EK verbal and math

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E XAMKRACKERS MeAT VERBAL REASONING & MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES TH EDITION O St}TE PUBLISHING Acknowledgements Although I am the author, the hard work and expertise of many individuals contributed to this book The idea of writing in two voices, a science voice and an MeAT voice, was the creative brainchild of my imaginative friend Jordan Zaretsky I would like to thank David Orsay for his help with the verbal passages I wish to thank my wife, Silvia, for her support during the difficult times in the past and those that lie ahead Finally, I wish to thank my daughter Julianna Orsay for helping out whenever possible ' Copyright © 2007 Examkrackers Inc TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION TO MCAT INCLUDING MCAT MATH • • • • • ••.• intro.1 The Layout of the MCAT intro.2 The Writing Sample intro.3 How to Approach the Science Passages intro.4 MCAT Math intro.5 Rounding intro.6 Scientific Notation intro.7 Multiplication and Division 10 intro.S Proportions 13 intro.9 Graphs 16 LECTURE 1: STRATEGY AND TACTICS 19 1.1 The Layout of the Verbal Reasoning Section 19 1.2 Other Verbal Strategies 19 1.3 Take Our Advice 20 1.4 Expected Improvement 20 1.5 The ExamKrackers Approach to MCAT Verbal Reasoning 20 1.6 Tactics 23 LECTURE 2: ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS 27 2.1 Tools to Find the Answer 27 2.2 Answer Choices 34 2.3 Identifying the Correct Answer 35 2.4 Simplification of the Question and Answer Choices 36 2.5 Marking Your Test to Improve Your Score 44 2.6 When to Bubble 44 LECTURE 3: THE MAIN IDEA 45 3.1 The Main Idea 45 3.2 Constructing the Main Idea 45 3.3 Confidence 46 3.4 Know Your Author 46 3.5 Ignore the Details and See the Big Picture 46 Copyright © 2007 Examkrackers, Inc LECTURE 4: How TO STUDY FOR THE VERBAL REASONING SECTION 53 30-MINUTE IN-CLASS EXAMS 55 In-Class Exam for Lecture • " 55 In-Class Exam for Lecture 63 In-Class Exam for Lecture 71 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS TO IN-CLASS EXAMS 79 Answers and Scaled Score Conversion for In-Class Exams 80 Explanations to In-Class Exam for Lecture 81 Explanations to In-Class Exam for Lecture 90 Explanations to In-Class Exam for Lecture .• .•• • .• 99 Copyright © 2007 Exarn krackers, Inc Introduction to MCAT Including MCAT Math i.1 MeAT Format At the time this book is published, MCAT administration will be completely computerized Although many students bemoaned this change, the computerized MCAT is actually a much better option for you! The many advantages of this format are listed in the table below In addition to making the actual test computer-based, AAMC has also made several administrative changes to decrease test duration, increase the number of available test days, and speed up score reporting Advantages of Computerized Format • It is easier to retest with 20 more test adnunistration Environment Time Registering • The test is 30% shorter • The computerized test day is about half as long due to dates less administrative require• You can no~etest up to ments times a year • New afternoon sessions are • You can monitor YOUT own great for those w ho struggle breaks within the given time in the morning hours limit • Scores are reported twice as • Weekday administration allows you to not have to fast (now 30 days) ruin a weekend • The test is 30% shorter • TIle test taking environment is controlled for climate and sound • The testing groups are • • • smaller Ergonomic chairs Noise reduction headsets available Lockers and locks provided for personal belongings Even better news is that the computerized version refl ects the same topics, uses the same scoring system, and costs the same as the paper version Also, you can still review and make changes w ithin each section So for anyone that has previously taken the MCAT, or already started studying, the test should still be familiar Similarly, strategies and tools for successfully navigating the MCAT will remain the same In addition to the above, AAMC is working to reduce score reporting to 14 days They are also investigating teclmology which may allow you to make notations directly on the computer screen Note that this comp uterized test is NOT currently a computerized adaptive test (CAT) like the GRE, meaning that everyone gets the same test questions for any given v ersion of the MeAT However, this is open to change in the future , VERBAL REASONING & MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES The MCAT consists of four sections: Physical Sciences Verbal Reasoning Writing Sample Biological Sciences Physica l Sciences This section covers topics from undergraduate physics and inorganic chemistry Passages average approximately 200 words in length and are often accompanied by one or more charts, diagrams, or tables Generally there are 6-10 questions following each passage, as well as sets of stand-alone multiple-choice questions, for a total of 52 questions The top score on the Physical Sciences Section is a 15 Verbal Reasoning The Verbal Reasoning Section has been shortened (to everyone's pleasure) from 85 to 60 minutes It now consists of only 40 (previously 60) multiple-choice questions with answer choices A through D There are passages followed by to 10 questions each Passages average approximately 600 words in length There is a wide variety of passage topics ranging from economics and an thropology to poetic analysis, and most intentionally soporific The top score on the Verbal Reas.oning Section is also 15 Writing Sample The Writing Sample Section consists of two 30 minute periods, without any break in between For each essay, the test-taker is given a general statement to analyze in a standard cookie-cutter fashion This section is scored on an alphabetic scale from J to T, with T being the highest score This scale translates to a score of 1-6 on each essay resulting in a combined score of a 2-12 represented by J through T Bio logical Sciences The Biological Sciences Section covers science topics from a wide range of undergraduate biology topics, organic chemistry and genetics The set up of this section is exactly the same as the Physical Sciences section, as is the scori ng ""~, Test Section Tutorial ) I Physical Sciences Break Verbal Reasoning Break Writing Sample Break Biological Sciences Questions Time Allotted (Optional) 10 minutes 52 70 minutes (Optional) 10 minutes 40 60 minutes (Optional) 10 minutes 60 minutes (Optional) 10 minutes 52 70 minutes Time/Question - 1.35 minutes (81s) 1.5 minutes (90s) 30 minutes/essay -1.35 minutes (81s) 10 minutes Survey Total Content Time hours, 20 minutes Total Test Time hours, 50 minutes Total Appointment Time hours, 10 m inutes Copyright © 2007 Examkrackers, Inc INTRODUCTION TO THE MCAT INCLUDING MCAT MATH i.2 The Wri t ing Sample Please Note: The section that follows includes material from the MCAT Practice Test !II These materials are reprinted with permission of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) In the U.S., your writing sample score is unlikely to affect w hether or not you gain admittance to medical schooL Curren tly, medical schools not give this section m uch weight in their decision making process Medical schools no t see your actual writing sample They only see your score The writing sample functions to wear you down for the Biological Sciences Section 111e writing sample is more of an exercise in following directions than it is a test of your ability to write You should no t attempt to be creative on the writing sample or try to make your reader reflect deeply Instead, follow the simple three s tep process given below Two sample statements are given w ith each step followed by an example of how you r essay should appear for that statement A similar set of d irections is always given with each statement Don't waste time reading the d irections on the real MCAT The d irections can be summarized into the following three step process: Explain the statement as thoroughly as possible using an example to clarify Statement: An understanding of the past is necessary for solving the problems of the present Paraphrase: History is an integral part of tile learning process By studying the past, we can analyze repercussions of certaiu behavior and action patterns Statem ent: No matter holV oppressive a government r violent revollttion is never justified Paraphrase: The fa miliar idiom "He who lives by the sword shall die by the sword", is echoed in any statement that condemns violence It is fI very simple principle based on a very logical argument Violence invites more of the same If a government is overthrown by violent means, then there is a precedent set and there is nothing stopping others froln doing the same again Do not: begin your essay with the statement "so and so" lIIeans that Give a specific example contradicting the statement Statement: An understanding of the past is necessary for solving the problems of the present Example: On the other hand, some problems exist today that are totally independent of any historical event The current 'sslle of AIDS Statement: No matter how oppressive a government, violent revolution is never justified Example: However, there can be times when extreme action becOllles necessary It was the violence of the Russian revolution that brought an end to the suffering of the masses during WWI D o n ot: Llse controversial topics as examples, sllch as abortion or contemporary political issues Give a guideline that anyone might qse_to determine when the statement is true and when it is false Statement: An understanding of the past is necessan) for solving the problems of the present G uidelin e: When then is the past crllcial to our lInderstanding of the current events? It is important only, and especially, when it relates to the present situntion Copyright © 2007 Examkrackers, Inc VERBAL REASON ING & MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES Statement: No matter how oppressive a government, violent revolution is never justified Guideline: Whether or not violent r
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