Dictionary of chemistry

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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry Second Edition McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher 0-07-141797-4 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-141046-5 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069 TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc (“McGrawHill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work Use of this work is subject to these terms Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE McGraw-Hill and its licensors not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise DOI: 10.1036/0071417974 Want to learn more? We hope you enjoy this McGraw-Hill , eBook! If you d like more information about this book, its author, or related books and websites, please click here For more information about this title, click here Contents Preface v Staff vi How to Use the Dictionary vii Fields and Their Scope ix Pronunciation Key x A–Z Terms 1-414 Appendix 415-431 Equivalents of commonly used units for the U.S Customary System and the metric system 417 Conversion factors for the U.S Customary System, metric system, and International System 418 Defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) 422 Primary thermometry methods 423 Periodic table 424 Electrochemical series of the elements 425 Average electronegativities from the thermochemical data 426 Standard atomic weights 427 Principal organic functional groups 429 Compounds containing functional groups 430 Physical properties of some organic solvents 431 Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use This page intentionally left blank Preface The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry provides a compendium of 8000 terms that are central to chemistry and related fields of science and technology The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the the areas of analytical chemisty, general chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy, with new terms added and others revised as necessary Chemistry deals with the composition, properties, and structure of matter Its various branches analyze composition and properties, and study the changes that occur in matter, the underlying processes, the energetics of these processes, and the rates at which they occur Thus, the terms contained in this Dictionary may be used in virtually all areas of science, for example, biochemistry, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry, and in many areas of technology All of the definitions are drawn from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Sixth Edition (2003) Each definition is classified according to the field with which it is primarily associated; if it is used in more than one area, it is identified by the general label [CHEM] The pronunciation of each term is provided, along with synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations where appropriate A guide to the use of the Dictionary appears on pages vii-viii, explaining the alphabetical organization of terms, the format of the book, cross referencing, chemical formulas, and how synonyms, variant spellings, abbreviations, and similar information are handled The Pronunciation Key is provided on page x The Appendix provides conversion tables for commonly used scientific units as well as other listings of chemical data It is the editors’ hope that the Second Edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry will serve the needs of scientists, engineers, students, teachers, librarians, and writers for high-quality information, and that it will contribute to scientific literacy and communication Mark D Licker Publisher v Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use Staff Mark D Licker, Publisher—Science Elizabeth Geller, Managing Editor Jonathan Weil, Senior Staff Editor David Blumel, Staff Editor Alyssa Rappaport, Staff Editor Charles Wagner, Digital Content Manager Renee Taylor, Editorial Assistant Roger Kasunic, Vice President—Editing, Design, and Production Joe Faulk, Editing Manager Frank Kotowski, Jr., Senior Editing Supervisor Ron Lane, Art Director Thomas G Kowalczyk, Production Manager Pamela A Pelton, Senior Production Supervisor Henry F Beechhold, Pronunciation Editor Professor Emeritus of English Former Chairman, Linguistics Program The College of New Jersey Trenton, New Jersey vi Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use How to Use the Dictionary ALPHABETIZATION The terms in the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry, Second Edition, are alphabetized on a letter-by-letter basis; word spacing, hyphen, comma, solidus, and apostrophe in a term are ignored in the sequencing Also ignored in the sequencing of terms (usually chemical compounds) are italic elements, numbers, small capitals, and Greek letters For example, the following terms appear within alphabet letter “A”: amino alcohol 1-aminoanthraquinone ␥-aminobutyric acid para-aminophenol n-amylamine 4-AP FORMAT The basic format for a defining entry provides the term in boldface, the field is small capitals, and the single definition in lightface: term [FIELD] Definition A term may be followed by multiple definitions, each introduced by a boldface number: term [FIELD] Definition Definition Definition A term may have definitions in two or more fields: term [PHYS CHEM] Definition [SPECT] Definition A simple cross-reference entry appears as: term See another term A cross reference may also appear in combination with definitions: term [PHYS CHEM] Definition [SPECT] See another term CROSS REFERENCING A cross-reference entry directs the user to the defining entry For example, the user looking up “arachic acid” finds: arachic acid See eicosanoic acid The user then turns to the “E” terms for the definition Cross references are also made from variant spellings, acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols AES See Auger electron spectroscopy aluminium See aluminum at wt See atomic weight Au See gold vii Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use CHEMICAL FORMULAS Chemistry definitions may include either an empirical formula (say, for abietic acid, C20H30O2) or a line formula (for acrylonitrile, CH2CHCN), whichever is appropriate ALSO KNOWN AS , etc A definition may conclude with a mention of a synonym of the term, a variant spelling, an abbreviation for the term, or other such information, introduced by “Also known as ,” “Also spelled ,” “Abbreviated ,” “Symbolized ,” “Derived from ” When a term has more than one definition, the positioning of any of these phrases conveys the extent of applicability For example: term [PHYS CHEM] Definition Also known as synonym Definition Symbolized T In the above arrangement, “Also known as ” applies only to the first definition; “Symbolized ” applies only to the second definition term [PHYS CHEM] Definition Definition [SPECT] Definition Also known as synonym In the above arrangement, “Also known as ” applies only to the second field term [PHYS CHEM] Also known as synonym Definition Definition [SPECT] Definition In the above arrangement, “Also known as ” applies only to both definitions in the first field term Also known as synonym [PHYS tion [SPECT] Definition CHEM] Definition Defini- In the above arrangement, “Also known as ” applies to all definitions in both fields viii inch ϭ 2.5 centimeters (25 millimeters) foot ϭ 0.3 meter (30 centimeters) yard ϭ 0.9 meter mile ϭ 1.6 kilometers 417 quart ϭ 0.95 liter ounce ϭ 28.35 grams pound ϭ 0.45 kilogram ton ϭ 907.18 kilograms ЊF ϭ (1.8 ϫ ЊC) ϩ 32 1 1 gallon ϭ 3.8 liters fluid ounce ϭ 29.6 milliliters 32 fluid ounces ϭ 946.4 milliliters acre ϭ 0.4 hectare acre ϭ 4047 square meters 1 1 centimeter ϭ 0.4 inch meter ϭ 3.3 feet meter ϭ 1.1 yards kilometer ϭ 0.62 mile ЊC ϭ (ЊF Ϫ 32) Ϭ 1.8 ounce ϭ 0.0625 pound pound ϭ 16 ounces ton ϭ 2000 pounds gram ϭ 0.035 ounce kilogram ϭ 2.2 pounds kilogram ϭ 1.1 ϫ 10Ϫ3 ton inch ϭ 0.083 foot foot ϭ 0.33 yard (12 inches) yard ϭ feet (36 inches) mile ϭ 5280 feet (1760 yards) quart ϭ 0.25 gallon (32 ounces; pints) pint ϭ 0.125 gallon (16 ounces) gallon ϭ quarts (8 pints) 1 1 liter ϭ 1.06 quarts ϭ 0.26 gallon milliliter ϭ 0.034 fluid ounce hectare ϭ 2.47 acres square meter ϭ 0.00025 acre 1 1 Equivalents of commonly used units for the U.S Customary System and the metric system Appendix 0.3048 0.9144 ϭ 30.48 ϭ 91.44 ft yd 418 1296 4.014490 ϫ 109 6.4516 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.09290304 0.8361273 2.589988 ϫ 106 ϭ 6.4516 ϭ 929.0304 ϭ 8361.273 ϭ 2.589988 ϫ 1010 in.2 ft2 yd2 mi2 144 1550.003 ϭ 104 m2 0.1550003 in.2 10Ϫ4 m2 ϭ1 cm2 6.336 ϫ 104 36 12 39.37008 0.3937008 in cm2 B Units of area Units m 1.609344 ϫ 103 0.0254 ϭ 2.54 in ϭ 1.609344 ϫ 105 ϭ 100 1m mi 0.01 ϭ1 cm A Units of length Units cm ft2 yd2 mi2 3.228306 ϫ 10Ϫ7 3.0976 ϫ 106 2.78784 ϫ 107 3.587007 ϫ 10Ϫ8 2.490977 ϫ 10Ϫ10 3.861022 ϫ 10Ϫ7 3.861022 ϫ 10Ϫ11 5.681818 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.893939 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.578283 ϫ 10Ϫ5 6.213712 ϫ 10Ϫ4 6.213712 ϫ 10Ϫ6 mi 0.1111111 7.716049 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.195990 1.195990 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1760 0.3333333 0.02777777 1.093613 0.01093613 yd 6.944444 ϫ 10Ϫ3 10.76391 1.076391 ϫ 10Ϫ3 5280 0.08333333 3.280840 0.03280840 ft Conversion factors for the U.S Customary System, metric system, and International System Appendix 419 Ϫ6 m3 Ϫ5 0.02834952 0.4535924 ϭ 28.34952 ϭ 453.5924 oz (avdp) lb (avdp) ton ϭ 907184.7 907.1847 1000 ϭ 1000 kg metric ton ϭ 108 10Ϫ3 ϭ1 kg 3785.412 946.359 28316.85 16.38706 1000 10 cm3 1g Ϫ3 ϭ 3.785412 ϫ 10 ϭ 9.46352 ϫ 10 Ϫ4 ϭ 2.831685 ϫ 10Ϫ2 ϭ 1.638706 ϫ 10 ϭ 10Ϫ3 ϭ 10 ϭ1 D Units of mass Units g gal (U.S.) qt ft3 in liter cm 1m C Units of volume Units Ϫ3 oz 231 57.75 1728 61.02374 0.06102374 35.27396 32000 35273.96 16 in.3 6.102374 ϫ 10 0.03527396 3.785412 0.946351 28.31685 0.01638706 10 10 liter lb 0.1336806 0.03342014 0.0625 2.204623 2204.623 2000 Ϫ4 5.787037 ϫ 10 0.03531467 Ϫ5 3.531467 ϫ 10 2.204623 ϫ 10Ϫ3 Ϫ3 35.31467 ϫ 10 ft3 Ϫ3 ϫ 10Ϫ4 4.535924 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.9071847 1.102311 3.125 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.834952 ϫ 10Ϫ5 1.102311 ϫ 10Ϫ3 10Ϫ3 ton 1.102311 ϫ 10Ϫ6 metric ton 0.25 7.480520 4.329004 ϫ 10Ϫ3 0.2641721 2.641721 ϫ 10Ϫ4 264.1721 gal 10Ϫ6 2.992208 0.01731602 1.056688 1.056688 ϫ 10 1.056688 qt Appendix Ϫ3 420 106 101325.0 980665 1333.224 33863.88 ϭ 0.1 ϭ 105 ϭ 101325 ϭ 98066.5 ϭ 133.3224 ϭ 3386.388 ϭ 6894.757 dyn и cmϪ2 bar atm kgf и cmϪ2 mmHg (torr) in Hg lbf и in.Ϫ2 68947.57 10 dyn и cmϪ2 Pa, N и mϪ2 ϭ F Units of pressure Units Pa, N и mϪ2 lb и gal ϭ 0.1198264 ϭ 0.01601847 lb и ftϪ3 Ϫ1 ϭ 27.67991 lb и in.Ϫ3 Ϫ3 ϭ 1.729994 ϭ 10 ϭ1 g и cmϪ3 oz и in.Ϫ3 g и L , kg и m Ϫ1 g и cmϪ3 E Units of density Units 0.06894757 0.03386388 1.333224 ϫ 103 0.980665 1.01325 10Ϫ6 10Ϫ5 bar 119.8264 16.01847 27679.91 1729.994 1000 g и LϪ1, kg и mϪ3 atm 0.9869233 9.869233 ϫ 10Ϫ7 kgf и cmϪ2 0.06804596 0.07030696 0.03453155 1.359510 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1.315789 ϫ 10Ϫ3 0.03342105 0.9678411 1.033227 1.019716 1.019716 ϫ 10Ϫ6 7.500617 ϫ 10Ϫ4 51.71493 25.4 735.5592 760 in Hg 2.036021 0.03937008 28.95903 29.92126 29.52999 2.952999 ϫ 10Ϫ5 2.952999 ϫ 10Ϫ4 7.480519 1728 108 0.06242795 7.500617 ϫ 10Ϫ3 750.0617 lb и ftϪ3 62.42795 mmHg (torr) 4.329004 ϫ 10 Ϫ3 5.787037 ϫ 10Ϫ4 0.0625 3.612728 ϫ 10 Ϫ5 lb и in.Ϫ3 0.03612728 1.019716 ϫ 10Ϫ5 4.749536 ϫ 10 Ϫ3 9.259259 ϫ 10Ϫ3 16 9.869233 ϫ 10Ϫ6 Ϫ4 5.780365 ϫ 10 0.5780365 oz и in.Ϫ3 Conversion factors for the U.S Customary System, metric system, and International System (cont.) 1 0.4911541 0.01933678 14.22334 14.69595 14.50377 1.450377 ϫ 10Ϫ5 1.450377 ϫ 10Ϫ4 lbf и in.Ϫ2 0.1336806 231 14.4375 8.345403 ϫ 10Ϫ3 8.345403 lb и galϪ1 Appendix eV 4.184 4.1868 1055.056 3600000 2384519 1.355818 195.2378 101.325 ϭ 4.655328 ϫ 10Ϫ14 ϭ 4.658443 ϫ 10Ϫ14 ϭ 1.173908 ϫ 10Ϫ11 ϭ 4.005540 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ϭ 2.986931 ϫ 10Ϫ8 ϭ 1.508551 ϫ 10Ϫ14 cal calIT BtuIT kWh 421 hp-h ft-lbf ft3 и lbf и ϭ 2.172313 ϫ 10Ϫ12 in.Ϫ2 liter-atm ϭ 1.127393 ϫ 10Ϫ12 6.324210 ϫ 1020 1.218579 ϫ 1021 8.462351 ϫ 1018 1.675545 ϫ 1025 2.246944 ϫ 1025 6.585141 ϫ 1021 2.613195 ϫ 1019 2.611448 ϫ 1019 1.602176 ϫ 10Ϫ19 ϭ 1.782662 ϫ 10Ϫ33 eV 6.241510 ϫ 1018 5.609589 ϫ 1032 ϭ 1.112650 ϫ 10Ϫ14 8.987552 ϫ 1013 J 1J g mass ϭ (energy equiv) G Units of energy g mass Units (energy equiv) 2.146640 ϫ 1013 calIT 641186.5 859845.2 251.9958 0.9993312 24.21726 46.66295 24.20106 46.63174 0.3240483 0.3238315 641615.6 860420.7 252.1644 1.000669 3.829293 3.826733 ϫ 10Ϫ20 ϫ 10Ϫ20 0.2390057 0.2388459 2.148076 ϫ 103 cal 0.09603757 0.1850497 1.285067 ϫ 10Ϫ3 2544.33 3412.142 3.968321 ϫ 10Ϫ3 3.965667 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1.518570 ϫ 10Ϫ22 9.478172 ϫ 10Ϫ4 8.518555 ϫ 1010 BtuIT 2.814583 ϫ 10Ϫ5 5.423272 ϫ 10Ϫ5 3.766161 ϫ 10Ϫ7 0.7456998 2.930711 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.163 ϫ 10Ϫ6 1.1622222 ϫ 10Ϫ6 4.450490 ϫ 10Ϫ26 2.777777 ϫ 10Ϫ7 2.496542 ϫ 107 kWh 3.774419 ϫ 10Ϫ5 7.272727 ϫ 10Ϫ5 5.050505 ϫ 10Ϫ7 1.341022 3.930148 ϫ 10Ϫ4 1.559609 ϫ 10Ϫ6 1.558562 ϫ 10Ϫ6 5.968206 ϫ 10Ϫ26 3.725062 3.347918 ϫ 107 hp-h 4.603388 ϫ 1011 74.73349 144 1980000 2655224 778.1693 3.088025 3.085960 0.5189825 6.944444 ϫ 10Ϫ3 13750 18349.06 5.403953 2.144462 ϫ 10Ϫ2 2.143028 ϫ 10Ϫ2 1.181705 8.206283 ϫ 10Ϫ19 ϫ 10Ϫ22 liter-atm 1.926847 0.01338088 26494.15 35529.24 10.41259 0.04132050 0.04129287 1.581225 ϫ 10Ϫ21 9.869233 ϫ 10Ϫ3 8.870024 ϫ 1011 ft3 и lbf и in.Ϫ2 0.7375622 5.121960 ϫ 10Ϫ3 6.628878 ϫ 1013 ft-lbf Appendix Appendix Defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) Temperature K ЊC ЊF Vapor pressure equation of helium to Triple point of equilibrium hydrogen Vapor pressure point of equilibrium hydrogen (or constant-volume gas thermometer point of helium) Triple point of neon Triple point of oxygen Triple point of argon Triple point of mercury Triple point of water Melting point of gallium Freezing point of indium Freezing point of tin Freezing point of zinc Freezing point of aluminum Freezing point of silver Freezing point of gold Freezing point of copper 13.80 Ϸ17 Ϸ20.3 Ϫ270.15 to Ϫ268.15 Ϫ259.35 ϷϪ256.15 ϷϪ252.85 Ϫ454.27 to 450.67 Ϫ434.81 Ϫ447.09 Ϫ423.13 24.56 64.37 83.81 234.32 273.16 302.91 429.75 505.08 692.68 933.47 1234.93 1337.33 1357.77 Ϫ248.59 Ϫ218.79 Ϫ189.34 Ϫ38.83 0.01 29.78 156.60 232.93 419.53 660.32 961.78 1064.18 1084.62 Equilibrium state 422 Ϫ415.46 361.82 308.81 Ϫ37.89 32.02 85.60 313.88 449.47 787.15 1220.58 1763.20 1947.52 1984.32 0.001–35 Magnetic thermometry Electron paramagnetism 423 500–50,000 100–1500 5000–2,000,000 Infrared spectroscopy Ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy 0.001–1 4–1400 0.01–1 Radiation thermometry (visual, photoelectric, or photodiode) Thermal electric noise thermometry Josephson junction point contact Conventional amplifier Gamma-ray anisotropy or nuclear orientation thermometry 0.000001–1 1.5–3000 Acoustic interferometry Nuclear paramagnetism 1.3–950 Approximate useful range of T, K Gas thermometry Method Primary thermometry methods Emission spectra from ionized atoms—H, He, Fe, Ca, and so on Intensity I of rotational lines of light molecules Spectral intensity J at wavelength ␭ Mean square voltage fluctuation V Spatial distribution of gamma-ray emission Magnetic susceptibility Speed of sound W Pressure P and volume V Principal measured variables Boltzmann factor for electron states related to band structure and line density Boltzmann factor for rotational levels related to I · Also Doppler line broadening (ϰΊkBT ) useful; principal applications to plasmas and astrophysical observations; proper sampling, lack of equilibrium, atmospheric absorption often problems Needs blackbody conditions or well-defined emittance Other sources of noise serious problem for T Ͼ K Nyquist’s law: V ϰ kBT Planck’s radiation law, related to Boltzmann factor for radiation quanta Useful standard for T Ͻ K · Careful determination of corrections necessary, but capable of high accuracy Remarks Spatial distribution related to Boltzmann factor for nuclear spin states Curie’s law plus corrections: ␹ ϰ 1/kBT plus corrections W ϰ kBT plus corrections Ideal gas law plus correction; PV ϰ kBT plus corrections Relation of measured variables to T Appendix f s Be Beryllium 12 Li Lithium 11 424 Ca Calcium 38 Sr K Potassium 37 Cerium 90 Th Thorium Lanthanum 89 Ac Actinium Radium Francium 58 Ra Fr Ce 88 87 57 Barium Cesium La Ba Cs 56 20 19 Rubidium Magnesium Sodium Mg 59 60 Protactinium Pa 91 Uranium 92 Praseodymium Neodymium Pr Np 93 Titanium 40 Zr Zirconium 72 Hf Hafnium 104 Rf Scandium 39 Y Yttrium 71 Lu Lutetium 103 Lr 62 Plutonium Pu 94 Samarium Sm Ta Nb 23 Curium Cm 96 Gd 64 Dubnium Db 105 Tantalum Americium 95 Europium Eu 63 Rutherfordium Ti Sc 22 21 Lawrencium Pm 61 d (The atomic numbers are listed above the symbols identifying the elements The heavy line separates metals from nonmentals.) Periodic table 65 Tc 43 Ru Os Es 99 Mt 109 Iridium Ir 77 Rhodium Rh 45 Cobalt Co 27 Fermium 100 Erbium Er 68 Meitnerium Holmium Ho 67 Hassium Hs 108 Osmium Californium 98 26 Ruthenium Dysprosium Dy 66 Bohrium Bh 107 Rhenium Re 75 Technetium Berkelium Bk 97 25 Manganese Terbium Tb Sg 106 Tungsten W 74 Mo 42 Cr 24 69 Mendelevium 101 Thulium Tm 110 Platinum Pt 78 Palladium Pd 46 Nickel Ni 28 10 70 102 Nobelium No Cd 48 Zinc Zn 30 12 112 Mercury Hg 80 Cadmium Ytterbium Yb 111 Gold Au 29 11 p Carbon 14 Si Boron 13 Al Se Tin 82 Pb Lead 114 Indium 81 Tl Thallium 113 In 115 Bi Antimony 116 Po 84 Tellurium Te 52 50 Sn 49 Sb As 34 Sulfur S 16 Oxygen O 16 Selenium Ge Ga P 15 Nitrogen 15 Gallium 32 31 Silicon C B Aluminum 14 13 1s 117 At 85 Iodine I 53 Bromine Br 35 Chlorine Cl 17 Fluorine F 118 Radon Rn 86 Xenon Xe 54 Krypton Kr 36 Argon Ar 18 Neon Ne 10 18 Helium Hydrogen 17 He H Appendix Appendix Electrochemical series of the elements* Element Symbol Lithium Potassium Rubidium Cesium Radium Barium Strontium Calcium Sodium Lanthanum Cerium Magnesium Scandium Plutonium Thorium Beryllium Uranium Hafnium Aluminum Titanium Zirconium Manganese Vanadium Niobium Boron Silicon Tantalum Li K Rb Cs Ra Ba Sr Ca Na La Ce Mg Sc Pu Be Th U Hf Al Ti Zr Mn V Nb B Si Ta Element Zinc Chromium Gallium Iron Cadmium Indium Thallium Cobalt Nickel Molybdenum Tin Lead Germanium Tungsten Hydrogen Copper Mercury Silver Gold Rhodium Platinum Palladium Bromine Chlorine Oxygen Fluorine *According to standard oxidation potentials E at 25ЊC or 77ЊF 425 Symbol Zn Cr Ga Fe Cd In Tl Co Ni Mo Sn Pb Ge W H Cu Hg Ag Au Rh Pt Pd Br Cl O F Appendix Average electronegativities from thermochemical data Element Value Element Value H Li Na K Rb Cs Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn B 2.20 0.98 0.93 0.82 0.82 0.79 1.57 1.31 1.00 0.95 0.89 1.36 1.54 1.63 1.66 1.55 1.83 1.88 1.91 1.90 1.65 2.04 Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se F Cl Br I 1.61 1.81 1.78 2.04 2.55 1.90 2.01 1.96 2.33 3.04 2.19 2.18 2.05 2.02 3.44 2.58 2.55 3.98 3.16 2.96 2.66 426 Appendix Standard atomic weights Atomic number Symbol 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 83 107 35 48 20 98 58 55 17 24 27 29 96 105 66 99 68 63 100 87 64 31 32 79 72 108 67 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 71 12 25 109 101 80 42 Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Hs He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Mt Md Hg Mo Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum 427 Atomic weight* [227] 26.981538(2) [243] 121.760(1) 39.948(1) 74.92160(2) [210] 137.327(7) [247] 9.012182(3) 208.98038(2) [264] 10.811(7) 79.904(1) 112.411(8) 40.078(4) [251] 12.0107(8) 140.116(1) 132.90545(2) 35.453(2) 51.9961(6) 58.933200(9) 63.546(3) [247] [262] 162.500(1) [252] 167.259(3) 151.964(1) [257] 18.9984032(5) [223] 157.25(3) 69.723(1) 72.64(1) 196.96655(2) 178.49(2) [277] 4.002602(2) 164.93032(2) 1.00794(7) 114.818(3) 126.90447(3) 192.217(3) 55.845(2) 83.798(2) 138.9055(2) [262] 207.2(1) [6.941(2)] 174.967(1) 24.3050(6) 54.938049(9) [268] [258] 200.59(2) 95.94(2) Appendix Standard atomic weights (cont.) Atomic number Symbol 60 10 93 28 41 102 76 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 104 62 21 106 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 112 110 111 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Sg Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W Uub Uun Uuu U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Name Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununbium Ununnilium Unununium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Atomic weight* 144.24(3) 20.1797(6) [237] 58.6934(2) 92.90638(2) 14.0067(2) [259] 190.23(3) 15.9994(3) 106.42(1) 30.973761(2) 195.078(2) [244] [209] 39.0983(1) 140.90765(2) [145] 231.03588(2) [226] [222] 186.207(1) 102.90550(2) 85.4678(3) 101.07(2) [261] 150.36(3) 44.955910(8) [266] 78.96(3) 28.0855(3) 107.8682(2) 22.989770(2) 87.62(1) 32.065(5) 180.9479(1) [98] 127.60(3) 158.92534(2) 204.3833(2) 232.0381(1) 168.93421(2) 118.710(7) 47.867(1) 183.84(1) [285] [281] [272] 238.02891(3) 50.9415(1) 131.293(6) 173.04(3) 88.90585(2) 65.409(4) 91.224(2) *Atomic weights are those of the most commonly available long-lived isotopes on the 1999 IUPAC Atomic Weights of the Elements A value given in square brackets denotes the mass number at the longest-lived isotope 428 Appendix Principal organic functional groups Compound class Group Alkene Double bond Alkyne Alcohol Amine Triple bond Hydroxyl Amino Aldehyde Carbonyl Ketone Carbonyl Acid Carboxyl Structure ϪCϵCϪ ϪOH ϪNH2(ϪNR2)* O ሻ ϪCH O ሻ ϪCR O ሻ ϪCOH Compound class Ester Group Alkoxycarbonyl Amide Carbamoyl Nitrite Azide Nitro Sulfide Cyano Azido Sulfoxide Sulfonic acid *R ϭ any carbon group, for example, CH3 429 Structure O ሻ ϪCOR ϪCϵN ϪNϭNϭN ϪNO2 ϪSϪ O ሻ ϪSϪ ϪSO3H Appendix Compounds containing functional groups Group* O ሻ ϪCOH OЈ ሻ ϪCOR ϪCϵN O ሻ ϪCH O ሻ ϪCR ϪOH Suffix -oic acid alkyl -oate -nitrile -al -one -ol Prefix Structure Name carboxy- O ሻ CH3CH2COH Propanoic acid alkoxycarbonyl- O ሻ CH3CH2COCH3 Methyl propanoate O O ሻ ሻ CH3OCCH2CH2COH 3-Methoxycarbonyl propanoic acid CH3CH2CϵN Propanenitrile O ሻ CH3CHCNCOH 2-Cyanopropanoic acid formyl- O ሻ CH3CH2CH Propanal oxo- O ሻ CH3CH2CCH3 Butanone O O ሻ ሻ CH3CCH2COH 3-Oxobutanoic acid CH3CH2CH2OH 1-Propanol O ሻ HOCH2CH2CH 3-Hydroxypropanal cyano- hydroxy- ϪNH2 -amine amino- CH3CH2CH2NH2 1-Propanamine ϪOR — alkoxy- NH2CH2CH2CH2OCH3 3-Methoxy-1propanamine * R ϭ any alkyl group 430 Benzene 1,2-Dichloroethane Methanol 1,2-Ethanediol Acetic acid Phenol Acetone 2-Propanol Ethanol 1,2-Dimethoxybenzene Fluorobenzene Pyridine 2-Ethoxyethanol N,N-Dimethylacetamide Dimethyl sulfoxide 2-Nitropropane Organic solvent 80.100 83.483 64.70 197.3 117.90 181.839 56.29 82.26 78.29 206.25 84.734 115.256 135.6 166.1 189.0 120.25 (176.18) (182.269) (148.46) (387.14) (244.22) (359.310) (133.32) (180.07) (172.92) (403.25) (184.521) (239.47) (276.1) (331.0) (372.2) (248.45) Boiling point, ЊC (ЊF) Physical properties of some organic solvents 5.533 (41.959) Ϫ35.66 (Ϫ32.19) Ϫ97.68 (Ϫ143.82) Ϫ13 (8.6) 16.66 (61.99) 40.90 (105.62) Ϫ94.7 (Ϫ138.46) Ϫ88.0 (Ϫ126.4) Ϫ114.1 (Ϫ173.4) 22.5 (72.5) Ϫ42.21 (Ϫ43.98) Ϫ41.55 (Ϫ42.79) ϽϪ90 (Ϫ130) Ϫ20 (Ϫ4) 18.54 (65.37) Ϫ91.32 (Ϫ132.38) Freezing point, ЊC (ЊF) 0.6028 0.730, 30ЊC 0.5445 13.55, 30ЊC 1.040, 20ЊC 4.076 0.3040 1.765, 30ЊC 1.078 3.281 0.517, 30ЊC 0.884 1.85 0.838, 30ЊC 1.996 0.721 Viscosity, cgs, 25ЊC (77ЊF) 2.275 10.36 32.70 37.7 6.15, 20ЊC (68ЊF) 9.78, 60ЊC (140ЊF) 20.70 19.92 24.55 4.09 5.42 12.4 29.6 37.78 46.68 25.52 Dielectric constant, 25ЊC (77ЊF) Appendix 431 ... organic chemistry The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds [PHYS CHEM] physical chemistry The branch of chemistry that deals with the interpretation of. .. units as well as other listings of chemical data It is the editors’ hope that the Second Edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry will serve the needs of scientists, engineers, students,... compendium of 8000 terms that are central to chemistry and related fields of science and technology The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the the areas of analytical chemisty, general chemistry,
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