bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi tiếng anh thpt chuyên đề assessment and testing in EFL class at high school level

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PART I: INTRODUCTION Over the recent decades, educators all over the world have become more and more interested in applying alternative assessment practices Other than traditional, standardized forms of testing such as multiple-choice, these innovative practices can properly assess students’ growth and development at school Portfolio and project-based assessment are two among such several authentic and non-traditional assessment techniques in education, which are particularly applicable to EFL classes Despite the increasing popularity of using portfolio and project assessment tools worldwide, learning English in Vietnam is still strongly examination-focused, especially at high school level Examinations in English are largely grammar-based, testing the students' knowledge of grammatical structures and vocabulary The final score during a semester is generally the combination of the scores of two oral tests, two fifteen-minuteat-class written tests, two forty-five-minute-at-class written tests and one final semester written examination For gifted English students, some speaking tests are often added in which the teacher normally asks students to give a small talk about one common topic At the end of the 12th grade, another national paper exam will determine high school graduation and the exam results will be used as the basis for university entrance admission It cannot be denied that these traditional testing methods fail to take into account students' growth and development as well as high-order skills required for university-level study As a result, different assessment methods should be used instead of relying solely on a test aimed at measuring past achievement and learning Other high quality assessment methods such as portfolio and project should be employed to promote students’ genuine improvement, which is especially important to English gifted students As far as the writers are concerned, portfolio and project have been more and more widely used at many language-specialized universities right at the first year; however, they are still “alien and complicated” methods to many high school teachers Within the limited scope of the paper, the authors aim to introduce the application of these two new assessment methods in teaching writing paragraphs and speaking skill to English classes at their own high school Following the review of definitions, advantages and challenges of each method, useful procedures to apply both are attempted to put forward Additionally, authentic samples are attached to provide a more detailed insight into the real application Last but not least, some suggestions are valuable for the teachers who desire to use portfolio and project in their classrooms PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER ONE: WRITING PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Definition of portfolio assessment Portfolios are at the forefront of alternative assessment approaches, noted Hamp-Lyons (1996) Hancock (1994) puts forward that a portfolio is defined as the collection of a learner’s work assembled for the purpose of determining how much has been learned (p 238) In other words, a portfolio is a purposive collection of student products to show both the ability and the progress of a learner over a period of time (e.g a semester or an academic calendar year) Portfolio includes multiple samples of student achievement and his/her own reflection about his/her decision-making process for including such samples as an integral part of the portfolio (Baume, 2001) It is worth mentioning that whereas a portfolio is a collection of a student assignment samples, portfolio assessment is the process of creating, collecting, and evaluating contents of the portfolio (Moya & O'Malley, 1994) Procedure of portfolio assessment in teaching and learning EFL The five stages of portfolio procedure are specified as follows Planning: During this stage, teachers communicate to the students the purpose of the portfolio and the assessment criteria Also, the organization and presentation of materials as well as portfolio maintenance and storage are discussed Collection: In the collection stage, students must decide the context and contents of the portfolio to document their work and choose appropriate artifacts and products Selection: The selection stage is a decision-making process in which collected artifacts are stored and selected for inclusion in the portfolio Reflection: Reflection stage is often considered the most important step in portfolio development During the reflection process, students justify their selections, highlight important learning gains, explain relevant skills and knowledge, and identify areas for improvement Connection: In the connection stage, students expand on their reflections to connect acquired knowledge and skills gained from portfolio assessment with course goals and learning objectives Writing portfolio In writing, portfolio assessment is a technique to improve students' writing performance Students are asked to choose their best pieces of writing to put in portfolio to submit assessment Students can also include those samples of writing that represent the development of writing process, including writing plan, different drafts, and evaluation sheets The whole procedure of using portfolio assessment for writing skill is summarized in the diagram below: Step -Discuss the purpose, content of portfolio Step Write up first draf Repeat procedure for other pieces of writing Peer- review Write second draf - Discuss the criteria for portfolio’s evaluation Step Teacher’s feedback - Students reflect upon the portfolio - Students select three final versions and their attached drafs, feedbacks, reflections for grading purpose - Teacher’s evaluation for students’ portfolios Write final version Students’ reflection Teacher’s evaluation Put all the stuffsprocedure in the Adopted portfolio from the Training Material by MOET In detail, the procedure isportfolio divided into three main steps as follows: • Step 1: planning In the first piloted-portfolio writing class, the teacher and the students discuss together about the purpose of portfolio The aim of the portfolios is to help students identify their strengths and weaknesses, to show their progress overtime and also for grading purpose Accordingly, the content of portfolios is also decided that include all the students’ stuffs such as drafts, feedbacks, reflections, teacher’s evaluation sheets and final versions However, at last, students would choose three final versions in their favor and their attached teacher’s evaluation sheets and reflections for summative grading In the planning stage, they also discuss about the criteria for evaluating portfolios • Step 2: Collection and reflection up on individual writing tasks In each next writing lesson, the teacher and the students deal with one writing task which follows the textbook or outside materials which are suitable for the lesson Students might choose textbook-based topics or any other ones of their interests but suitable for the topics given to write about After giving some necessary instructions, the teacher asked students to make the outline maybe individually or in groups, and then write the first draft After finishing the first drafts, students exchange their writings with their peers and write comments on their peers’ first drafts based on the given Peer comment sheets The aim of Peer comment sheets is to help the students enhance their critical thinking through making judgment on their peers’ writing pieces At home, students have to rewrite their essays based on the peers’ comments and then hand their second drafts to the teacher on a due day in the week The teacher, have to revise all the writings using Teacher’s feedback The teacher’s feedback sheet is used as a guideline for the teacher to make useful comments on students’ writings In the next week, the teacher returns feedbacks to the students, and the students have to write the final versions at home Also, the students are asked to self-reflection based on Student self-reflection sheet in which they reveal their weak points as well as their strong points in their writing and what they hoped to improve in the next writing Then, the teacher will collect and evaluate all the students’ final versions based on the Teacher’s evaluation sheet These evaluation sheets are very useful for the researcher in comparing the results gained by students to explore whether they improved or not The process continues being carried out in the next weeks All the drafts, peer comment sheets, teacher’s feedbacks, teacher’s evaluation sheets, students’ self-reflection sheets and final versions are collected and put into a paper bag by the students • Step 3: Reflection upon the whole portfolio, selection and evaluation Then, the students are asked to self-reflection upon their portfolios in which they express what their favorite writing piece in their portfolios is and what writing piece they are the most dissatisfied with, and state the reasons To this, students use Portfolio reflection sheet Also, students are asked to select the necessary artifacts including three final versions and their attached drafts, peer review feedbacks, teacher’s comments, teacher’s evaluation sheets and self reflection sheets for grading aim They are reminded to select carefully and thoughtfully based on what versions they find the best ones or the most meaningful to them Then, students are asked to design the cover of their portfolios in their own ways Finally, teacher collects and evaluated all the portfolios based on the Portfolio rubric Advantages of portfolio assessment Portfolios offer a number of advantages to both teachers and learners To teachers, Hedge (2000) states that portfolio assessment is seen as a more comprehensive portrait of students’ writing ability than one essay composed under restricted circumstances Thus, evaluating portfolios instead of only one impromptu timed writing sample of students will put teachers in a better position to make informed judgments about students’ writing ability To put it in another way, by employing portfolio assessment in addition to standardized testing, foreign language teachers can understand their students’ strengths and weaknesses thoroughly, wrote Shohamy (1992) As regards students, they benefit the most when they receive feedback while they are still working on a paper rather than after the paper has been graded Portfolios can encourage students to be independent learners, taking responsibility for their own learning Students have to review their writing and decide which pieces they will present to their teachers and/or what they would like teachers to see in that writing” (p 109) Hirvela and Pierson (2000) In addition, the application of portfolio assessment enhances students’ skills in organization and development, as well as group work through peer-comment In brief, portfolio assessment can arouse students’ learning motivation and facilitate students’ learning process as well as offer teachers a more accurate reflection of students’ learning Challenges of portfolio assessment Brown and Hudson (1998) itemized the challenges of using portfolios under five categories that can influence portfolio implementation: design decision, logistics, interpretation, reliability and validity Design decision issues are related to content of the portfolio and its grading criteria The issues about who will decide upon the content and who will specify the purposes are the most challenging issues for the teachers who implement portfolio in their classrooms At the beginning of the term teacher must decide what to put into the portfolio and how to evaluate them If the teacher does not make decisions about these issues, it cannot be possible to prepare grading criteria According to Hamp-Lyons & Condon (1993), establishment of grading criteria is also a critical issue, since it has been found that portfolio readers often lack explicit criteria and standards to measure portfolios Another main concern about portfolios is dealing with logical issues such as lack of time and increased paper load and workload Bushman et al (1995) delineates that time management is the biggest challenge of portfolio assessment Teachers help students to develop their portfolios in their planning, collecting, editing and revising stages Student – teacher dialogue during the portfolio implementation process increases the amount of time and effort used by the teachers while developing this process Setting standards in grading, ensuring fairness to students and training teachers to make fair evaluations are interpretation issues challenging portfolio implementation Gottlieb (2000) believes that teachers need sustained professional development to support portfolio implementation Guiding and evaluating students in portfolio assessment is not an easy job and it is claimed that teachers need professional assistance on how to guide and evaluate students in this process Another criticism surrounding portfolio assessment is the issue of reliability and validity According to O’Malley et al (1994) there might be a possibility of subjectivity and lack of consensus with other teachers because portfolio assessment relies on teacher judgments to produce a score Without reliability while producing the same score with different raters, there might be concerns about inconsistent rating in portfolio assessment If an assessment system is not reliable, it is not also valid Validity is about determining how adequately portfolios exemplify students‟ work, development and abilities, and whether portfolio purposes and the decisions made according to these purposes match (Brown & Hudson, 1998) Dealing with these challenges is not easy for teachers and requires commitment Despite these challenges, it is important to ensure the balance between the benefits and challenges of portfolio implementation with a careful design and clear guidelines for the contents of the portfolios Authentic sample 10th grade gifted students were asked to write paragraphs of different genres (i.e description, advantages and disadvantages, cause-and-effect, comparison and contrast) during the term The students completed the writing plan for the topics they choose and write their first drafts at class, which were then commented by their peers at home on the peer-comment worksheet The next day, at class, the students wrote the second drafts based on their peer comments All the second drafts were submitted to the teacher who will further commented before they wrote the final drafts (version 3) It is noteworthy that the teacher signed at the end of the first and second draft to minimize any chances of cheating In short, the portfolio project required that students write paragraphs of different genres They revisited, reflected on and revised the paragraphs in response to peer and teacher feedback during the term For each genre, the students collected all the related papers in one entry, including the writing plan, first draft, second drafts, final drafts, peer-comment worksheet It should be noted that the student’s reflection on each entry and the whole portfolio were eliminated in the writer’s classroom It was her own thought that the reflection seemed to be too demanding concerning her students’ level The score of each entry was decided upon that of the final version based on the guidelines for the national high school examination suggested by the Ministry of Education and Training in 2014 The students were required to select three best entries for summative grading The portfolio score of the students was the average of scores on those three entries The writing forms utilized in the portfolio was adapted from the portfolio model by English Teacher Education Faculty, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University Minus points were given to the lack of any necessary components in each entry, i.e without peer comment or writing plan, one minus point; without one of the three versions, three minus points; without the teacher’s signature, two minus points On the next pages of the paper comes one authentic writing portfolio entry from one student in which the teacher also gave comments and mark as well 10 đổ sông, phân bón hóa học từ đất ngấm sông!!!! Có lẽ ta phải trừng trị chừa!! Anh em cá đâu… Chơi thằng chúng nó” ( sau thủy thần với bầy cá lao lên cho tên trận buộc tên vô ý thức phải xin lỗi hứa hẹn… vv vv ) SCRIPT FOR “WATER POLLUTION” CBDR: Hey you What the *beep* are you doing? CBDC: Nothing :3 CBDR: Don’t pretend What’s matter with you? I was shocked by you, by your electricity… CBDC: Oh ya I did So what will you do? CBDR: ahh …You want to die? Oke CBDC: Swim here… -Cảnh 2: Bỗng nhiên có tiếng “ STOP THERE “ mặt sông sóng, nước cuộn trào, từ sông… Dragon King lên mặt mũi đen xì tóc tai dựng ngược giật điện “ Who did this? Where is the electricity? “… Cậu bé đổ rác liền cậu bé đánh cá “It’s him” Cậu bé đánh cá dấu vội vợt muỗi sau lưng, cười, nói: “ NOTHING “ …… Dragon king( nhìn cậu bé đổ rác) : It’s you You did that Why did you dare?… CBDC: wow wow keep calm Who are you? Dragon king: I’m dragon king My nickname is great brother dragon I ruled this river CBDC: Oh So that… Dragon king You have repeatedly polluted the river Especially you!!! ( cậu bé đổ rác) Look at my new hair They look too bad… CBDC: hey… I just… Dragon king: Just what?? You and your electricity have caused much unjust death for my children… Fish 1: That’s true Kill him daddy Fish and Fish3: yes… yes… kill him dad… Dragon king: Okey Take it easy my boys I will teach him a lesson ) Dragon king: Do you know what you did has affected the water environment seriously? You have been directly destroying our habitat!!! How careless you are! Fish 1: Humans don’t consider carefully when doing anything What you have done is just for your own sake You have no idea about how we live So many lakes and river around the world have become polluted due to human error… 39 sewage from plants, chemical pesticides… even daily waste… have been dumped into the water We have been suffering their consequences Fish and Fish 3: You can say that again (Hoac That’s absolutely right)…… Fish 2: Not only fish but other marine plants and animals have been suffering the consequences of your activities You catch fish with electricity, dynamites… BUM…we die We have our private lives like your human ones Fish and Fish 3: There’s no doubt about that…… Fish 3: Water pollution also damages human life Can you live without water? I dare you live without water more than weeks You pollute the water, which not only badly affects your benefits but also seriously harm other species What a shame! Fish and Fish 2: That’s right…… Dragon King: You must be punished… Children Let’s teach them lesson ( Long vương đàn tràn lên bờ cho tên vô ý thức trận ) Dragon King” okey That’s enough.Now!! Do you know what to do? Two boys:  Yes Sorry King, Sorry Fishes ang sorry the river  we promise to never that again  Dragon king: And… Two boys: we know  ( (sau cậu bé vớt rác từ sông lên, dọn dẹp sông blab le… ) KỊCH BẢN Ô NHIỄM ĐẤT Created by Mai Khanh Idea from Thế Trung I Các diễn viên - Dẫn truyện : An béo - Anh nông dân: Thế Trung - Vợ anh nông dân : Khanh - Đất : Mạnh Tiến, Quang Huy, Đạt - cây: Thành Trung, Quang Huy, Quang - Con lợn: Phạm Trang - Lũ: Thành Trung, Quang Huy, Quang - Bụt: Thành Hưng - Thuốc trừ sâu: Sơn số diễn viên quần chúng II Nội dung Màn 1: Cuộc sống yên ả vợ chồng người nông dân với đất Ngày nảy ngày có vợ chồng người nông dân quanh năm lo cày cấy trồng trọt Nhờ có mảnh đất đai màu mỡ, hoa màu họ lúc 40 phát triển tốt cho suất cao, sống vợ chồng người nông dân no đủ hạnh phúc Họ coi đất nguồn sống mà họ may mắn có Màn 2: Khi đời thay đổi vợ chồng người nông dân sau nhiều năm tháng cày cuốc, làm lụng, sống họ ngày nâng cao, họ dần trở nên giàu có Khi giàu có rồi, họ lo tối ngày ăn chơi xa đọa Người chống tối ngày bar thư giãn, cô vợ ngày spa làm đẹp Họ ko quan tâm nhiều đến đất đai, ruộng vườn Dần dà, ăn chơi tiền gần cạn, họ phải tiếp tục làm việc để kiếm sống, họ không muốn phải vất vả nên họ bàn cách để kiếm tiền dễ dàng Người chồng: Bà này, ông bạn giới thiệu cho loại thuốc vô xịn nhá, loại thuốc giúp vợ chồng ko phải làm lụng nhiều mà có rau mang bán kiếm tiền ăn chơi đấy! Mụ vợ : Ông mơ à, làm có loại thuốc Người chồng : ( lôi từ túi quần lọ) này, thuốc KÍCH THÍCH TĂNG TRƯỞNG nhá, thuốc cần phun phát để qua đêm hôm sau hoa dù héo quắt tươi ngon luôn, rau dài hẳn ba bốn mét nhá, mà bán :v Mụ vợ : Ôi thuốc xịn ông ạ, tiện ông hỏi bạn ông xem có loại mà phun cho lũ sâu bọ chết hết ko, sớm tối phải vườn bắt sâu, bắt bọ, còng hết lưng >< Người chồng (móc từ túi lại hai hộp nữa) : Xời, chuẩn bị rồi, THUỐC TRỪ SÂU 666 này, sâu gỉ gi chết hết, bạn bảo thuốc khủng long uống chết sâu nhằm nhò Còn lại THUỐC DIỆT CỎ này, loại phun vào đám cỏ dại chúng “ra đi” sạch, khỏi phải lo nhổ cỏ Mụ vợ: Được bằng, giá biết sớm đời bớt khổ lâu :3 Thế vợ chồng người nông dân bắt đầu tiến hành công cải tạo vườn họ loại thuốc hóa học mà họ tim Thuốc trừ sâu: Xông lên anh em!! (cả bọn vây quanh lũ đất) 41 Đất: Ối giời ông bà ơi, họ tưới đắng đắng chát chát lên người này, rát hết người rồi, cứu với !!! T T Thuốc trừ sâu: Kêu gì, thích tao cho hẳn thùng phi xanh đầy thuốc không, trật tự !!! (tiếp tục tra đất = cách đánh đấm) Đất: !!! vợ chồng người nông dân sau làm giàu nhờ sản phẩm nông nghiệp chứa đầy chất hoá học độc hại không đoái hoài tới đất Không vậy, họ làm nhiều điều khác khiến đất đai bị tổn thương không nhẹ 3.Màn 3: Việc làm người Ham làm giàu nên vợ chồng người nông dân cho chặt phá rừng để lấy gỗ đem bán Biết bao cổ thụ cánh rừng đầu nguồn bị chặt, đất không níu giữ nên lũ đất bị trôi khi, gây sạt lở đất Cảnh: đất đứng cạnh nhau, đất cây, người chồng cầm dao chặt Sau đó, dàn nam nữ cầm vải (giấy) màu xanh giả làm lũ qua cục đất Dẫn truyện: Đất sinh trưởng phát triển thêm, việc làm thay đổi cấu trúc đất khiến chúng bị xói mòn gây nên tác nhân ảnh hưởng xấu đến hoạt động sản xuất đời sống người 4.Màn 4:Câu chuyện đất Một ngày trời cao xanh sương sớm long lanh, họ nhà đất tụ họp với để nói chuyện Đất 1: Các ông bà này, dạo thấy bị đối xử tệ bạc Mọi người có thấy không? Đất 2: Đúng ông ạ, ngày bị tra bới thứ thuốc độc hại không yên nghỉ giây phút Ông nhìn người này, lở loét hết Đất 3: Giời ạ, ít, đợt á, người ta xả rác bừa bãi cơ, xả đâu không xả, họ ném thẳng vào mặt ấy, người toàn rác rác, mà lại loại khó phân hủy, sẽ, khổ ông bà Đất 1: Cứ đà >< Màn 5: Cái chuồng lợn đất Đất phi đến chuồng lợn phân bua 42 Đất 1: Này, cậu ăn bẩn thỉu quá, phân cậu xả hết lên người Đất 2: Chúng xử lí chất thải bạn, nhiều gây ùn tắc, không sống Lợn: Có phải đâu, người dân để xó xỉnh này, lại ống thoát nước hay ống thải chất thải Vì không cách khác, thành Ngay nơi có đâu Phân nước thải tồn đọng lâu ngày mà phải đổ đâu Đất 3: Chúng bị ô nhiễm bới tác nhân khác rồi, lại thêm bạn nữa, sống đây? ( cục đất ôm khóc nức nở) Đúng lúc vợ chồng người nông dân vừa ăn chơi qua khu vườn … Mụ vợ : Ông ơi, ông có nghe thấy tiếng khóc lóc thảm thiết không? Người chồng: Ơ , nhà có với bà, chả nhẽ lại có ma? Đất: oe…oe…oe… Mụ vợ: Rõ ràng nghe thấy mà Người chồng: Thôi vào nhà đi, để tâm làm Màn 6: giấc mơ vợ chồng người nông dân Tối đó, hai vợ chồng nhà nông dân ngủ say, họ mơ giấc mơ, giấc mơ họ gặp ông bụt béo bự, tóc quần áo trắng chưa trắng Ông bụt: Chào con, biết hôm ta xuất không? Hai vợ chồng( sợ hãi): ôi, , đâu>< Ông bụt: Ta bụt, ta không làm đâu Ta đến để nói cho biết đất đai bị xói mòn ô nhiễm ngày, có biết không? Hai vợ chồng: Dạ đất đai ô nhiễm có liên quan đến chúng đâu Ông bụt: Để ta nói nghe: việc làm xả rác bừa bãi, phun thuốc hóa học, chặt phá rừng,…đã khiến cho đất đai bị tổn thương ô nhiễm trầm trọng Mà biết không, đất đai bị ô nhiễm tức chúng bị phá hủy cấu trúc dẫn đến đất xói mòn, thoái hóa hết chất dinh dưỡng, trồng phát triển, đất bị ô nhiễm ngấm vào nguồn nước gây ảnh hưởng vô nghiêm trọng đến sức khỏe người 43 Các thử nghĩ xem lợi mà hưởng trước mắt nhiều hay tai họa mà phải gánh chịu sau nhiều hơn? Người chồng (nhìn người vợ xong quay sang nhìn ông bụt): Chúng biết lỗi lầm mà chúng gây Chúng xin hứa không tái phạm Bụt: Ta biết, thời dân số trái đất ngày tăng lên, nhu cầu lương thực nhu cầu khác tăng theo, khỏi việc người vô ý thức làm nên tác nhân gây hại cho đất môi trường sống Quan trọng người phải nhận thức sai lầm nhanh chóng sửa chữa để sống ngày tốt đẹp Đến ta phải rồi, chào Hai vợ chồng anh nông dân choàng tỉnh dậy phát giấc mơ sau giấc mơ họ có suy nghĩ khác Họ người nông dân khác thu gom rác thải, loại bỏ sử dụng chất hóa học, trồng cây,… Cuối cùng(nhạc lên) Cả nhóm đứng lến đọc thông điệp “một thông điệp em chưa nghĩ ra” SCRIPT FOR “SOIL POLLUTION” PART I: The peaceful life of a farmer couple There is a farmer couple who are very hardworking Everyday they work hard on their field Thanks to their fertile plot of land , they always have bumper crops Their life is usually all right and happy They consider their land to be their fortune After many years of hard work , their life has improved day by day Soon they have become richer and richer When being wealthy, they started to distract their work They have become lazy The husband always goes to the bar and spends a lot of money they have earned on wine while his wife goes to the spa to beautify herself They no longer are concerned about their work and their land Gradually their savings have become exhausted They don’t want to work hard on the fileds any more They are thinking about how to make money easier Hus: Oh , my dear , my old fellow has introduced me a new kind of a special chemical that hepls us to produce more fruits and vegatables without working hard in the fields Wife: Really, What kind is it? 44 Hus: Here it is ! Look at it ! If we spray it over the withered fruits and vegatables tonight , They will be refreshed tomorrow It is magical Wife: Ow ! It sounds great! Does he have another kind that kill all kinds od insects I don’t want to have to pick up insects all day and noght Look at my back How painful it is ! Hus: No problem ! Look at these! This is pesticide and this is herbicide They are wonderful Wife: Oh Great! If only we had had them many years ago we wouldn’t have had to work hard all days Life would have been easier for us Pesticides: Everybody! Let’s start Soil: Oh, my god! Help! Help! We are dying There is something bitter all over my body Ps: Don’t cry! Keep silent otherwise I will kill all of you (Soil can neither be extended nor develpe and grow more ,so changing their form causes bad agents which have bad effects on human life THE STORY OF SOIL Soil 1: Lady and gentleman ! We have been badly treated lately Do you know this ? Soil 2: Right ! Everyday we have to suffer from all kinds of poinsons Look at my body! Oh I can’t imagine Soil 3: My god! They also litter everywhere over my body They throw hudreds of tons of rubbish into my face I don’t know when my body will be clean as I used to be I can’t put up with this any more ! Help me ! I am too miserable Soil 1,2: If man continues doing like this , we will be destroyed , his life wiil be affected whether he knows about this or not? PART 2: A PIGSTY and SOIL Soil:1 Oh my pigs! Why are you so dirty? Your manure spreads over my body Soil 2: We can’t put up with your wastes There are too many Pigs: It is not my fault It is the man’s fault Soil 3: We are polluted by too many things that man brings to us , we also have to tolerate your wastes We can’t survive any more Wife: my dear! Have you heard someone crying hard anywhere Hus: No, no nothing There are only you and me in the house Perhalps there is a ghost in my house?? Wife : I have heard it clearly 45 Hus: No problem Come in ! PART 3: ( The couple are soundly asleep) Buddha: Hello ! How are you ? Do you know why I enter your house tonight ? Couple: Oh ! who is it ??we we…don’t… know anything… Bud: I am Bud I don’t harm to you I only come to tell you that your land is being eroded and polluted day by day you know this? Couple We don’t know It doesn’t matter to us Bud: If you don’t know I will tell you about the effects that you causes to your land : Everyday rubish and chemicals thrown into the soil cause the heavy poplution and destruction to the soil , which badly affested to the healthy life of human beings Have you ever thought of this ? The benefit you gained from this is much less than the harm you to the earth and human , even yourself and your future generations I think If you don’t stop doing like this you will feel sorry afterwards Do you know??? Hus: Yes yes we know we know , We promise not to this any more We will never commit this mistake Bud : I believe you As you know the world population is increasing faster and faster The demand of food and energy resources is higher and higher , so unconsious things that human do serious harm to the land and environment It is necessary for us to be aware of the importance of good environment to protect it from being polluted It is we human that have to something to make our earth a better place for all kinds of living things Now it is time I went away Good bye ( The couple awake… ) PHIẾU ĐÁNH GIÁ CÁ NHÂN VÀ THÀNH VIÊN NHÓM (10đ) Họ tên người đánh giá: ……………………………………… Em viết tên bạn nhóm vào ô đánh số, sau cho điểm thân thành viên dựa tiêu chí đưa 46 TIÊU CHÍ Bản thân … … … … … … … Nhiệt tình, có trách nhiệm với công việc giao (2đ) Có hợp tác làm việc theo nhóm tốt, động, sáng tạo công việc, thành viên nhóm tín nhiệm.(2đ) Hoàn thành tốt nhiệm vụ phân công, hiểu biết sâu rộng nội dung dự án, thu thập nhiều thông tin phù hợp với nội dung dự án, có nhiều đóng góp cho sản phẩm nhóm (3đ) Vai diễn đạt, sử dụng Tiếng Anh trôi chảy, lưu loát, gây ấn tượng người xem (3đ) Tổng PHIẾU ĐÁNH GIÁ NHÓM (10đ) Nhóm Nhóm “… ………… ” …./1 …./3 “……………….” …./1 …./3 Nhóm Thời gian (5’-10’) Nội dung 47 8… (sáng tạo, mang tính giáo dục, bật nguyên nhân, hậu giải pháp) Diễn xuất Đạo cụ …./2 …./2 (quần áo phù hợp, âm nhạc, đạo …./1 …./1 …./3 …./3 cụ bổ sung…) Kĩ nói (phát âm, ngữ điệu, sử dụng ngôn ngữ đa dạng, phù hợp) Tổng PHIẾU ĐIỀU TRA DẠY HỌC DỰ ÁN Hãy cho biết ý kiến em câu hỏi sau tham gia dự án “Vận dụng kiến thức liên môn học nói Tiếng Anh để giáo dục cho học sinh vấn đề ô nhiễm môi trường tỉnh nhà (Ninh Bình) nay.” Em học kiến thức gì? _ _ Em phát triển kỹ gì? _ _ 48 Em xây dựng thái độ tích cực? _ _ Nhìn chung, em thích/ không thích dự án vì…… _ _ Em muốn/không muốn tham gia dự án Tại sao? _ _ PART III: CONCLUSION The paper provides the review of the two innovative assessment methods, i.e portfolio and project, which can be effectively applied in the context of gifted upper-secondary schools The detailed implementation of these two methods in writing and speaking is also presented for the purpose of providing useful insights for those who desire to apply Pedagogical implication 1.1 Portfolio assessment In the implementation of portfolio assessment, the teacher plays an essential part; therefore, to apply portfolio assessment into teaching successfully and effectively, first and foremost, teachers need to be equipped with adequate and thorough understandings about portfolio assessment Pre-training activities for teachers should be carried out before portfolio assessment is officially applied in reality When applying portfolio assessment, it is necessary for the teacher to give clear instructions on the portfolio procedure and criteria to assess portfolios to the students Every step of portfolio assessment should be made clear to all the students at the beginning of the course as well 49 as right before each step is carried out It is also better for teachers to prepare a sample portfolio in advance and show it to the students at the beginning of the course so that they have a clear idea of portfolio assessment Sample portfolios are of great help to illustrate the idea of portfolio more directly to the students Besides, since portfolio assessment is considered to be time-consuming, teachers may limit the number of portfolio artifacts This helps both save the teacher’s checking time for portfolio artifacts and ensure the quality of portfolios One more thing is that some students feel portfolio assessment is an extra duty or a burden for their study; therefore, in portfolio procedure, teachers should provide extra time for the students’ portfolio preparation processes, and organize various and exciting activities to motivate them At last, teaches should also encourage students to present their portfolios in front of the other classmates and they should provide adequate time for this sharing activity Second, portfolio assessment requires teachers to have a deep understanding of the current situation of assessment, students’ opinions on currently used kinds of assessment, students’ language level as well as their interest Besides, teachers should also need to raise students’ awareness of portfolio use’s benefits as well as portfolio assessment’s advantages, which drives them to their portfolios seriously and properly Last but not least, it is flexible for English teachers to use portfolios in other skills other than writing In reading, students may be encouraged to collect several articles from reliable sources to summarize main ideas, glossary with useful words related to one single topic In listening, short summaries of their favorite videos, movies and songs can be included in the portfolio 1.2 Project assessment As far as the writers are concerned, project assessment is absolutely necessary in teaching and learning English because the benefits it offers are indispensable to both teachers and learners No longer does the teacher play a role as the knowledge owner, but rather the facilitator, the guider and co-learner A number of issues need to be addressed in order for PBL teaching to be suited to the values of high school gifted students The following is offered for discussion and consideration Authentic activity Authentic activity is one of many factors that assist in enhancing students’ English language skills The students are given the opportunity to experience 50 authentic resources and use English language for meaningful communication They are required to practice and use their learning skills in real-life work settings Teachers implementing PBL need to consider ways to involve the students in real-world activities and allow them to demonstrate their skills and confidence during their project journey Support and feedback Support and feedback are crucial in facilitating language learning and enhancing learning skills and self-confidence Language teachers need to provide useful feedback on both language and skills learning The teacher needs to carefully plan the timing and frequency of monitoring students’ progress during projects In addition, the teachers should be trained to give appropriate supportive and constructive feedback, which is the key to student success Learner autonomy Student autonomy in language learning enhanced their language skills, learning skills and self-confidence The concept of learner autonomy forms part of the major changes to all levels of education and subject areas in current Vietnamese educational reforms Teachers can achieve this using PBL in their English classes In the project conducted by the writers, the students initially had difficulties in taking responsibility for their own learning; however, as the project developed they learned to involve themselves in their learning process and became responsible for their own learning Language teachers need to provide ongoing guidance and be prepared to spend time on students’ problems while the students adapt to their autonomous learning roles The collaborative learning environment The strategy of working collaboratively with a group of people to achieve common goals is an integral part of PBL and is effective in an EFL context According to the project illustrated in this paper, the collaborative learning environment provided many opportunities to develop and advance the students’ English language proficiency and key skills such as teamwork, higher-order thinking, and presentation skills throughout the projects In addition, the teacher facilitated the students to be more comfortable with each other and led them to reflect on their thoughts through peer feedback The teacher workload It is clearly seen that the implementation of PBL affects the teacher’s workload To reduce workload problems and to help teachers effectively apply the notion of learner autonomy and communicative language teaching through the use of PBL, the 51 cooperation and support of school executives in relation to the class size, administration tasks and timetable reorganization are needed Limitations of the paper There are some limitations to this paper First, due to the writers’ aim of focusing, the two assessment methods of portfolio and project were just illustrated in writing and speaking skill respectively In addition, concerning the writing portfolio, the writers made reference to only the writing forms used by the University of Languages and International Studies Further research is needed with other forms of portfolio in related educational contexts REFERENCES Baume, D (2001) A Briefing on Assessment of Portfolios: Assessment Series, LTSN Generic Centre Beckett, G H., & Slater, T (2005) The Project Framework: a tool for language, content, and skills integration ELT Journal, 59(2), 108-116 Brown, J D & Hudson, T (1998) The alternatives in language assessment TESOL Quarterly, 32, 4, 653-675 Bushman, L & Schnitker, B (1995) Teacher Attitudes on Portfolio Assessment, Implementation, and Practicability (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 388 661) Curtis, D (2002) The Power of Projects Educational Leadership, 60 (1), p 50-53 Dhieb-Henia, N (1999) Improving Science Students' Fluency through Project Work The Internet TESL Journal, V (8), 1-6 Gottlieb, M (2000) Portfolio practices in elementary and secondary schools: Toward learner-directed assessment In G Ekbatani & H Pierson (Eds), Learner directed assessment in ESL, 89-104 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum Gülbahar, Y., & Tinmaz, H (2006) Implementing Project-Based Learning and EPortfolio Assessment in an Undergraduate Course Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38 (3), 309-320 Hamp-Lyons, L & Condon, W (2000) Assessing the Portfolio NJ: Hampton Press, INC Hamps-Lyon, L (1996) Applying Ethical Standards to Portfolio Assessment of Writing on English as a Second language , Cambridge University Press Hancock, C (Ed.) (1994) Teaching, Testing, and Assessment: Making the connection Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company 52 Hedge, T (2000) Teaching and learning in the language classroom Oxford: Oxford University Press Hirvela, A and Pierson, H (2000) Portfolios: Vehicles for Authentic Self-Assessment In G Ekbatani and H Pierson (Eds.), Learner-Directed Assessment in ESL (pp 105-126) New Jersey: Mahwah Katz, L.G (1994) The project approach (ERIC Reproduction Services No ED368509) Markham, T., Mergendoller, J., Larmer, J., & Ravitz, J (2003) Project Based Learning Handbook Canada: Buck Institute for Education McGrath, D (2002-2003) Launching a PBL Project Learning & Leading with Technology, 30(4), 36-39 MOET (2014) Training Material on Assessment and testing in EFL Class at High School level Moya, S., & O'Malley, J M (1994, Spring) A portfolio assessment model for ESL The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 13, 13-36 Okolo, C M., & Ferretti, R P (2001) Preparing Future Citizens: Technology Supported Project-Based Learning in the Social Studies In J Woodward & L Cuban (Eds.), Technology, Curriculum and Professional Development (pp 47-60) California: Corwin Press Shohamy, E (1992) Language assessment for feedback: testing and other strategies Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Stanley, D (2000) Project Based Learning- 6C's of Motivation Retrieved from http://www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/LessonPlans/LPPJL4DStanley.htm Tassinari, M (1996) Hands-on projects take students beyond the book Social Studies Review, 34(3), 16-20 Thomas, J W (2000) A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/pdf/researchreviewPBL.pdf 53 ... builds intrinsic motivation and commitment that drives 21 students to be involved in a self-learning process in ways that are not possible in traditional methods of teaching and learning (Katz,... Tiếng Anh để giáo dục cho học sinh vấn đề ô nhiễm môi trường tỉnh nhà (Ninh Bình) nay.” Mục tiêu dạy học:  Kiến thức: 26 Giúp học sinh vận dụng vấn đề thực tế sống học môn Vật lý, Địa lý, Sinh học, ... dụng kiến thức thực tế học môn Vật lý, Địa lý, Sinh học, Hóa học, GDCD Tin học vào học nói Tiếng Anh để nói vấn đề bảo vệ môi trường nước, không khí, đất Ninh Bình - Học sinh thể sản phẩm thu kịch
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