A survey into the teaching and learning of english articles at english faculty, university of social sciences and humanities

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY – HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES FACULTY OF ENGLISH LINGUISTICS & LITERATURE A SURVEY INTO THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH ARTICLES AT ENGLISH FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES A thesis submitted to the Faculty of English Linguistics & Literature in partial fulfillment of the Master’s degree in TESOL By DINH THIEN LOC Supervised by NGUYEN THI KIEU THU, Ph.D HO CHI MINH CITY, AUGUST 2015 STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I hereby certify my authorship of the thesis submitted today entitled: A SURVEY INTO THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH ARTICLES AT ENGLISH FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES in terms of the statement of Requirements for the Thesis in Master’s Program issued by the Higher Degree Committee The thesis has not been submitted for the award of any degree or diploma in any other situation Ho Chi Minh City, August 2015 Đinh Thiên Lộc i RETENTION AND USE OF THE THESIS I hereby state that I, Đinh Thiên Lộc, being the candidate for the degree of Master in TESOL, accept the requirements of the University relating to the retention and use of Master’s Theses deposited in the Library In terms of these conditions, I agree that the original of my thesis deposited in the Library should be accessible for the purpose of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the library for the care, loan or reproduction of the thesis Ho Chi Minh City, August 2015 Đinh Thiên Lộc ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my advisor, Dr NGUYEN THI KIEU THU for the continuous support to my thesis, for her invaluable guidance, strong motivation, and extensive expertise I am wholeheartedly grateful to her deep devotion even when she was on Tet holiday I simply can not wish for better supervisor I owe a big debt of gratitude to Dr Nguyen Thu Huong who inspired me to come up with the thesis topic He also spent a lot of his time to develop my background on English articles and he was always willing to support me with his helpful documents as well as immense knowledge I would like to acknowledge all members, teachers and students of the Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature who directly and indirectly contribute to the fulfillment of this thesis I am deeply thankful to my friends Ba Tong and Thuy Anh who gave me indispensable advices and unceasing encouragement during my most difficult time I also appreciate every single support I received from my other friends at USSH Last but not least, my deepest gratitude goes to my parents, my sister, my aunt and her son who are truly a miracle of my life Without them, the whole thesis would still be far from finished iii TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP i RETENTION AND USE OF THE THESIS ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vii LIST OF TABLES viii LIST OF FIGURES ix ABSTRACT x CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1.2 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY 1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1.5.1 Theoretical significance 1.5.2 Practical significance 1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY CHAPTER REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 THEORETICAL ISSUES ON ARTICLES 2.1.1 Definition of Articles 2.1.2 Meaning of English Articles Definiteness Specificity 14 Genericity 16 2.1.3 Types of English articles 17 2.1.4 Meaning of Vietnamese Article-like Determiners 20 Countability and Plurality 21 Definiteness and Maximality 22 iv 2.1.5 Types of Vietnamese Article-like Determiners 23 Một 24 Những/ Các 26 Zero articles 29 2.2 CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS 31 2.3 GRAMMAR TEACHING & THE METHODS TO TEACH ARTICLES 31 2.3.1 Grammar teaching 31 2.3.2 Methodologies to teach articles 32 Traditional methods 33 Cognitive method 34 2.4 ACQUISTION OF ARTICLES 36 2.4.1 Types of Articles Errors 36 2.4.2 Causes of Articles Errors 38 2.5 ERROR ANALYSIS 40 2.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 40 CHAPTER METHODOLOGY 42 3.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 42 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 43 3.2.1 Context of the study 43 3.2.2 Participants 43 3.2.3 Research Materials 47 Coursebooks 47 SOC, TLU and UOC 48 3.2.4 Research Methods and Research Tools 50 Coding system 51 Contrastive analysis 53 Error analysis 54 Questionnaire 55 Proficiency test 57 v Interviews 59 3.3 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE 61 3.4 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 61 CHAPTER RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 63 4.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION 63 4.1.1 The teaching of English articles 64 Coursebooks 64 Teaching methodology 68 4.1.2 The learning of English articles 71 Learners’ perception on English articles 71 Learners’ errors in using English articles 77 Learners’ errors based on article types 78 Learners’ errors based on contexts 80 Causes of learners’ errors in using English articles 92 4.2 MAJOR FINDINGS 96 4.2.1 Answers to research question RQ1 96 4.2.2 Answers to research question RQ2 97 4.3 SUMMARY 100 CHAPTER CONCLUSION 101 5.1 CONCLUSION 101 5.2 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 102 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 105 REFERENCES 106 APPENDIX 1: Syllabus for Advanced Grammar course 114 APPENDIX 2: Questionnaire 122 APPENDIX 3: Proficiency Test 124 APPENDIX 4: Interview 125 APPENDIX 5: Answer keys for the Proficiency Test 126 vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CA Contrastive Analysis CL Classifier EF the Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature ELT English Language Teaching ESL English as a Second Language HK Hearer’s Knowledge L1 First language L2 Second language NEG Negative PASS Passive PhD Doctor of Philosophy SLA Second Language Acquisition SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SR Specific Referent SOC Supplied in Obligatory Context TESOL Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages TLU Target Like USe TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign Language UOC Used in Obligatory Context USSH University of Social Sciences and Humanities – Ho Chi Minh city vii LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Classification of English Articles by Master (1994) Table 2.2: Classification of English Articles Contexts by White (2009) Table 2.3: Classification of Vietnamese article-like determiners by Nguyen (2005) Table 2.4: Differences between Những and Các concerning Definiteness Table 3.1: Description of Student Participants Table 3.2: Description of Teacher Participants Table 3.3: Synthesis of Research Tools and their Functions Table 3.4: Coding System for the Correct Uses of English articles Table 3.5: Coding System for the Incorrect Uses of English articles Table 3.6: The Function of Items in the Questionnaire Table 3.7: The Distribution of Number of Items within Article Contexts Table 3.8: The Aim of the Questions in the Interview Table 4.1: Reliability Statistics of the Questionnaire Table 4.2: Statistics of Questionnaire’s Items Table 4.3: Statistic of Students’ Perception on English articles Table 4.4: Reliability Statistics of the Proficiency Test Table 4.5: Accuracy in Article Uses among Groups of Participants Table 4.6: Accuracy in Article Uses according to Article Types Table 4.7: Combination of Students’ Accuracy according to Article Types and Article Contexts Table 4.8: Analysis of All Test Items Table 4.9: UOC Score in Generic Context Table 5.1: Articles Types within Four Semantic Contexts viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: The Difference between Những and Các Figure 2.2: Synthesis of Issues related to the Teaching and Learning of English Articles Figure 4.1: Accuracy of Article Uses according to Article Contexts Figure 5.1: Differences in Generic Sense under the View of Cognitive Grammar by Nguyen (2005) ix Snape, N (2008) Resetting the nominal mapping parameter in L2 English: Definite article use and the count-mass distinction Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 63-79 Suk-fun, S (2010) What errors Hong Kong secondary school students make in English article system? (Unpublished MA thesis) The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Taylor, J (2003) Cognitive Grammar (Oxford Textbook in Linguistics) Oxford: OUP Thomas, M (1989) The acquisition of English articles by first language and second language learners Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 335-355 To, Minh Thanh (2011) Câu tổng loại Tiếng Việt Tiếng Anh Tạp chí Ngôn Ngữ (266), 27-40 Tran, Trong Kim (1950) Việt Nam văn phạm (2nd ed.) Saigon: Tan Viet Verspoor, M & Nguyen, Thu Huong (2008) Cognitive grammar and teaching English articles to Asian students In J.R Lapaire (ed.), From grammar to mind: grammar as cognition Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux White, P (2009) Accounting for L2- English Learners’ Article choices MSU Working Papers in SLS, 1(1), 14-37 Yabei, Z (2007) From theory to practice: faith in Taipei grammar teaching high school English teacher and practice (Unpublished thesis) National Chengchi University, Taipei city, Taiwan Zehler, A & Brewer, Q (1980) Acquisition of the article system in English Technical report no 171 Cambridge: Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc 113 APPENDIX 1: Syllabus for Advanced Grammar course VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY – HCM UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES FACULTY OF ENGLISH LINGUISTICS AND LITERATURE EF- SYLLABUS-1-A COURSE SYLLABUS I II III IV V VI Course Title: ADVANCE GRAMMAR Course Code: NVA003 Course Credits: credits (Theory: credits, Practice: credit) Course Prerequisites: Students are required to fulfill all the Language Skills courses Course Overview _ Systematic examination all sentence types in English _ Recognition and classify English nouns _ Examine all the complicated uses of English articles, explain and practice the use of articles in all kinds of texts _ Examine all the forms of pro-forms and practice the use of pro-forms suitable with the grammar _ Compare the use of personal pronouns and reflexive pronouns _ Recognize and classify adjectives, acquire all the rules about fixed and unfixed positions of adjectives to express the proposition _ Recognize the adverbs, examine the meaning and function of all the adverbs and the position of adverbs in texts _ Distinguish different kinds of prepositions and adverb particles, recognize all the forms of phrasal verbs, emphasize practice to use prepositions and phrasal verbs skillfully _ Distinguish between the two notions “tenses” and “aspects”, clearly aware of some aspects related to verbs such as performative, durative… to decide the appropriate tenses _ Distinguish between full verbs and auxiliary verbs _ Examine all the complex and diversified ways of expressing meaning by using Modals Course Content Chapter Topic of the chapter The sentence 1.1 Sentence word order 1.2 The simple sentence: verbs with and without objects 1.3 The simple sentence: direct and indirect objects 1.4 The compound sentence 1.5 The complex sentence: noun clauses 1.6 The complex sentence: relative pronouns and clauses 1.7 The complex sentence: ‘whose’; defining/non-defining clauses 1.8 The complex sentence: time, place, manner 1.9 The complex sentence: reason and contrast 1.10 The complex sentence: purpose, result and comparison 1.11 The complex sentence: present participle, constructions 1.12 The complex sentence: perfect/ past participle constructions 114 Nouns 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 One-word nouns Compound nouns Countable and uncountable nouns (1) Countable and uncountable nouns (2) Number (singular and plural) (1) Number (singular and plural) (2) Gender The genitive Articles 3.1 The indefinite article: ‘a/an’ (1) 3.2 The indefinite article: ‘a/an’ (2) 3.3 The definite article: ‘the’ (1) 3.4 The definite article: ‘the’ (2) 3.5 The zero article (1) 3.6 The zero article (2) Pronouns 4.1 Personal pronouns 4.2 ‘One’ 4.3 ‘It’ and ‘one/some/any/more’ 4.4 Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns (‘my/mine’) 4.5 Reflective pronouns (‘myself’) 4.6 Demonstrative adjs/prons (‘this’); ‘some/any/no’ compounds (‘someone’) Pronouns 5.1 Quantifiers + countable and uncountable nouns 5.2 General and specific references to quantity 5.3 Uses of ‘some’, ‘any’, ‘no’ and ‘none’ 5.4 ‘Much’, ‘many’, ‘a lot of’, ‘(a) few’, ‘(a) little’, ‘fewer’, ‘less’ 5.5 ‘Both’ and ‘all’ 5.6 ‘All (the)’, ‘(a/the) whole’, ‘each’ and ‘every’ 5.7 ‘Another’, ‘(the) other(s)’, ‘either’, ‘neither’, ‘each (one of)’ Adjectives 6.1 Formation of adjectives 6.2 Position of adjectives 6.3 Adjectives that behave like nouns; ‘-ed/-ing’ endings 6.4 Adjectives after ‘be’, ‘seem’, etc; word order of adjectives 6.5 The comparison of adjectives Adverbs 7.1 Adverbs of manner 7.2 Adverbs of time 7.3 Adverbial phrases of duration 115 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 10 11 Adverbs of frequency Adverbs of degree Intensifiers Focus adverbs Viewpoint adverbs, concerning adverbs and inversion Prepositions, adverb particles and phrasal verbs 8.1 Prepositions, adverb particles and conjunctions 8.2 Prepositions of movement and position; preposition of time 8.3 Particle prepositions, particles: contrasts (1) 8.4 Particle prepositions, particles: contrasts (2) 8.5 Particle prepositions, particles: contrasts (3) 8.6 Phrasal verbs: Type 1, verb + preposition (transitive) 8.7 Phrasal verbs: Type 2, verb + particle (transitive) 8.8 Phrasal verbs: Type 3, verb + particle (intransitive) Phrasal verbs: Type 4, verb + particle + preposition (transitive) Verbs, verb tenses and imperatives 9.1 The simple present and present progressive tenses (1) 9.2 The simple present and present progressive tenses (2) 9.3 The simple past tense 9.4 The simple past and past progressive tenses 9.5 The simple present perfect and present perfect progressive 9.6 The simple past perfect and past perfect progressive tenses 9.7 The simple future tense 9.8 The simple future, the future progressive, the future perfect 9.9 ‘Going to’ and other ways of expressing the future 9.10 The imperative Be, Have, Do 10.1 ‘Be’ as a full verb (1) 10.2 ‘Be’ as a full verb (2) 10.3 ‘There’ + ‘be’ 10.4 Verbs related in meaning to ‘be’ 10.5 ‘Have’ as a full verb = ‘possess’, ‘have got’ = ‘possess’ 10.6 ‘Have’ as a full verb meaning ‘eat’, ‘enjoy’, etc 10.7 ‘Do’ as a full verb Modal auxiliaries and related verbs 11.1 The two uses of modal verbs 11.2 Uses of modals (etc.) to express ability and inability 11.3 Uses of modals (etc.) to express permission and prohibition 11.4 Uses of modals (etc.) to express certainty and possibility 11.5 Uses of modals (etc.) to express deduction 11.6 Uses of modals (etc.) for others, requests and suggestions 11.7 Expressing wishes, etc.: ‘I wish’, ‘if only’, ‘it’s (high) time’ 116 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 12 13 14 15 16 Expressing preferences: ‘would rather’ and ‘would sooner’ ‘It’s advisable…’/ ‘It’s necessary…’ ‘It isn’t advisable…’/ ‘It isn’t necessary…’/ ‘It’s forbidden’ Modals to express habit: ‘used to’, ‘will’ and ‘would’ ‘Need’ and ‘dare’ as modals and as full verbs ‘Would/ wouldn’t’; ‘that…should’, ‘there’ + modal The passive and the causative 12.1 General information about form 12.2 Uses of the passive 12.3 Form and use of the causative Questions, answers and negatives 13.1 Yes/ No questions, negative statements, Yes/ No answers 13.2 Alternative negative forms and negative questions 13.3 Tag questions and echo tags 13.4 Additional and responses 13.5 Question-word questions (1): ‘Who(m)…?’ ‘What…?’ 13.6 Question-word questions (2): ‘When?’, ‘Where?’, ‘Which?’, ‘Whose?’ 13.7 Question-word questions (3): ‘Why?’, ‘How?’ 13.8 Subject-questions: ‘Who?’, ‘What?’, ‘Which?’, ‘Whose?’ Conditional sentences 14.1 Type conditionals 14.2 Type conditionals 14.3 Type conditionals 14.4 Mixed conditionals; ‘unless/ if…not’, etc Direct and Indirect speech 15.1 Direct speech 15.2 ‘Say’, ‘tell’ and ‘ask’ 15.3 Indirect statements with tense changes 15.4 Indirect questions with tense changes 15.5 Uses of the to-infinitive in indirect speech 15.6 When we use indirect speech The Infinitive and the ‘-ing’ form 16.1 The bare infinitive and the to-infinitive 16.2 The bare infinitive or the ‘-ing’ form; the to-infinitive 16.3 Verb (+noun/ pronoun) + to-infinitive 16.4 Adjectives and nouns + to-infinitive 16.5 The ‘-ing’ form 16.6 Verb + the ‘-ing’ form 16.7 Adjectives, nouns and preposition + ‘-ing’ 16.8 The to-infinitive or the ‘-ing’ form? 117 VII Texts and Materials Require texts and materials _ Alexander L.G (1992), Longman English Grammar, OUP _ Workbook: Alexander L.G (1992), Longman English Grammar Practice, OUP Supplementary texts and materials _ East Wood (1994), Oxford Guide to English Grammar, OUP _ Swan, M (2005), Practice English Usage, OUP _ William Collins Sons (1990) Collins Cobuild English Grammar, Rupa Co VIII Basis for Final Grade Assessment Criteria Percent Score Percent of Final Note Grade Midterm exam 100% 100% Midterm score 30% To be computed by the University Admission Office Final score 70% To be computed by the University Admission Office Participantion & others 30% Final exam 70% 100% 100% Passing grade: 5/10 Exam Information Time: 90 minutes, without the use of materials and all kinds of dictionaries Multiple choice (20 questions): Choose the option that best complete the sentence Error recognition (20 questions): Identify the incorrect underlined part among the four Blank filling (20 questions): Complete a short passage with the appropriate parts of speech Verb forms (20 questions): Complete a short passage/ some sentences with the appropriate forms of the verbs given Sentence transformation/ building (20 sentences): Rewrite sentences with given words IX Course Policies A Grades Grade Policy: All Grades are public and transparent to all students You should keep all your quizzes and tests as proof for grade complaints (if any) Group Work Policy: Everyone must take part in a group oral presentation and/or written project All member of a group will receive the same score; that is, the project is assessed and everyone receives this score Once formed, groups cannot be altered or switched, except for reasons of extended hospitalization B Technology and Media Students are encouraged to contact with lecturer via email beside class hours Email address will be provided at the beginning of the course 118 C Student Expectations Attendance will be checked in every class either in terms of short quizzes, activity participation or roll calling Those students who are absent more than 20% of the class meetings will be forbidden from the final examination Penalty for lateness or skipping some periods will be announced by lecturers Absence should be informed to lecturers before or after the day You are responsible for getting the information you missed There are no make-ups for in-class writing, quizzes, the midterms, or the final exam Use of mobile phone and/or laptop for personal purposes without lecturer’s agreement is forbidden during class time Cheating and plagiarism will be seriously punished X Schedule Sessions Content The Sentence 1.1 1.12 Students’ studying scheme Periods _ Refer to all the related grammar book, present and explain all different notions about the sentences Periods 10 _ Define the meaning in use of each sentence type _ Write a short paragraph using all the sentences types that we have learned Nouns _ Compare the meaning and uses of all forms of noun- phrases (compound nouns/ the genitive…) 10 _ Make sentences demonstrating the nouns such as count nouns and noncount nouns (experience vs experiences) _ Refer to Hewings (2006) Advanced Grammar in Use (Unit 40-43), present all the new notions about agreement compared to traditional grammar Articles _ Refer to Michael Swan (2005) Practical English Usage, noted the special uses of article 10 _ All the groups collect different types of texts contain instances of different uses of article to discuss and/or edit the use of articles in the text delivered by the teachers Pronouns 4.1 4.6 _ Refer to grammar materials, paying attention to instances of the use of pronouns in 4.3 in the material 119 10 Quantity 5.1 5.7 Adjective 6.1 6.5 _ Distinguish notion such as “determiners” and “quantifiers”, try to make a graph illustrating the detailed use of quantifiers _ Refer to Collins Cobuild (1990) English Grammar (2.1 2.144), grasp all the ways of uses of adjectives Besides, students must explore: 10 _ Gradable adjs vs Non-gradable adjs, list all the popular non-gradable adjectives _ Prepare a topic about adjectives to discuss in class Adverbs 7.1 7.8 Prepositions, adverb pariticles & phrasal verbs 8.1 8.8 _ Refer to Collins Cobuild (1990) English Grammar (5.69 6.127), define the meaning and acquire the uses of adverbs, prepositions and adverb particles & phrasal verbs 10 _ Write a short paragraph using all the grammar points mentioned above _ Compare and contrast the uses of article in English and Vietnamese Verbs, verbs tenses, imperatives 9.1 9.10 _ Systemize all the tenses which have been learned, at the same time explore related notions such as “time” and “aspects”, “verbs of action, state, perception, performative verbs” 10 _ Collect all the texts with the abnormal use of tenses to discuss in class Be, Have, Do 10.1 10.7 _ Try to draft a profile illustrating the use of modals to express all the proposition in English 10 _ Distinguish different notions such as “modals”, “auxiliaries” and “defective verbs” _ Work in groups, collect and analyze the meaning of instances of use typical of modals which are mentioned in the materials Modals, Auxiliaries & related verbs 11.7 11.13 _ List all the form to express the subjunctives, compare the forms to express the subjunctives in British English and American English _ Systemize and acquire the uses of different forms of modals 120 10 10 11 12 The passive and the causative 12.1 12.3 Questions, answers, negatives 13.1 13.19 Conditional sentences 14.1 14.4 Direct and indirect speech 15.1 15.6 The Infinitive and the ‘ingform’ _ Explore and analyze the reason why passive voice was employed in different types of texts 10 _ Briefly describe all the instances in which passive voice was not used in English (compare with Vietnamese _ Refer to Collins Cobuild (1990) English Grammar (8.25 8.42), illustrating all the cases in which If-Clause was not used to express “conditional”, obtain the use of mixed conditionals 10 _ Analyze the instances in which “backshift” does not apply to, practice skillfully all the forms of reporting verbs and the forms replacing “thatclause” _ Skillfully use all the structures and verbs followed by V-ing or infinitives _ Compare the meaning of verbs followed by both V-ing forms and infinitives Note: The Schedule is subject to revision Designed by Department of English Language Skills 121 10 APPENDIX 2: Questionnaire QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire collects data for a research entitled “A Survey into the Teaching and Learning of English articles at University of Social Sciences and Humanities” Please take a few minutes to read and answer the following questions Your responses will be completely anonymous and will not be used for any other purposes I truly appreciate your contributions to the success of this research Personal Information Age: …………… Gender: Male Female Other What was your average score in English for the last semester? 5.0 – 5.9 6.0 - 6.9 7.0 - 7.9 8.0 – 10.0 Research Questions Each of the statements below refers to the issues which can occur during your process of learning the system of English articles Please mark the answer which best describes your experience (1= Strongly disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Neutral, 4= Agree, 5= Strongly agree) Questions A1 I am confident of my knowledge of English articles A2 I don’t make mistakes when using English articles A3 I believe there are a lot of similarities between the system of English articles and Vietnamese counterparts (một, những/ các, and zero article) A4 I don’t care about my mistakes in using English articles as long as I can reach my goal in communication 122 B1 The coursebooks supply me with necessary information about English articles that I can use in all cases B2 Rules about English articles given by the coursebooks are easy to remember B3 I make no mistake related to English articles when I apply the knowledge from my coursebooks C1 I understand everything my teachers tell about English articles C2 My teachers use an effective method to teach English articles C3 My teachers always correct my mistakes in using English articles C4 My teachers always give explanation for my mistakes in using English articles Do you have any opinions to share about the way English articles are taught at USSH? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… Thanks a lot for your time and your help! 123 APPENDIX 3: Proficiency Test Choose the correct article a/an, the, or zero article (Ø) for the following sentences: 1 language is great invention of humankind In 1960s, there were lots of protests against Vietnam War I saw strange man standing at gate The favorite food of jaguar is wild pig Last month we went to 10 wedding 11 bride was beautiful 12 horse I bet on is still in 13 front 14 love and 15 hate are 16 two extremes This room has 17 length of 12 meters 18 evening sky was really beautiful 10 I don’t have 19 clue (=I don’t know at all.) 11 Dr Engelbeg, 20 physician to Marilyn Monroe, would not comment on her death 12 All of 21 sudden, he woke up from his comma 13 “Do you have 22 can opener?” 14 You are imagining 23 things All your fears are in 24 mind 15 I ordered 25 bottle of wine for us 16 Reading 26 novel is 27 good way to relax 17 I’d love to travel down 28 Nile as far as 29 Luxor 18 He is always on 30 edge 19 I live in 31 neighborhood (=I live around here.) 20 32 telephone is 33 very useful invention 21 I’m in 34 mood to eat 35 hamburger 22 Writing 36 letters is 37 pain in 38 neck for me 23 I keep sending 39 messages to him 24 I have 40 new computer It costs me $8000 25 We found 41 bottles of Vodka in every cupboard 26 42 spider has eight legs 27 “Have you just had 43 orange juice?” 28 I like to read 44 books about 45 philosophy 29 Is your brother 46 man enough to join 47 army? 30 Tina has just gone to 48 supermarket and she will be back in an hour 31 What is 49 sex of your baby? It’s 50 boy 124 APPENDIX 4: Interview Interview with Teacher Participants TQ1 Do you think that the knowledge of English articles from the coursebooks was introduced clearly, systematically and easy for students to remember? TQ2 Do you realize any mistakes from the coursebooks concerning the system of English articles? TQ3 Do you think that it is necessary to use the articles correctly? Or is the communicative aim more important? TQ4 What teaching methods have you applied so far to teach English articles at EF, USSH? TQ5 Do you think that method is effective? TQ6 What you often when you find your students making errors with English articles? If they make those errors in other courses (not Advanced Grammar), would you the same? TQ7 Do you think that it is easy for students at EF, USSH to master the system of English articles? TQ8 In your opinion, what is the main cause for students’ difficulties in learning the English articles? (The reasons come from the coursebooks? No suitable teaching method? The complexity of the system of English articles? Or L1 interference? Interview with Student Participants SQ1 According to your understanding, how many types of articles are there in English language? Please classify them SQ2 What you think about the importance of using correct articles in real life? SQ3 What is your biggest obstacle in mastering the system of English articles? SQ4 Do you think that the coursebooks or your teachers have helped you to overcome that obstacle? 125 APPENDIX 5: Answer keys for the Proficiency Test Ø language is a great invention of Ø humankind [1ZA] [4IA] [1ZA] In the 1960s, there were lots of protests against the Vietnam War [5DA] [2DA] I saw a strange man standing at the gate [3IA] [2DA] The favorite food of the jaguar is the wild pig [1DA] [1DA] Last month we went to a wedding The Bride was beautiful 10 [3IA] 11 [2DA] The horse I bet on is still in Ø front 12 13 [2DA] [5ZA] Ø love and Ø hate are Ø two extremes 14 15 [1ZA] [1ZA] 16 [4ZA] This room has a length of 12 meters 17 [4IA] The evening sky was really beautiful 18 [2DA] 10 I don’t have a clue (= I don’t know at all.) 19 [1IA] 11 Dr Engelbeg, Ø physician to Marilyn Monroe, would not comment on her death 20 [3ZA] 12 All of a sudden, he woke up from his comma 21 [5IA] 13 “Do you have a can opener?” 22 [4IA] 14 You are imagining Ø things All your fears are in the mind 23 24 [3ZA] 15 I ordered a bottle of wine for us 25 [3IA] 126 [2DA] 16 Reading a novel is a good way to relax 26 27 [1IA] [4IA] 17 I’d love to travel down the Nile as far as Ø Luxor 28 29 [2DA] [3ZA] 18 He is always on Ø edge 30 [5ZA] 19 I live in the neighborhood (=I live around here.) 31 [1DA] 20 The telephone is a very useful invention 32 33 [1DA] [4IA] 21 I’m in the mood to eat a hamburger 34 35 [5DA] [3IA] 22 Writing Ø letters is a pain in the neck for me 36 37 [4ZA] [5IA] 38 [5DA] 23 I keep sending Ø messages to him 39 [3ZA] 24 I have a new computer It costs me $8,000 40 [3IA] 25 We found Ø bottles of Volka in every cupboard 41 [3ZA] 26 A spider has eight legs 42 [1IA] 27 “Have you just had Ø orange juice?” 43 [4ZA] 28 I like to read Ø books about Ø philosophy 44 45 [3ZA] [1ZA] 29 Is your brother Ø man enough to join the army? 46 47 [1ZA] [5DA] 30 Tina has just gone to the supermarket and she will be back in an hour 48 [2DA] 31 What is the sex of your baby? It’s a boy 49 [2DA] 50 [4IA] 127 ...STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I hereby certify my authorship of the thesis submitted today entitled: A SURVEY INTO THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH ARTICLES AT ENGLISH FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL. .. investigate (i) the teaching practices of the English article system at EF, USSH and (ii) the learning of English articles of 127 EF juniors To ensure the validity and consistency of the data collected,... lead to a majority of errors on articles Due to the reasons above, the current study was conducted by doing a survey on the teaching and learning of English articles at University of Social Sciences
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