Harcourt 08 grammar practice book grade 4 TE (57p)

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Grammar Practice Book Teacher Edition Grade Visit The Learning Site! www.harcourtschool.com Copyright © by Harcourt, Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be addressed to School Permissions and Copyrights, Harcourt, Inc., 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida 32887-6777 Fax: 407-345-2418 HARCOURT and the Harcourt Logo are trademarks of Harcourt, Inc., registered in the United States of America and/or other jurisdictions Printed in the United States of America ISBN 10 0-15-349917-6 ISBN 13 978-0-15-3499173 10 073 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Harcourt School Publishers retains title to the materials and they may not be resold Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited and is illegal Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format RXENL08ATE41_GPB_i.indd 10/26/06 5:19:17 PM Contents T HEME Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Declarative and Interrogative Sentences Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences; Interjections Subjects and Predicates Complete and Simple Subjects and Predicates Review 11 T HEME Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 10 Compound Subjects and Predicates 12 Simple and Compound Sentences 14 Prepositional Phrases 16 Clauses and Phrases; Complex Sentences 18 Review 20 T HEME Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 11 12 13 14 15 Common and Proper Nouns 21 Singular and Plural Nouns 23 Possessive Nouns 25 Pronouns and Antecedents 27 Review 29 T HEME Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 16 17 18 19 20 Subject and Object Pronouns 30 Possessive and Reflexive Pronouns 32 Adjectives and Articles 34 Comparing with Adjectives 36 Review 38 T HEME 21 22 23 24 25 Main and Helping Verbs 39 Action and Linking Verbs 41 Verbs: Present Tense; Subject-Verb Agreement 43 Verbs: Past and Future Tenses 45 Review 47 T HEME Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 26 27 28 29 30 RXENL08ATE41_GPB_ii.indd ii Irregular Verbs 48 Easily Confused Words 50 Adverbs 52 Punctuation 54 Review 56 © HarcourtGrade Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 10/26/06 5:20:03 PM RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition p 10/4/06 9:47:41 PM © HarcourtGrade RXENL08AWK41_GPB_001.indd sentence 10 The week passed quickly They are happy that you are home Happy that you I went running early in the morning Early in the morning The water is cold The water sentence I went swimming Possible responses are shown If the words form a sentence, write sentence If the words form a fragment, add words to make a complete sentence She comes home in one week she comes home in one week I will write her a letter i will write her a letter Even the dog misses her even the dog misses her The house seems empty the house seems empty My sister went to camp yesterday my sister went to camp yesterday Rewrite each sentence, using capital letters and end marks Name 9/5/06 4:58:57 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Lesson Declarative and Interrogative Sentences RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 2–3 10/4/06 9:47:43 PM RXENL08AWK41_GPB_002.indd © HarcourtGrade Who wants pizza for dinner? 10 who wants pizza for dinner I really like my new friends i really like my new friends Where is the bus stop? where is the bus stop She rides her bike to school she rides her bike to school What time is art class? what time is art class Lesson Declarative and Interrogative Sentences Sentence Sentence B C D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which sentence is not a complete thought? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which sentence has an incorrect end mark? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence is missing an end mark? Lesson Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence 9/5/06 5:01:16 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D Sentence C B A Which sentence is not capitalized correctly? D Sentence C B A Which sentence has words that are not in the correct order? D Sentence C B A Which sentence has no errors? (1) i went to visit my grandparents over the summer (2) I missed my friends a lot at first (3) Then I found out that there were many things to for fun (4) Hiking, biking, and gardening (5) Do you know what happened (6) I didn’t want to when the visit was over leave Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/16/06 7:29:46RXENL08AWK41_GPB_003.indd AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Rewrite the sentences below Begin and end them correctly declarative Vincent has made some new friends interrogative How you like your new school? interrogative Who is the boy on the red bicycle? declarative He likes riding his bike in the new neighborhood declarative Vincent has moved to a new city Label each sentence below as declarative or interrogative Name RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 4–5 10/4/06 9:47:44 PM Lesson Declarative and Interrogative Sentences RXENL08AWK41_GPB_004.indd 4 exclamatory What a big trophy it is! 15 What a big trophy it is How tired they must be! 14 How tired they must be Give her a bottle of water 13 Give her a bottle of water I am so happy that you won! 12 I am so happy that you won How nervous I am about the race! 11 How nervous I am about the race Help me find my running shoes 10 Help me find my running shoes Rewrite the sentences Add the correct end marks imperative imperative exclamatory Take a nap when you get home Follow me to the car We had so much fun today! What an amazing event this is! imperative 9/5/06 5:04:33 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Lesson Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences; Interjections imperative exclamatory exclamatory Take your positions for the race You must be very proud! I cannot believe how fast she runs! Run around the track four times to warm up Meet at the track at seven o’clock imperative Label each sentence as imperative or exclamatory Name 9/5/06 5:03:49RXENL08AWK41_GPB_005.indd PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Sometimes we just sit and talk.; declarative 10 sometimes we just sit and talk Do you want to play outside?; interrogative you want to play outside Sometimes we play games.; declarative sometimes we play games My friends and I like to spend time together.; declarative my friends and I like to spend time together What is your favorite thing to do?; interrogative what is your favorite thing to Rewrite each sentence correctly Then label it as declarative or interrogative What time is the party? time is what the party? Will you give her a present? will a present her you give? Her birthday party will be fun birthday party her will be fun Did you meet the friend at camp? meet did you the friend at camp? I made a new friend a new friend I made Rewrite these sentences correctly Put the words in an order that makes sense Name © HarcourtGrade RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 6–7 10/4/06 9:47:45 PM Lesson RXENL08AWK41_GPB_006.indd © HarcourtGrade 15 Take a walk to stretch your legs at intermission 14 Wow, she is so strong! 13 Hey, that’s a great! costume 12 Listen to the music so you will know when to start 11 Wow, she jumps so high and turns so fast! 10 How wonderful this dance recital is! Stand still until it is your turn to dance Ouch, you stepped on my foot! Smile at the audience when the curtain goes up Take your places on the stage quietly Sentence C Sentence Sentence B C Sentence Sentence B C D Sentence Sentence A In which of these sentences is the punctuation NOT correct? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence is an imperative sentence? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B A Which sentence should have an exclamation point? Lesson Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence 9/5/06 5:07:47 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D Sentence C B A Which of these sentences is an exclamatory sentence? D Sentence C B A Which of these sentences is neither imperative nor exclamatory? D Sentence C B A Which of these sentences has an interjection? (1) The soccer player is running down the field (2) How very happy he looks (3) Hey, he kicked that ball so far! (4) He has scored the winning goal for his team (5) Listen to his coach praise him (6) Wow, what a wonderful day! Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/5/06 5:07:15RXENL08AWK41_GPB_007.indd PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Draw one line under each imperative sentence Draw two lines under each exclamatory sentence Circle the interjections Always listen to good advice.; imperative Always listen to good advice Hey, your audition was amazing!; exclamatory Hey your audition was amazing Work hard in order to succeed.; imperative Work hard in order to succeed Don’t give up on your dreams.; imperative Don’t give up on your dreams I was so worried about trying out for the school play!; exclamatory I was so worried about trying out for the school play Rewrite these sentences with the correct punctuation Then label each sentence as imperative or exclamatory Name Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences; Interjections RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 8–9 10/4/06 9:47:47 PM Lesson Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences; Interjections RXENL08AWK41_GPB_008.indd 10 mother 20 This day will end soon behind the hill will end soon Lesson Subjects and Predicates 9/16/06 7:30:03 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book with excitement wants to go home 19 The sun sets behind the hill sets 18 No one wants to go home 17 The children shout with excitement shout the park makes a new friend 16 Everybody loves the park loves 15 Darryl makes a new friend plays in the sand climbs up the slide 14 My sister plays in the sand 13 Paula climbs up the slide a ball run past us 12 A dog chases a ball chases 11 Some boys run past us Write the predicate of each sentence 10 The sky has big white clouds The sky The flowers park I pick daisies for my father I The flowers smell sweet The park is crowded The They cross the street at the corner They My mother holds my sister’s hand My Darryl rides his bike on the street Darryl We skip down the sidewalk together We Paula puts on her jacket Paula Everyone goes to the park Everyone Write the subject of each sentence Name 9/5/06 5:08:49RXENL08AWK41_GPB_009.indd PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Write an exclamatory sentence with an interjection Then write an imperative sentence Accept reasonable responses Listen to the crowd yell ; imperative Listen to the crowd yell Hey, that player can really jump! ; exclamatory Hey that player can really jump Tell us the score ; imperative Tell us the score Wow, you are a good player! ; exclamatory Wow you are a good player Bring me the basketball ; imperative Bring me the basketball How excited I am about the game! ; exclamatory How excited I am about the game Put your uniforms on ; imperative Put your uniforms on Wait for me after school ; imperative Wait for me after school Rewrite these sentences with the correct punctuation Then label each sentence as imperative or exclamatory Name © HarcourtGrade RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 10–11 10/4/06 9:47:48 PM Sentence C Sentences and C D Sentences and RXENL08AWK41_GPB_010.indd 10 © HarcourtGrade 10 My grandmother is smart and strong 15 My grandmother The sleepy girl went to bed 14 went to bed The bright sun is high in the sky 13 is high in the sky All my friends played cards together 12 played cards together The brown dog ran to greet me 11 The brown dog Sentence Sentence Sentence The music Saw B C D I The marching band A Which is NOT a subject in the passage? D Sentence C B A 9/16/06 7:30:19RXENL08AWK41_GPB_011.indd AM 11 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Add a subject or predicate as needed Write the new sentence Possible responses are shown 10 I am hungry again! My grandmother brings out a cake 11 waved flag B C 9/16/06 7:34:22 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D was loud and joyful and joyful was loud B C The music A Which is the predicate of Sentence 3? D him I A Which word is the subject of Sentence 6? D Sentence Sentence B Which sentence is missing a subject? Sentence A Sentences and B predicate? We eat dinner together Everyone is full Lesson Grammar–Writing Connection Which sentence is missing a Sentences and Which two sentences are fragments? (1) Today was the big parade (2) The marching band moved quickly down the street (3) The music was loud and joyful (4) Saw someone on the sidewalk (5) My friend (6) I waved my flag at him Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name A Lesson Subjects and Predicates He puts flowers in a vase I set the table My grandfather makes wonderful soup I help pull carrots Their house has a garden I visit my grandparents Draw one line under the subject Draw two lines under the predicate Name RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 12–13 10/4/06 9:47:50 PM A nearby city is Oakland The average winter temperature is 55°F The biggest park is Golden Gate Park One neighborhood is called Chinatown We decide to make ice cream I find a recipe in a cookbook My parents help The ice cream is cold and delicious My mother and father RXENL08AWK41_GPB_012.indd 12 16 15 delicious 12 All the people ate corn on the cob 14 The food was My friend Sheila 13 13 9/5/06 5:14:16 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Accept reasonable responses dived into the water descriptive words in each subject Write three different sentences that use the complete predicate below Include 15 A girl did cartwheels across the lawn 14 A boy walked over one of the stone bridges 9/16/06 7:34:59RXENL08AWK41_GPB_013.indd AM 13 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book had a great time danced fast 13 A woman held a yellow kite 12 The old man waved to his wife Many bands 12 played music 11 Three dogs ran up the big hill in the park 11 10 It has a lake with an island The park survived the earthquake of 1906 Golden Gate Park has several landmarks Possible responses are shown The street party was on Saturday Add a subject or a predicate to complete each sentence 10 The day feels much cooler My family is happy Lesson Complete and Simple Subjects and Predicates Draw a line under the complete predicate Circle the simple predicate The ocean view is magnificent No one wants to move Everyone eats a big portion A big earthquake rocked the city in 1906 Everybody sits on the front steps Draw a line under the complete subject Circle the simple subject Name San Francisco is a city in California Lesson Subjects and Predicates The summer is long and hot Underline each subject once Underline each predicate twice Name © HarcourtGrade 10 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 10 Student Edition pp 14–15 10/4/06 9:47:51 PM Several birds The eager boy The tall man A large crowd The old boat A young man The courageous boy The hungry child The excited friends The tired men flew over the water jumped up and down waved happily stood on the pier finally left the island felt worried wanted to see his father ate his lunch learned to play a new game waited patiently for hours Lesson Complete and Simple Subjects and Predicates stood just outside the fence RXENL08AWK41_GPB_014.indd 14 14 packed his belongings © HarcourtGrade 18 The excited child walked into the room us C more in B C told us a lot C D told us a lot about the art about the art told us B A Which is the complete predicate of Sentence 3? D its has A Which is the simple predicate of Sentence 2? D art guide museum B A Which is the simple subject of Sentence 3? 15 Lesson Grammar–Writing Connection San Francisco Asian Art Museum My whole family were carvings tiny carvings saw bronze baskets D We C B A 9/5/06 5:16:31 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Which word is NOT part of the complete predicate of Sentence 4? D favorite C B A Which is the simple subject of Sentence 5? D yesterday C B A Which is the complete subject of Sentence 1? (1) My whole family went to the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco yesterday (2) This amazing museum has more than 14,000 objects in its collection (3) A helpful museum guide told us a lot about the art (4) We saw bronze statues, ceramics, puppets, and baskets (5) The tiny carvings were my favorite things Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/5/06 5:15:43RXENL08AWK41_GPB_015.indd PM 15 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book shone through the windows at the desk 16 The bright light of morning 17 A happy man terrible filled with people very quickly 15 The new teacher sat 14 The huge room 13 A beautiful plum tree 12 The cold porridge tasted 11 Possible responses are shown The ocean waves rocked the boat back and forth Add a complete predicate to each subject Then circle the simple predicate 10 Add a complete subject to each predicate Then circle the simple subject Possible responses are shown Name 43 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 43 Student Edition pp 80–81 10/4/06 9:48:36 PM is, linking think, action seems, linking cook, action falls, action are, linking Lesson 22 Action and Linking Verbs RXENL08AWK41_GPB_080.indd 80 is buy climbs find linking looks 80 delicious an ice-cream cone a tree in the park action linking action Lesson 23 Present-Tense Verbs; Subject-Verb Agreement 81 9/12/06 5:12:02 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Bees, butterflies, and wasps fly around our garden 14 Bees, butterflies, and wasps (fly) around our garden An insect has three body sections 13 An insect (have) three body sections A cricket rubs its wings together to make noise 12 A cricket (rub) its wings together to make noise Many birds eat insects 11 Many birds (eat) insects Rewrite each sentence Use the correct present-tense form of the verb in parentheses ( ) 10 Some insects (chirp, chirps) loudly My mother (think, thinks) crickets are noisy Mario (make, makes) a cage for his pet cricket The subway (travel, travels) underground At the newsstand, workers (sell, sells) newspapers The mice (hide, hides) behind the cupboard The big cat (look, looks) at the small insect Do you (see, sees) many crickets in the city? It (has, have) strong legs A cricket (jump, jumps) high in the air Circle the correct present-tense form of the verb in parentheses ( ) Name 9/12/06 5:11:05RXENL08AWK41_GPB_081.indd PM 81 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book linking action used to the city sounds friendly action action linking across the yard her bicycle noisy a quarter becomes seems walks rides 15 The ice cream 14 I 13 Lola 12 I 11 Hugo 10 She A girl Lola The city Add a verb to complete each sentence Write action or linking to tell what kind of verb you used Possible responses are shown I think about my friends there Our home seems so far away My mother and aunts cook breakfast That night, Mr Diaz falls asleep immediately Raoul and Hector are tired from the trip The car ride is long Write the main verb in each sentence Then label each one as action or linking Name © HarcourtGrade 44 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 44 Student Edition pp 82–83 10/4/06 9:48:38 PM Lesson 23 near Times Square here amazed at the city’s enormous size so much to see! visiting the museum today looking forward to it RXENL08AWK41_GPB_082.indd 82 © HarcourtGrade 82 I am looking forward to it 10 I We are visiting the museum today We There is so much to see! There I am amazed at the city’s enormous size I Many beautiful theaters are here Many beautiful theaters This neighborhood is near Times Square This neighborhood Lesson 23 Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence C makes (Sentence 4) example (Sentence 4) B C D lives (Sentence 5) keep (Sentence 3) A Which is a verb that agrees with its plural subject? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which has a plural form of a verb that should be in the singular form? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B A Which sentence has a present-tense form of the verb be? 83 include has look Sentence Sentence B C Change joy to joys 9/19/06 6:54:32 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D Make no change Change bring to brings C Change Its to It B A Which change, if any, should the student make to Sentence 6? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence has a singular subject and a verb that agrees with it? D shows C B A Sentence 2? Which verb could complete (1) Insects are an important part of Chinese culture (2) Paintings and insects (3) People keep insects for entertainment, poems often too (4) For example, a cricket may be kept as a pet (5) A pet insect lives in a small cage (6) Its song bring joy to its owner Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:14:00RXENL08AWK41_GPB_083.indd PM 83 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Rewrite each sentence with the correct present-tense form of the verb be is; singular The show is fantastic! are; plural Her shoes are red am; singular I am late for the show are; plural They are at the theater already Write the form of the verb be in each sentence Then write whether the subject is singular or plural Name Present-Tense Verbs; Subject-Verb Agreement 45 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 45 Student Edition pp 84–85 10/4/06 9:48:39 PM It They read a book about zoo animals today? She She keeps the book on her shelf keeps the book on her shelf I am not sure how it ends am not sure how it ends It is a really great story is a really great story They are all different kinds of animals are all different kinds of animals RXENL08AWK41_GPB_084.indd 84 10 are; plural 84 past tense past tense past tense future tense past tense future tense past tense future tense future tense past tense Lesson 24 Past and Future Tenses in the orchard (grow–past tense) in the spring or summer 85 9/12/06 5:16:37 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book about one pound (weigh–future tense) The fruit will weigh about one pound 15 The fruit Mango flowers will appear in the spring or summer 14 Mango flowers (appear–future tense) Each mango fruit contained a single seed 13 Each mango fruit a single seed (contain–past tense) reddish (look–past tense) The leaves looked reddish 12 The leaves Mango trees grew in the orchard 11 Mango trees Rewrite each sentence, using the correct form of the verb in parentheses ( ) 10 He will pay for them The editor at the newspaper will like your pictures They shouted with happiness He will choose the best ones The assistant viewed the images on the computer She rowed the boat to shore The photographs will be pretty At sunset, the light faded away She used her best camera The photographer worked all day Underline the complete verb in each sentence Write past tense or future tense to identify the tense of each verb Name 9/12/06 5:15:38RXENL08AWK41_GPB_085.indd PM 85 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book am; singular are; singular You are my favorite author is; singular This lesson is harder than last week’s lesson are; plural Mr Stanley tells us, “You are all very talented.” I am one of the best writers We are students in Mr Stanley’s writing class Write the form of the verb be in each sentence Then write whether the subject is singular or plural You Lesson 23 Present-Tense Verbs; Subject-Verb Agreement Can you read a book about zoo animals today? Can I and verbs agree Rewrite each sentence, adding a subject from the box Use each pronoun only once Make sure that the subjects Name © HarcourtGrade 46 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 46 Student Edition pp 86–87 10/4/06 9:48:40 PM stop clean watch try study rinse cleaned tried watched rinsed will check will drag checked dragged called stopped studied will try will clean will watch will rinse will study will stop will call FUTURE TENSE PAST TENSE Lesson 24 Past and Future Tenses RXENL08AWK41_GPB_086.indd 86 © HarcourtGrade otters, and herons 86 Lesson 24 Grammar–Writing Connection eat caught B C Sentence Sentence B C D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence uses a future-tense form of a verb? D enjoyed were A Which is a present-tense verb that could complete Sentence 3? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which sentence uses the past-tense form of a verb? 87 Change build to built Change build to will build Change build to builds Change incubate to incubated uses, used, will used 9/12/06 5:37:26 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D scoop, scooped, will scoop life, lived, will live C spot, spots, will spot B A Which shows the correct present, past, and future tenses of a verb? D Make no change Change incubate to incubates C Change incubate to will incubate B A Which change, if any, should be made in Sentence to use a future-tense verb? D Make no change C B A future-tense verb? Which change, if any, should be made in Sentence to use a (1) We spotted two brown pelicans by the marina (2) They live on the sandy fish (4) They will use their bills and pouches to beach (3) The pelicans scoop up fish (5) They build a nest on the ground (6) Both the male bird and the female bird incubate the eggs Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:20:50RXENL08AWK41_GPB_087.indd PM 87 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Shawn and his sister looked for animals, such as turtles, different types of plants He liked the cypress trees best The swamp appeared wet and wooded Shawn counted many Shawn visited Florida and learned about swamp life Shawn (10) visits Florida and (11) learns about swamp life The swamp (12) appears wet and wooded Shawn (13) counts many different types of plants He (14) likes the cypress trees best Shawn and his sister (15) look for animals, such as turtles, otters, and herons Rewrite the paragraph Change the underlined present-tense verbs to their past-tense form drag call check PRESENT TENSE Complete the columns Write the missing forms of each verb Name 47 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 47 Student Edition pp 88–89 10/4/06 9:48:42 PM remarked, will remark surrounded, will surround smiled, will smile bloomed, will bloom traded, will trade grinned, will grin hurried, will hurry Lesson 24 Past and Future Tenses RXENL08AWK41_GPB_088.indd 88 88 Lesson 25 Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence Sentence B C entered (Sentence 3) should (Sentence 4) B C Sentence Sentence B C D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence does NOT have a helping verb? D won (Sentence 5) yelling (Sentence 2) A Which is NOT a main verb in the passage? D Sentence Sentence A 89 Which sentence has a linking verb as its main verb? should (Sentence 4) had (Sentence 3) was (Sentence 2) main and action main and linking helping and linking should and won listen and has listen and won 9/19/06 6:54:49 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D should and has C B A Which are the main verbs in Sentences and 5? D helping and action C B A Which describes the verb entered in Sentence 3? D is (Sentence 6) C B A Which is NOT a helping verb in the passage? (1) The volume of the radio was loud (2) The announcer was yelling about a contest (3) My friend Pedro had entered the contest (4) We should listen for the winner (5) Wow, Pedro has won a trip to China! (6) He is so excited! Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:23:02RXENL08AWK41_GPB_089.indd PM 89 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book They reported this to their insurance company 12 They will report this to their insurance company Our neighbors’ garage will collapse! 11 Our neighbors’ garage collapsed! The heavy rain will ruin my vegetable garden 10 The heavy rain ruined my vegetable garden We checked the yard after the storm We will check the yard after the storm The storm will cause a lot of damage The storm caused a lot of damage Rewrite each sentence Write the future-tense verbs in the past tense Write the past-tense verbs in the future tense hurry grin trade bloom smile surround remark Write the past-tense and future-tense forms of each present-tense verb Name © HarcourtGrade 48 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 48 Student Edition pp 90–91 10/4/06 9:48:43 PM Lesson 25 Grammar–Writing Connection will ride (Sentence 2) walk (Sentence 4) B C Sentence Sentence B C Sentence Sentence B C RXENL08AWK41_GPB_090.indd 90 © HarcourtGrade D Sentence Sentence A 90 Which sentence has a verb that does not agree with its singular subject? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence has a future-tense verb? D hugs (Sentence 5) is going (Sentence 1) A Which verb agrees in number with its plural subject? present-tense future-tense past-tense will jump jump jumped Sentence Sentence Sentence threw wore began went Lesson 26 Irregular Verbs the huge bones belonged to giants (think) the answer to the student’s question (know) (break) him a new model (give) 91 We gave him a new model 10 We 9/12/06 5:25:43 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Hank’s model of a dinosaur skeleton broke Hank’s model of a dinosaur skeleton He knew the answer to the student’s question He The scientist found the skull in the museum’s basement The scientist the skull in the museum’s basement (find) wrong (be) They were wrong They Ancient people thought the huge bones belonged to giants Ancient people Rewrite each sentence Use the correct past-tense form of the verb in parentheses ( ) throw wear begin go Write the past-tense form for each present-tense verb Name 9/12/06 5:24:22RXENL08AWK41_GPB_091.indd PM 91 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D Sentence C B A Which sentence has a past-tense verb? D jumping C B A Which is the past-tense form of the underlined verb in Sentence 6? D plural C B A Which describes the verb hugs in Sentence 6? (1) Jamal is going to San Francisco (2) He will ride a train from Arizona to California (3) Jamal packed his bags (4) Jamal and his sister walk to the train station (5) The conductor shout, “All aboard!” (6) Jamal hugs his sister and jumps onto the train Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 49 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 49 Student Edition pp 92–93 10/4/06 9:48:44 PM throw, throws throw been was, were eaten thrown threw ate begun began drawn broken broke drew known knew chosen gone went chose worn PAST WITH HELPING VERBS (have, has, had) Lesson 26 Irregular Verbs wore PAST RXENL08AWK41_GPB_092.indd 92 92 she knew a lot about many different things Lesson 26 Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence C Sentences and Sentences and B C D Sentences and Sentences and A Which two sentences have a helping verb? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B A Which sentence has one verb in the present tense and one in the past tense? 93 Sentences and wear (Sentence 3) was (Sentence 2) went (Sentence 1) D theft think throw B C thrill A 9/19/06 6:54:59 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book The underlined verb in Sentence is the past-tense form of which verb? D wore (Sentence 4) C B A Which verb is the past-tense form of the verb be? D Sentences and Sentences and C Sentences and D wore (Sentence 4) A B was (Sentence 2) went (Sentence 1) Which two sentences NOT include a past-tense form of the verb be? wear (Sentence 3) C B A Which verb from the passage is the past-tense form of the verb go? (1) We went to the Natural History Museum yesterday (2) The tour of the dinosaur exhibit was two hours long (3) The museum guide suggested that we wear comfortable shoes (4) Instead, Arnie wore his brand-new boots (5) He had thought it was a good idea (6) After just 15 minutes, Arnie knew he had made a mistake! Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:26:12RXENL08AWK41_GPB_093.indd PM 93 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book time Then she began to read By the end of the summer, to the library every day Sama chose a new book each Sama was a good reader Over the summer, she went Sama (11) is a good reader Over the summer, she (12) goes to the library every day Sama (13) chooses a new book each time Then she (14) begins to read By the end of the summer, she (15) knows a lot about many different things Write this present-tense paragraph in the past tense eat, eats draw, draws draw 10 eat choose, chooses choose am, is, are begin, begins begin be break, breaks break go, goes go know, knows wear, wears wear know PRESENT VERB Complete the chart with the correct forms of each verb Name © HarcourtGrade 50 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 50 Student Edition pp 94–95 10/4/06 9:48:45 PM thought were knew made, threw RXENL08AWK41_GPB_094.indd 94 © HarcourtGrade 94 I thought the book was funny 12 What did you think of the book? I saw my neighbor walking his dog 11 What did you see on your way to school today? I began my homework at 4:30 P.M 10 When did you begin your homework? I wore sneakers yesterday What kind of shoes did you wear yesterday? I went to bed at 9:00 P.M When did you go to bed last night? it’s we’d I’m you’re shouldn’t won’t doesn’t they’ve isn’t she’s Lesson 27 Easily Confused Words 18 I’ve put on sunscreen and a hat 17 Your face looks sunburned contraction 95 20 Imagine you’re already at the top of the hill contraction 9/12/06 5:28:22 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book contraction contraction possessive pronoun 16 It’s a long way to the bottom of the canyon! possessive pronoun contraction possessive pronoun 15 The hikers put on their backpacks 19 I think they’re resting contraction contraction 14 After lunch, they weren’t tired anymore 13 Its hinge is broken 12 The door wouldn’t close 11 We’re tired from walking so far Label each underlined word as a contraction or a possessive pronoun 10 it is we had I am you are should not will not does not they have is not she is Write the contraction for each word pair Name 9/12/06 5:27:53RXENL08AWK41_GPB_095.indd PM 95 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Write a sentence to answer each question Use the past-tense form of the verb you see in the question Possible responses are shown Jane knows so much about these animals The stories are always great! was Lesson 26 Irregular Verbs wrote began When she makes a mistake, she throws the page away Then she writes about events from her imagination Jane thinks of its habitat She begins with a description of the dinosaur Writing stories about dinosaurs is Jane’s favorite pastime Rewrite the underlined verbs in the past tense Name 51 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 51 Student Edition pp 96–97 10/4/06 9:48:47 PM Lesson 27 Easily Confused Words knew Dora yell with excitement herd of buffalo! right the way to the campsite ? RXENL08AWK41_GPB_096.indd 96 96 Are you sure Dora is right? 12 Are you sure Dora is They knew the way to the campsite 11 They write Lesson 27 Grammar–Writing Connection I am I might B C 97 Sentence C D They’re Sentence D have never 9/12/06 5:33:45 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D Sentence Sentence C have not C Sentence B have no have nothing In which sentence is one of the words two, too, or to used incorrectly? A B A Which word pair does the contraction haven’t in Sentence stand for? Sentence B They’d D Sentence Sentence A The’ve Which sentence incorrectly uses a possessive pronoun where there should be a contraction? C They’ve Sentence Sentence Sentence D Sentence C B A Which sentence incorrectly uses a contraction where there should be a possessive pronoun? B A Which is the contraction for the underlined words in Sentence 2? D I have I may A Which word pair does the contraction I’m in Sentence stand for? (1) In two days I’m visiting Yosemite National Park with my cousins (2) They have been to the park before, but I haven’t (3) My cousins say they’re favorite part of the trip is seeing all of the stars at night (4) I can’t wait too see the stars (5) I know its going to be fantastic! Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:33:08RXENL08AWK41_GPB_097.indd PM 97 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Write me a postcard when you have time me a postcard when you have time We see a herd of buffalo! We see a I heard Dora yell with excitement I 10 heard This sleeping bag is new This sleeping bag is new Rewrite each sentence Use the correct word from the box to complete it They plan to hike tomorrow, (to, too) (Your, You’re) taking some great pictures The pack mules (no, know) which trail to follow I count (four, for) coyotes (They’re, Their) shoes are dry and dusty (It’s, Its) time to stop for water Circle the word in parentheses ( ) that correctly completes the sentence Name © HarcourtGrade 52 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 52 Student Edition pp 98–99 10/4/06 9:48:48 PM Paul fell in love with Carrie immediately you’ve Sometimes I join in the song weren’t incorrect; to correct incorrect; There RXENL08AWK41_GPB_098.indd 98 © HarcourtGrade 15 I no I want to go there some day correct 98 when when how Adverbs Lesson 28 than the neighbor’s children (quick) wrestled a puma (brave) (great) (wide) 99 9/12/06 5:36:34 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book use each adverb in a sentence that compares more than two actions Accept reasonable responses Choose one adverb of each type, for example upstairs, frequently, and softly Then They enjoy their trips greatly 12 They enjoy their trips The family travels widely 11 The family travels The girl bravely wrestled a puma 10 The girl The Bunyan children grow more quickly than the neighbor’s children The Bunyan children grow Rewrite each sentence Use the correct form of the adverb in parentheses ( ) Today we are walking in Bryce Canyon 9/12/06 5:34:45RXENL08AWK41_GPB_099.indd PM 99 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book incorrect; know 14 Ollie’s parents showed us their photographs of the Grand Canyon incorrect; It’s incorrect; one 13 Its a five-hour trip to the deepest part of the canyon 12 I’ve read it is about won mile deep! correct 11 My sister has heard that it is more than 275 miles long 10 If you’ve seen the Grand Canyon, you’re lucky I haven’t been too them all Their are many wonderful parks in the United States when how where My mother sings happily aren’t Niagara Falls is over there Later, they got married we’ve when Paul Bunyan walked everywhere where Paul Bunyan worked hard to clear the land Circle the adverb Then write whether the adverb tells where, when, or how Name don’t they’d can’t Lesson 27 Easily Confused Words Write whether the underlined word is correct or incorrect If the word is incorrect, write the correct one were not are not we have you have not they had can not Write the contraction for each word pair Name 53 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 53 Student Edition pp 100–101 10/4/06 9:48:50 PM Nobody Lesson 28 Adverbs No No never RXENL08AWK41_GPB_100.indd 100 100 He couldn’t imagine a finer ox 10 He couldn’t imagine no finer ox Lesson 28 Grammar–Writing Connection more (Sentence 3) C labored (Sentence 3) read (Sentence 4) B C D thought (Sentence 5) worked (Sentence 1) A Which is NOT described by an adverb? D Babe and the Blue Ox famous characters and folktales Babe and famous characters B C Babe and folktales A Which are being compared in Sentence 1? D happily (Sentence 4) strong (Sentence 2) hardest (Sentence 1) B A Which of the following is NOT an adverb in the passage? 101 Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence best (Sentence 5) happily (Sentence 4) hardest (Sentence 1) 9/12/06 5:42:34 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D tomorrow (Sentence 6) C B A Which is an adverb that tells when? D Sentence C B A Which sentence compares just two actions? D Sentence C B A Which sentence has a double negative? (1) Of all the famous characters in folktales, Babe the Blue Ox worked hardest (2) No animal was never as strong as Babe (3) Babe labored more than Paul Bunyan did! (4) I happily read any stories about Paul and Babe (5) I thought they were the best stories of all (6) I will write about the story tomorrow Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:38:17RXENL08AWK41_GPB_101.indd PM 101 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Paul hadn’t seen anything like Babe before Paul hadn’t seen nothing like Babe before The other loggers were never as fast as Paul The other loggers were not never as fast as Paul There is nothing wrong with being a lumberjack There is not nothing wrong with being a lumberjack He had never seen any big mountains before He had never seen no big mountains before Possible responses are shown Rewrite each sentence correctly, with only one negative I’ve never met anyone who could sing more loudly than Sue No place looks more beautiful than Big Sur No ox worked harder than Babe not It was not difficult for him to cut trees more quickly than other loggers Nobody chops down trees better than Paul Bunyan Underline each verb, and circle the adverb that describes it Then write the negative from each sentence Name © HarcourtGrade 54 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 54 Student Edition pp 102–103 10/4/06 9:48:51 PM COMPARING MORE THAN TWO ACTIONS most quietly highest most frequently best most carefully earliest more quietly higher more frequently better more carefully earlier than Kate does are shown of all than Babe RXENL08AWK41_GPB_102.indd 102 © HarcourtGrade 102 : My uncle, who is twenty comma - two, also came colon 103 Charlotte’s Web is my favorite book 14 Charlotte’s Web is my favorite book 9/12/06 5:46:06 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book A young orphan takes in a stray dog in the play Annie 13 A young orphan takes in a stray dog in the play Annie Have you seen the movie 101 Dalmatians? 12 Have you seen the movie 101 Dalmatians? My mom thinks the newspaper USA Today is the best newspaper 11 My mom thinks the newspaper USA Today is the best newspaper “Alaska’s Flag” is the title of the state song 10 Alaska’s Flag is the title of the state song John Muir wrote a book called The Story of My Boyhood and Youth John Muir wrote a book called The Story of My Boyhood and Youth Rewrite each sentence Correctly write each title Alaska a camera, my suitcase, and a travel book , Lesson 29 Punctuation hyphen One day, we took the train to Fairbanks , Alaska comma hyphen I ate chocolate - covered peanuts on the train colon I saw these animals from the train : a moose, a bear, and a fox : 30 P.M colon The train arrived in the Fairbanks station at comma My trip ended on August 20 , 2006 This is what I took I once visited Anchorage Complete each sentence by adding a comma, colon, or hyphen Write comma, colon, or hyphen to identify the punctuation mark you added Name 9/12/06 5:45:23RXENL08AWK41_GPB_103.indd PM 103 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book Paul doesn’t think any animal works better than Babe 10 Paul doesn’t think no animal works She plays more quietly than her younger sister does than her younger sister does Paul Bunyan jumps the highest of all Paul Bunyan jumps the I read books more frequently than Kate does I read books She plays Lesson 28 Adverbs COMPARING TWO ACTIONS Rewrite the sentences Use adverbs from the chart above Correct all double negatives Possible responses early carefully well frequently high quietly ADVERB Fill in the chart with the correct forms of each adverb Name 55 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 55 Student Edition pp 104–105 10/4/06 9:48:52 PM incorrect incorrect incorrect incorrect RXENL08AWK41_GPB_104.indd 104 104 Lesson 29 Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence Sentence B C Sentence Sentence B C Our Great State (Sentence 3) C D Ms Kert (Sentence 4) Principal Pearson (Sentence 1) (Sentence 1) Anchorage Elementary School B A Which of the following should be underlined? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence is missing a colon? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence is NOT missing a comma? 105 Sentence Sentence Sentence before Tell before Tell and after Clark before Tell and after perform, D colon hyphen 9/19/06 6:55:16 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book quotation mark B C comma A Which is the name of the punctuation mark between the words fourth and grade in Sentence 2? D after Clark C B A Where should quotation marks be added in Sentence 2? D Sentence C B A Which sentence has no errors? (1) “On October 2008, there will be a performance at Anchorage Elementary School, said Mr Pearson, the principal (2) Tell us what the fourthgrade students will perform, said Mr Clark (3) “The students will perform a scene from the play Our Great State” answered Mr Pearson (4) “What time does the play start?” asked Ms Kert (5) “The play starts at 800 p.m said the principal.” Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:46:39RXENL08AWK41_GPB_105.indd PM 105 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book “You can travel to Juneau, Alaska, only by boat or by plane,” said Zora 12 You can travel to Juneau, Alaska, only by boat or by plane, said Zora Debbie said, “Oil is an important natural resource.” 11 Debbie said, Oil is an important natural resource “Alaska has a lot of oil,” said Patik 10 Alaska has a lot of oil said Patik “The state flower is the forget-me-not,” announced Jay The state flower is the forget-me-not, announced Jay Win said, “Alaska became a state on January 3, 1959.” Win said, Alaska became a state on January 1959 “It is the highest point in North America,” said Marvin It is the highest point in North America said Marvin “Have you heard of Mt McKinley?” asked Yetta Have you heard of Mt McKinley? asked Yetta Rewrite each sentence Add quotation marks and commas where they are needed The largest city is Anchorage, “said Anna.” It’s twice the size of Texas! exclaimed Raoul Samuel said, “Isn’t Alaska the largest state? correct Lesson 29 Punctuation “I know it became the forty-ninth state in 1959,” answered Drea “What you know about Alaska? asked Philip.” If the use of quotation marks is correct, write correct If the use of quotation marks is incorrect, write incorrect Name © HarcourtGrade 56 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 56 Student Edition pp 106–107 10/4/06 9:48:54 PM Lesson 29 Punctuation RXENL08AWK41_GPB_106.indd 106 © HarcourtGrade 106 Lesson 30 Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence Sentence B C won’t weren’t B C be bring B C D bristle begin A Of which verb is brought (Sentence 3) the past-tense form? D wasn’t wouldn’t A Which is the contraction for the word pair would not in Sentence 2? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence has helping verbs? 107 Sentence Sentence B C brought (Sentence 3) was (Sentence 4) B C 9/19/06 6:55:34 AM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D said (Sentence 5) thought (Sentence 2) A Which verb is the past-tense form of the verb think? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which sentence incorrectly uses a contraction where there should be a possessive pronoun? D Sentence Sentence A possessive pronoun where there should be a contraction? Which sentence incorrectly uses a (1) Last year Grandma and I moved to a new town (2) We had thought that we would not know anyone there, but we did! (3) The Pattersons, friends from our old neighborhood, brought us brownies when we moved in (4) They’re house was next door (5) Patty Patterson said that we will go to the same school (6) Its so nice to have friends! Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name 9/12/06 5:48:43RXENL08AWK41_GPB_107.indd PM 107 © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book James says, “My dog is the best dog in the world!” 10 James says My dog is the best dog in the world! Kaia’s mother is thirty-seven years old Kaia’s mother is thirty seven years old Edie sings “This Land is Your Land” with me Edie sings This Land Is Your Land with me He is reading The Mouse and the Motorcycle He is reading The Mouse and the Motorcycle “What are you reading?” asks Fletcher What are you reading asks Fletcher I take three things to the park: my ball, my bat, and my jacket I take three things to the park my ball my bat and my jacket Ernesto says, “The movie Lassie is better.” Ernesto says The movie Lassie is better “I like that story a lot,” says Daisy I like that story a lot says Daisy The setting of the story is Salt Lick, Texas The setting of the story is Salt Lick Texas The book Old Yeller is about a dog and a boy The book Old Yeller is about a dog and a boy Rewrite each sentence Correct any mistakes in punctuation Name 57 RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd 57 Student Edition p 108 10/4/06 9:48:55 PM Lesson 30 Grammar–Writing Connection Sentence Sentence B C Sentence Sentence B C harder (Sentence 3) B Sentence Sentence Sentence 9/12/06 5:50:24 PM © HarcourtGrade Grammar Practice Book D Sentence C A Which sentence compares two actions? D hopefully (Sentence 6) RXENL08AWK41_GPB_108.indd 108 World (Sentence 2) Shipwreck at the Bottom of the Shelly King (Sentence 1) Book Report Fair (Sentence 1) D Mr Langley (Sentence 4) C B A Which should be underlined? B 108 Sentence Sentence Sentence D Sentence C B A Which sentence is NOT missing one or more quotation marks? quickly (Sentence 4) C first (Sentence 1) A Which is NOT an adverb? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence has a double negative? D Sentence Sentence A Which sentence is missing a comma? (1) First prize for the Book Report Fair goes to Shelly King announced Mr Langley (2) “Her report on Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World was the best of all, said Ms Winston (3) I think I worked harder than Shelly did,” said Evan (4) “Come quickly to get your ribbon, Shelly!” called out Mr Langley (5) Shelly was not nowhere to be found (6) “Can I have the prize, then?” Evan asked hopefully Read this part of a student’s rough draft Then answer the questions that follow Name © HarcourtGrade ... point? Lesson Grammar Writing Connection Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence 9/5/06 5:07 :47 PM © Harcourt • Grade Grammar Practice Book D Sentence C B... and Interrogative Sentences Sentence Sentence B C D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which sentence is not a complete thought? D Sentence Sentence Sentence B C Sentence A Which sentence... as declarative or interrogative Name RXENL08ATE41_GPB.indd Student Edition pp 4 5 10 /4/ 06 9 :47 :44 PM Lesson Declarative and Interrogative Sentences RXENL08AWK41_GPB_0 04. indd 4 exclamatory What
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