welfare programs C complaints of corruption and fraud amongst welfare administrators D ineffective efforts on the part of the executive branch to stem the increase in welfare caseloads Administrative reform introduced systematic bias into the welfare delivery process that, consistent with quality control criteria, traded errors of liberality for errors of stringency Behaviors directed toward the helping aspects of welfare policy were virtually displaced as workers responded to incentives to maximize measured attributes of performance, namely procedural uniformity and productivity At the same time, worker discretion to make unreasonable procedural demands, even to the point of harassment, was virtually unchecked Administrative reform in effect redefined and made more restrictive the meaning of welfare as an entitlement GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 14 41 All of the following are mentioned as adverse effects of quality control EXCEPT: 44 A undue emphasis on administrative paperwork and procedures B arbitrary and inconsistent penalties for state welfare agencies C a decrease in the number of people who were eligible for welfare benefits D lack of accountability for certain systematic infringements of the welfare system 42 A Procedural changes in welfare agencies should be established in ways that assure adherence to regulations for both workers and applicants B Administrative reform methods like performance monitoring may cause welfare organizations to become overly restrictive in their policies C State payments and federal reimbursement funding can be effectively monitored through changes in welfare administration at the national level D Implementation of quality control methods helped to hold the federal government accountable for its actions The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements? A Federal attempts to make the welfare system more fiscally responsible helped to make the system more effective in its dealings with welfare recipients B State authorities should continue to maintain a certain amount of control over the welfare offices within their jurisdiction C Welfare reform can best be achieved through a combination of legislation and revised administrative policies and procedures D Quality control measures instituted during the Nixon administration have been unjustly accused of causing disentitlement of deserving welfare recipients 43 What does the passage suggest about the use of common managerial tools to effect policy changes in the welfare system? 45 It can be inferred that quality control was interpreted to include which of the following activities? A holding states responsible for unreasonable delays in the welfare process B making states accountable for overpayments C easing the rules for federal reimbursement D changing the statutory rules for welfare eligibility In paragraph 3, the phrase “uncoordinated responses of street-level bureaucrats” is used in order to: 46 A support the author’s claim that unreasonable administrative procedures caused many applicants to be denied welfare benefits B refute the theory that quality control was used to hold states to a higher standard of accountability in their fiscal administration C prove that quality control policies were implemented to serve a political rather than a social agenda D provide a potential reason for the ineffectiveness of performance monitoring on general welfare reform It can be inferred that the author would support which of the following steps to counteract the negative effects of the quality control system on welfare entitlement? A passage of a law limiting the number of welfare applications B more careful screening of welfare caseworkers C increases in welfare spending by the government D enforcement of state accountability for underpayments and other actions which affect welfare recipients adversely GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 15 Passage VIII (Questions 47–53) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Locating hydrocarbons has never been easy, and by now the locations of all obvious reserves of oil and gas have been discovered The need to expand oil and gas reserves therefore, brings with it a need to find hydrocarbon reservoirs that are difficult to locate using current geological and geophysical means To so, geologists look for rock formations that constitute the seals and reservoirs within which hydrocarbons could be trapped After being formed deep within the earth, hydrocarbons migrate upwards, following a complex path of minute cracks and pore spaces, and will eventually reach the surface and be lost unless they encounter impermeable rocks (such as dense shale) through which they cannot travel If the rock within which they are trapped is highly permeable (such as sandstone) the hydrocarbons can be extracted by drilling through the impermeable seal, and tapping into this permeable reservoir 60 65 There are a number of different types of traps, but they can be divided into two broad categories Structural traps are formed by deformation after the rocks have been formed, for example by folding or faulting Stratigraphic traps are formed when the loose sediments that will eventually be turned into rocks were laid down For example if the sea level rises and the permeable sands of a beach are covered with estuarine mud, the buried sediments will, under compression, become sandstone capped by impermeable siltstones, forming an ideal reservoir and trap Structural traps tend to be easier to locate and are the source of most of the known hydrocarbon reserves Expanding our reserves therefore means locating more stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons improved by simply generating higher frequency pulses, or by filtering out the lower frequency components of the seismic source Moreover, the density contrasts between oil-bearing sandstones and the shales that provide stratigraphic seals for the oil are often very small, so that the reflectivities, and hence the strength of the reflection, will be so low that the events may not be observable above background noise Recent developments such as zero phase wavelet processing and multivariate analysis of reflection waveforms have decreased noise and increased resolution In the future it is hoped that these techniques, and greater understanding of stratigraphy itself, will prove fruitful in expanding hydrocarbon reserves 47 The primary purpose of this passage is to: A explain how hydrocarbons are formed and trapped within the earth B detail how seismologists can locate hidden deposits of hydrocarbons C contrast the relative difficulty of locating structural traps and stratigraphic traps D discuss the formation of hydrocarbon reserves and how they can be located The primary means of exploring for oil where there is no surface expression of the underlying geology is by seismology When a seismic pulse transmitted into the earth encounters an interface where the density changes, typically the surface between two beds or an unconformity with velocity-density contrasts, some of the energy is reflected back upwards A string of seismophones record these reflections and after extensive computation seismologists can build up a visual record of the intensity of each reflection and the time taken for it to reach the surface 48 According to the passage it is often difficult to distinguish reflections from the interface between oil bearing sandstones and the shales that provide stratigraphic seals from background noise because: A high frequencies are attenuated as they travel through the earth B there is little density contrast between the oil bearing sandstone and the shales which provide stratigraphic seals C the frequency of the seismic pulse is not high enough D they are thinner than the seismic wavelet The primary limitation of the seismic method for locating stratigraphic traps is resolution: It is not possible to resolve features that are thinner than a seismic wavelet The most common stratigraphic traps (with the possible exception of carbonate reservoirs) are in sandstone layers that are much thinner than a seismic wavelet Seismic wavelets can be narrowed by increasing the frequency of the seismic pulse However, high frequencies are selectively attenuated as the pulse travels through the earth, so there are limits to how much resolution can be GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 16 49 The example of a stratigraphic trap formed by a rise in sea level (lines 24-29) is used by the author principally to: 52 A contrast a typical stratigraphic trap with a typical structural trap B explain why sandstones covered by siltstones make ideal reservoir and trap C illustrate the point that stratigraphic traps are formed when sediments were laid down D show why stratigraphic traps can be difficult to locate seismically 50 A B C D 53 presently ineffective but showing promise intrinsically flawed effective and profitable theoretically useful but ineffectual in practice Which of the following developments in seismic technique would the author view as the greatest aid in the detection of stratigraphic traps? A the discovery of a means of reducing the attenuation of high frequency seismic wavelets within the earth B the development of a seismic source with an extremely high frequency C the development of a means of filtering all noise out of seismic sections D further research into the origin of stratigraphic traps According to the passage, all of the following are needed if oil is to be extracted from a reservoir EXCEPT: A an impermeable seal above the reservoir B an original source of hydrocarbons below the reservoir C high density contrast between the reservoir rocks and the stratigraphic seal D high permeability within the reservoir 51 Which of the following best describes how the author views seismology as a tool in locating hydrocarbons? It can be inferred from the passage that carbonate reservoirs are: A B C D less dense than sandstone reservoirs easily located by seismology an important type of stratigraphic trap thicker than a seismic wavelet GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 17 Passage IX (Questions 54–60) The social functions of popular music are in the creation of identity, in the management of feelings, and in the organization of time 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 We use pop songs to create for ourselves a particular sort of self-definition, a particular place in society The pleasure that a pop song produces is a pleasure of identification: in responding to a song, we are drawn into affective and emotional alliances with the performers and with the performers' other fans Thus music, like sport, is clearly a setting in which people directly experience community, feel an immediate bond with other people, and articulate a collective pride At the same time, because of its qualities of abstractness, pop music is an individualizing form Songs have a looseness of reference that makes them immediately accessible They are open to appropriation for personal use in a way that other popular cultural forms (television soap operas, for example) are not—the latter are tied into meanings which we may reject This interplay between personal absorption into music and the sense that it is, nevertheless, something public, is what makes music so important in the cultural placing of the individual Music also gives us a way of managing the relationship between our public and private emotional lives Popular love songs are important because they give shape and voice to emotions that otherwise cannot be expressed without embarrassment or incoherence Our most revealing declarations of feeling are often expressed in banal or boring language and so our culture has a supply of pop songs that say these things for us in interesting and involving ways 54 The author's primary purpose in discussing popular music is to: A account for the importance of popular music in youth culture B contrast several sociological theories about popular music C compare popular music with other forms of popular culture D outline the social functions of popular music 55 The passage suggests that one similarity between popular and classical music is that both: A articulate a sense of community and collective pride B give shape to inexpressible emotions C emphasize the feeling of time D define particular age groups And finally, as its third function, popular music shapes popular memory, organizes our sense of time Clearly one of the effects of all music, not just pop, is to focus our attention on the feeling of time, and intensify our experience of the present One measure of good music is its "presence," its ability to "stop" time, to make us feel we are living within a moment, with no memory or anxiety about what has come before us, what will come after It is this use of time that makes popular music so important in the social organization of youth We invest most in popular music when we are teenagers and young adults— music ties into a particular kind of emotional turbulence, when issues of individual identity and social place, the control of public and private feelings, are at a premium What this suggests, though, is not that young people need music, but that "youth" itself is defined by music Youth is experienced, that is, as an intense presence, through an impatience for time to pass and a regret that it is doing so, in a series of speeding, physically insistent moments that have nostalgia coded into them 56 It can be inferred from the passage that the author's attitude towards love songs in popular music is: A B C D bored by the banality of their language embarrassed by their emotional incoherence interested by their expressions of feeling unimpressed by their social function GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 18 57 The author probably refers to sport in paragraph primarily in order to: A B C D 58 59 draw a parallel establish a contrast challenge an assumption introduce a new idea A Pop songs are unpopular with older age groups B Love songs shape our everyday language C Pop songs become personalized like other cultural fonns D Popular music combines public and private experience In the last paragraph, the author is predominantly concerned with: A defining the experience of youth B describing how popular music defines youth C speculating about the organization of youth movements D analyzing the relationship between music and time The author cites which one of the following in support of the argument that popular music creates our identity? 60 Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author's argument for the importance of popular music in the social organization of youth? A Popular songs often incorporate nostalgic lyrics B Young people are ambivalent about the passage of time C Older people are less interested in popular music than young people D Pop songs focus our expectations on the future STOP IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK YOU MAY GO BACK TO ANY QUESTION IN THIS SECTION ONLY STOP .. .Verbal Reasoning Time: 85 Minutes Questions 1-60 DO NOT BEGIN THIS SECTION UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO VERBAL REASONING DIRECTIONS: There are nine passages in the Verbal Reasoning test. .. the young or middle-aged When a group of men and women in their sixties were tested on a specific vocabulary list and retested on the same list a decade later, the group had improved their scores... one of which declines in old age 65 Previous investigations into the workings of memory usually tested “episodic” memory, which describes the recall of specific events, as well as the ability
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