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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT This page intentionally left blank HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Bibhuti Bhusan Mahapatro Reader P.G Department of Business Management Fakir Mohan University, Vyasa Vihar Balasore, Orissa MANAGEMENT An Imprint of Copyright © 2010, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2943-5 PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com Preface All organizations, be these business, educational or Governmental are basically social system The people run these The functioning of these organizations depends on upon how people work or be have in the organization The human behavior is caused and highly unpredictable People in organizations need to lead in directions that accomplish organizational goals successfully The human resources of an organization constitute its entire work force Human resources management is responsible for identifying, selecting and inducting the competent people, train them, facilitating and motivating them to perform at the high level of efficiency and providing mechanism to ensure that they maintain their affiliation with their organization Human resources management is also an art of developing people and their potentialities for their personnel and the growth of the organization It is the process of integrating the HR and organization together to ensure that their individual and collective goals are closely aligned People have always been considered as critical factor in an organizational set up Unlike other resources, such as technology, finance, materials, this can be purchased, human resources are critical and it needs to be handled with care Often, organizations are concerned not only about the employees’ productivity but also about the employee commitment and nurturing their capabilities for the maximum utilization and growth Since, which constitute the cornerstone of the organization, HRM assumes central importance in the organization Any decision and/or process of an organization must be implemented by the people In a competitive scenario, it is the ingenuity, zeal, enthusiasm and commitment of its HR that makes all the differences for an organization So, the study of the HRM forms important aspects of the study of any management discipline The concept and practice of employee-employer relationships have also undergone a change over the last decade In the globally competitive economy, efforts to boost productivity and quality are a continuous process To be more responsive, the businesses are increasingly adopting the new approaches to HRM that emphasize on the redistribution of power, greater participation by the individuals, and team work It has been observed that, the only sustainable competitive advantage on organization can have in today’s environment is its people Effective management of human resources is not an issue of survival Therefore, the establishing practices of HRM must also be able to understand and apply innovative techniques successfully in managing human resources In the years ahead, the importance of HRM will become more crucial The large scale production and the contribution of Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth century gave rise to the practice of “Personnel Management”, which started as the voluntary movement in the US and UK Traditionally, the role of HR manager was to maintain the records and administration and act as liaison executive between the employee and employer The HR manager should apply the concept and convert it into practice Recognizing that the human beings are the most important asset in the organization, the term personnel is replaced by the Human Resources Management The development of human resource management is very crucial for quality productivity and growth It is now increasingly used in development functions Preface vi More now than ever, companies today want to deliver products better, faster and cheaper At the same time, in high technology environment of the 21st century, nearly all organizations have found themselves building more and more complex products HR manager is responsible for the human resources in your organization Your continual mission is to seek ways of improving the return on investment in these human assets In this context, I think, this book is a humble attempt in this direction Author Acknowledgements This book has been made possible through the direct and indirect cooperation of various persons whom I wish to express my appreciation and gratitude First and the foremost, my intellectual debt is to those academicians and practitioners who have contributed significantly to the emerging fields of human behavior and whose work has been quoted copiously and used extensively by me in my writings for this book My academic colleagues, earlier at SMIT, BIMIT, CMS Bhubaneswar and Fakir Mohan University, Balasore deserves my appreciation for extending to me their whole heartedness cooperation and support To my students and research scholars, I owe a deep sense of obligation without their inquisitiveness and helpful participation, I could not possibly have developed and sustained an abiding interest in learning this I am extremely grateful to my computer friends of F.M University, Balasore and Mr Deepak Bose for helping in the computer data entry work He also complied in association with me the Internet resources relating to this area Several Colleagues of different institutions other than where I work have constantly encouraged me with their words, appreciation and advice I am also grateful to the anonymous reviewers of the initial texts of this, who provided very useful comments, all of which proved to be of immense help in preparing this book in a particular shape I am beholden to my parents and other family members for their blessings and particularly my wife Sunita and son their sacrifices and encouragement I am indebted to New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers for the efforts they have put in for making the book a reality and giving a shape Dr Bibhuti B Mahapatro This page intentionally left blank Contents Preface Acknowledgements HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: CONTEXT, CONCEPT AND BOUNDARIES 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Human Factor and their Importance 1.3 Definition of Human Resources Management 1.4 A New Mandate for Human Resources 1.5 Changing Role of the Human Resource Management 1.6 Managing human resources in the emerging scenario 1.7 Evolution of Management of Human Resources: An Indian Perspective References THE CONCEPT, SCOPE AND FUNCTION OF HUMAN RESOURCE OF MANAGEMENT 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Concept and Challenges of HRM 2.3 Objectives of HRM 2.4 Human Resource Functions 2.5 Scope of HRM References HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING 3.1 Introduction 3.2 What is Human Resources Planning? 3.3 Objectives of the Human Resources Planning 3.4 Needs of HRP 3.5 Human Resource Planning Process References ATTRACTING THE TALENT: THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 4.1 Introduction 4.2 What is Recruiting? 4.3 Corporate Mission, Objectives, Strategies and Tactics (Most) And Recruitment References SOCIALIZATION, MOBILITY AND SEPARATION 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Promotions 5.3 Demotion v vii 1 10 16 18 18 18 22 24 29 35 37 37 38 38 40 46 60 62 62 63 64 81 82 82 84 86 402 Human Resources Management industrialization and economic development in the region It is creating new challenges for, as well as highlighting old tensions among, governments and the social partners It has also brought with it a number of strategic opportunities, if the parties can take advantage of them, to improve the prospects of enterprises and workers and to position the region for a period of continuing strong economic growth and development into the twenty-first century Labour-management relations policy formulation is one of the significant tasks at the national level, and its successful formulation and implementation can influence the labour relations climate at the industry and enterprise levels Such policy formulation, however, can be formulated not only at the national level through a tripartite process, but also at the industry level on a bipartite basis as between employers’ and workers’ organizations Whether bipartite policy formulation becomes a part of national policy depends largely on the respective strengths of employers’ and workers’ organizations In some of the industrialized market economies there is a greater likelihood than in developing countries of bipartite policy formulations being reflected in national policies due to the strength of the employers’ and workers’ organizations CASE STUDY–1 Industrial Relations Amazon Textiles Amazon Textiles is a textile industry located in the old industrial district of Mumbai The company was established in 1870 and has seen several ups and downs It suffered extensively on account of the export and import policy of British regime, whose main aim was to discourage the growth of the textile industry in India and use the country as a supplier of material for the textile industry in Manchester, UK The promoter of the company, Mr Manoj Birla, was a patriot and was closely associated with the independence movement and its various phases He was a liberal man and had a paternalistic approach towards the employees The growth of trade unions during his period (1870–1930) was minimal, since the trade union leaders were also co-leaders in the independence movement After the demise of Mr Manoj Birla, Mr Sanjay Birla took over as chairman of the company He shifted the focus of the company from pure silk to other categories of textile goods such as cotton, polyester, etc During he process, the modernized the looms and the machinery In order to increase productivity, he did not increase the wages of the employees over a period of one decade, during which the productivity of the company rose by 20% However, the trade union leaders could see through the ploy of chairman and became vociferous and demanding There were two violent agitations and strikes by the two trade unions, who were also supported by the leaders of the independence movement In order to improve his business prospects, Mr Sanjay Birla sided with the Britishers, much to the annoyance of the leaders of the independence movement In order to improve his business prospectus, Mr Sanjay Birla died in an air crash in 1946 At this juncture, Mr Sanjay Birla’s younger brother Mr Yash Birla took over as Chairman of the Company He was the true son of his father and a loyal patriot who strongly supported the independence movement His style of management was paternalistic and caring, and he was proactive in wage revision of the employees The situation was peaceful till the 1970s until Mr Mohan Samant, a powerful trade union leader in Mumbai industrial circles arrived on the scene The latter believed in adopting a confrontationist attitude towards the management, irrespective of whether or not it was just He tried to influence the trade union leaders in the company, but with little success During the mid 1980s, there was a serious crisis in the textile industry and Amazon Textiles was not an exception There was a sharp decline in exports as well as in domestic sales, which led to a sharp drop in profits, and, ultimately, losses over a continuous period of four years The banks and financial institutions refused to refinance the sick company and Mr Yash Birla began to scout for an opportunity to turn around its fortunes At this Labour-Management Relationships 403 juncture, he could foresee that the denim market would expand in a big way over the next 10 years and immediately set up modern textile mills in Ahmedabad to exclusively manufacture branded and generic denim The modern units in Ahmedabad flourished while the sick units in Mumbai could not be turned around since the cost of modernizing them was prohibitive After detailed discussions with the trade unions, Mr Yash Birla convinced them that it was best to close down the sick mills in Mumbai Those desirous were relocated to the new units in Ahmedabad and the option of VRS was given to the other workers QUESTIONS Examine the sociopolitical influence of the growth and development of trade unions on the company Analyze the interrelationship between the approach of the management and trade union activism Do a role-play based on the case study CASE STUDY–2 Industrial Relations Super Spinning Mills Super Spinning Mills Limited was established in 1920 in Coimbatore for manufacturing yarn and supplying it to the cotton mills in and around the city The company was initially founded with limited capacity and over a period of one decade, it grew to become one of the largest yarn mills in Coimbatore The founder of the company, Shri Murali Iyengar, was a follower of Gandhian philosophy and believed in a paternalistic approach towards the employees, because of which there was little scope for grievance But after some time, owing to the influence of politicians and freedom fighters, the trade union movement picked up in Coimbatore Due to pressure from the workers of other units, two trade unions were formed in Super Spinning Mills, one with the support of the communists and the other with the support of the Indian National Congress The leaders of these unions were very keen to increase the membership To so, they began to rouse the anger of the employees against the ‘injustice’ being done to them Shri Iyer, in spite of his best efforts, could not convince the unions to maintain harmonious industrial relations The union leaders, to meet their own selfish ends, started to create industrial unrest on the most minor issues, leading to loss of production There were strikes lasting from five days to one month over a span of two years On each of these occasions, the management took the help of leading freedom fighters for conciliation and arbitration, and were able to reduce industrial unrest QUESTIONS Critically analyze the above case and identify the problems faced by the management Do you think that the management was right in redressing the grievances of the employees? What could have been the best approach of the management towards proactively addressing the industrial unrest? Do you suggest any other approaches for resolving the problems? 404 Human Resources Management CASE STUDY–3 IR Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC), the autonomous body providing public transport services in the state of Andhra Pradesh, was established in the early nineteenth century as a part of the erstwhile United Railways and Road Transport Corporation The company was started by the then Nizam of Hyderabad, with a fleet of around 10 buses in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad In the early 1950s, after independence and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh, in independent road transport organization (APSRTC) was set up The corporation is now one of the largest road transport undertakings in the country with a fleet of over 20000 buses and an employee strength of more than one and half lakh The organization has two major trade unions, namely Employees Union (EU) and Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) The corporation has a record of peaceful industrial relations and the elections to the unions lead to one of them coming to power on an alternate basis Liberalization and privatization meant that private road transporters were allowed to operate, leading to severe competition The organization, which has a record of employee welfare, has to compete with the private players, who not adhere to statutory obligations Further, the organization also suffers on account of certain welfare policy measures, which have been announced by the State Government, such as concessional and free bus passes to a certain segment of citizens In addition, it has to pay Motor Vehicle Tax to the State Government at a high rate, leading to serve losses Further, there have also been rumours that the corporation would soon be privatized on account of the accumulated losses The trade unions felt it was their responsibility to safeguard the existence of the corporation For this purpose, they placed the following demands before the management as well as the State Government: ∑ Waive of Motor Vehicle Tax ∑ Provide budgetary support from the State Government to offset the losses on account of concessions being announced by the State Government ∑ Stop privatization/outstanding of private buses, improve maintenance operations, and purchase more buses ∑ Reduce the administrative staff and streamline the purchase procedures Based on these demands, the unions had prolonged discussions with the management However, the management could not respond to the major demands and referred the matter to the State Government The State Government, on account of the severe financial crunch, refused to accept the major demands of the unions, following which the unions went on a strike for 20 days This led to severe losses to the corporation and the government encouraged the private players to run additional services in order to weaken the position of the unions Further, the State Government also persuaded once of the unions to withdraw from the strike, which led to the partial restoration of bus services The employees of the other union put pressure on the union leaders to stop the strike The other union leaders had negotiations with the State Government and agreed to stop the strike on the following conditions: ∑ The management should not initiate any disciplinary action against the employees ∑ Participation in the strike should not be a ground for disqualification from the timely release of increments ∑ The State Government would consider the waiver of the Motor Vehicle Tax and also provide partial budgetary support to the corporation Labour-Management Relationships 405 QUESTIONS Critically analyze the above case study Do you think that the unions were right in going on strike ? What could have been a better strategy adopted by the unions to protect the interest of the corporation ? Do you think the management had any role in preventing industrial unrest REFERENCES 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Encyclopedia Britanica, Vol 12, London, 1961, p 297 Dale Yoder, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations, pp 5–6 Tead and Metcalfe, Personnel Administration, p Flanders A., Industrial Relations: What is wrong with the system? Faber, 1965, p 10 Clegg H.A The System of industrial relations in Great Britain, Blackwell, 1970, p Kirkaldy, H.S., The Spirit of Industrial Relations, pp viii–ix Jhon T Dunlop, Industrial Relation System, Southern Illinois University Press, 1958 p Sharma, A.M., Industrial Relations: Conceptual and legal Framework, Himalaya Publishing House, 2002, p 4–5 Venkata Ratnam, C.S., Industrial Relations, Oxford University Press, 2006, p 25 Pigou, A.C., Economics of Welfare, London, UK 1948 Richardson, J.H., An Introduction to the study of Industrial Relations, George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, UK pp 18-20 A Fox, “Industrial Sociology and Industrial Relations”, Royal Commission Research; Paper No 3, HMSO, 1966 p A Clegg, “Pluralism in industrial relations, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol xiii, 1975, p 301 M Jackson, Industrial Relations (IInd Edition) Groom Helm, 1982, p 20 S.R de Silva, Senior Specialist in Employers’ Activities, East Asia Multidisciplinary Advisory Team, I.L.O., Bangkok Ahadeo Dhandu Jadhav vs Labour Appellate Tribunal [1956], LLJ 252, 254 (Bom.) R Bean, Comparative Industrial Relations: An Introduction to Cross-National Perspectives, 100 (1985) Ibid All modern states try to fix the rules of the game by, at a minimum, specifying tactics which are not permitted and by facilitating the coming-together of the parties for negotiation H.A Clegg, Trade Unionism under, Collective Bargaining: A Theory based on Comparisons of Six Countries, 101 (1976) Government of India Gazette (1969), Report of the National Commission on Labour p 307 Isaacs J, Jumbuna Coalmine, No liability vs Victoria Coalminer’s Association CLR 309, 370 (High Court of Australia) Supra Note 6, page 53 Section (K) of Industrial Dispute Act What Every Body should know about Labour Law by H.L Kumar (Universal Publishing) p 104 Section 2(p) of Industrial Dispute Act 406 Human Resources Management 24 Jagannatha Shetty J Karnal Leather Karamchari Sanhathan vs Liberty Foot Wear Co 1990, Lab I C 301, 307, (SC) 25 The Law of Industrial dispute volume I page O.P Malhotra 2004 ed 26 K Alexander, Collective Bargaining in Industrial Labour in India, compiled by V.B Singh, 1963 Edn, pp 384–85 27 E.A Ramaswamy, Trade Unions, Rule Making and Industrial Relations, (1985) 20 Economic and Political Weekly 524 28 Beaumont, P.B (1995), The Future of Employment Relations, Sage, London 29 Deery, S and Mitchell, R.J (1993), Labour Law and Relations in Asia-Eight Country Studies, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne 30 de Silva, S (1996), Employers’ Organizations in Asia in the Twenty-first Century, ILO Bureau for Employers’ Activities, Geneva 31 Frenkel, S (1993), Organized Labour in the Asia-Pacific Region-A Comparative Study of Trade Unionism in Nine Countries, ILR Press, Ithaca 32 Frenkel, S (1995), “Workplace relations in the global corporation: A comparative analysis of subsidiaries in Malaysia and Taiwan,” in Frenkel, S and Harrod, J (eds) (1995)- Industrialization and Labour Relations-Contemporary Research in Seven Countries, ILR Press, Ithaca 33 Frenkel, S and Royal, C (1996), Globalization and Employment Relations (paper prepared for ILO/ EASMAT, Bangkok; published under authorization as Centre for Corporate Change Paper No 63, University of New South Wales, Sydney) 34 ILO (1995), Ozaki, M Industrial Relations (paper prepared for ILO/World Bank Mission on Labour Market Policies for Higher Employment), Geneva 35 ILO (1996c), “Industrial Relations: Towards a Negotiated Compromise between Democracy and the Market”—Background Document by the ILO Task Force on Industrial Relations (unpublished paper), Geneva 36 ILO/JIL Network of National Institutes for Labour Studies in Asia and the Pacific (1996), The Impact of Globalization and the World of Work, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 37 International Industrial Relations Association (IIRA), 3rd Asian Regional Conference, Taipei, 1996, Record of Proceedings (Vol 1—The Transformation of Industrial Relations under Democratization; Vol 2—The Impact of Globalization on Industrial Relations; and Vol.4—The Perspectives of Industrial Relations in the 21st Century) INDEX Broad band A Abilities 102, 344 Business environment 279 62, 185 Absenteeism 90, 333 Business goals 195 Accounting techniques 234 Business integration Action theory approach 383 Business plans Addie model 288 Business strategies 28, 31, 32, 195 399 218 Adjudication 393 C Administration 396 Analytical skills 310 Campus recruitment Annual bonus 338 Capability enhancement 274 Application skills Career Apprenticeships 310 70 Career coaches 150 295 Approaches 41, 219, 297, 379 Career decisions As HR processes Career development 187, 300 253, 179 Assessment centers Associative Attitudes 141, 152 Audiovisual methods 294 187, 231, 265 Career management Career paths 7, 7, 13, 25, 151 5, 188 Career planning 188, 253, 262, 265 Career planning programs Audit 217 Autonomy 13 Career growth 396 171, 254, 261, 282 Attrition Career goals 193 190 Career development, performance appraisals 311 Case studies B 308 Case-study analysis 154 Behaviour event interviewing 141 Cash Behaviour modification Centralized vs Decentralized recruitment 65 311 327 Behaviourally anchored rating scales 119 Challenges in industrial relations Beliefs Challenges of recruitment 254 385 74 Benchmarking 206, 207, 209, 288 Change Benchmarking objective 212 Changes in the structure of competition Benchmarks Characteristics of pay structures 345 Benefits 293, 307 221, 339, 359 Choice 213, 274, 283, 316 345 Benefits of HRD 259 Climate 260 Bilateral relationship 369 Coaching Bonus Collective bargaining 11, 373, 391 341 109, 195, 315 387 218 408 Human Resources Management Common matric questionnaire 159 Communication skills Corporate integrity 310 351 113 Corporate productivity 171 219 Compensable factors Compensation 260 Corporate governance Communication 148 Comparative Corporate culture Corporate responsibility 346 26, 29, 87, 143, 223, 232, 326, 327, 334 113 Corporate social responsibility Compensation administration 218 Corporate strategies 5, 286 Compensation philosophy Cost benefit analysis 221 326 107 Compensation policy 334 Cost-of-living allowance 342 Compensation systems Cost-of-living indexes 335 342 Compensation tactics 331 Creative skills Competence 316 Critical incident technique (CIT) 155 Competence-related pay 110 Critical incidents Competence and competencies 2, 102, 109, 130, 253, 304, 325 Critical success factors 211, 325 Competency analysis 142 Cultural shock Competency assessment Culture 107, 236 141, 181, 186 Competency management 232 Competency mapping 310 Cross-cultural management Customer satisfaction 284 138 D Competency-based systems 142 Competition Data 229 Data banks Competitive advantages 6, 14, 211, 218, 228, 303 209 Decisive Competitive compensation 325, 326 Definition Compliance 219 140 71 Decision-making 236, 310, 397 Competitive benchmarking 396 285 Delphi technique 52 Demand analysis 48 Conciliation 378, 393, 395 Demand and supply analysis Conditions of learning Demotion 86 Consequences Consultants 287 333 46 Demotion policy 86 70 Deregulation Consultative 396 Content analysis 399 91 Competency-based pay 335 Concept mapping 119, 155 19, 31, 386 Description 89 156 Developing a pay structures 345 Continuous learning 208 Development Continuous quality improvement (CQI) 271 Development of human resource Contribution-related pay 110 Development, succession planning, Control of public spending Differentiating competencies Controlling 387 272 Core competencies 26, 253, 281, 285 29 142 Dimensions of HRD 260 143, 148, 186, 211 Corporate citizenship 278 Direct financial 327 Direct financial compensation 327 187 Index Direct foreign investments 300 ESOPS Dismissal 92 Essential competencies 142 Disputes 11 Evaluation of training 296, 299 Distinguished performance 122 Executive compensation 351, 353 Diversification Executive development Diversity 24, 37 Diversity management Division of labour 10 300 93, 220 Expectancy model 115 389 F 151 Factor comparison 349 269 Factor comparison method Factors E E-HR Exit interviews 33, 187 Due diligence Dynamic 283, 316 10, 37 Domestic competition Downsizing Executive or management development 9, 252 342 305 Factors affecting recruitment 33 66 Factors that influences companies compensation 330 E-learning 33 Features Economic environment 13 Feedback 118 Education 285 Flexible package Effectiveness 397 301, 353 Flexible work Employee commitment 390 Employee competencies 254, 286 339 Forces of globalization 398 Forecasting 39, 49, 51, 226 Employee development 20, 197, 281 Forecasts Employee performance 101, 357 Fringe benefits Employee potential 171 Function: Industrial relations Employee selection 26 Functions 38 327 376 231, 312, 374 Employee stock option schemes 340 Employee stock ownership 359 Employee training 12 Employer-employee relations 397 Employment interviewers 115 Employment relations 401 Employment security 391 Empowerment 22, 32 374 334 Gap analysis 384 46, 49, 51 Global citizens 10 Globalization 4, 12, 19, 31, 32, 399, 401 Goal of HRD 279 Goals Environmental challenges 21 Equity function Gandhian approach 277 Goal-based 297 3, 262 Environmental changes 311 Goal setting Engagement 204 Enterprise level G Games Employee welfare 31 Environment 409 31 292 Golden handcuffs Grade structures 77 344 Graphic rating scales Grievance 391 119 410 Human Resources Management Grievance handling 12, 391 Gross national product 45 HRD climate 261, 278 HRD competencies Group discussions 308 HRD culture Group think HRD effectiveness 52 256 260 278 HRD function 278 H Halo HRD interventions HRD matrix 124 Hard skills 262 HRD mechanisms 172 Headhunters HRD outcome 76 HRD philosophy Holistic HRD process 107, 205 258 263 Hiring strategies 62 HR 261 255, 269 269 HRD roles 255 226 HR accounting 234 HRD strategy 261, 397 HR accounting HRD system 241 253 HR activities 218, 239 HRD techniques HR applications HRIS HR audit 138 218, 219 253 227, 230 HRM function 28 HR audit report 225 HRM objectives 23 HR audit review 227 HRM practices HR audit systems HRM strategy HR challenges 227 25, 228, 259 HRP at the macro level 21 40 HR competencies 161 Human capital HR effectiveness 62 Human capital management 46 HR expenditure 239 18, 43, 204, 228, 234 Human relations approach 384 HR function 5, 51, 153, 194, 206, 215, 223, 234, 237, 252, 272 Human resource accounting HR information Human resource measurement intervention 205 227, 232, 259, 272 HR measurement 204 234 Human resource information system Human resource planning 13, 25, 29 HR models 26 Human resource policies HR planning Human resource strategy 39, 46, 223, 226 HR policies 215, 218 Human resource valuation HR practices Human resources 4, 205, 225, 226 105, 389 215 1, 3, 4, 18, 27 HR processes 60, 138, 145, 226, 272 Human resources development HR research 255 Human resources information system HR role Human resources management HR service 145, 235 Human resources outcomes 251 29 204 HR strategies 9, 22, 27, 239 Human resources planning 37 HR system Human resources strategies 204 30, 161, 229 HR utilization 39 HR value 237 224 Human resources valuation 242 264 Index Internships and assistantships I ICT Interpersonal skills 228 In-basket 141, 154, 183, 308 In-basket method In-house Intervention Interview techniques Interviewers 69 Incentive Interviews 112, 343 Incentive compensation 71, 183 Inventory analysis Indirect compensation 157 115 Intimacy 311 346 Indirect 327 Individual 277 239, 255 Interview format 72 314 295 Inbreeding 159 327 J 22 Individual career planning 189 Job abandonment Individual challenges 22 Job accidents Individual job structure Job analysis 344 92 333 140, 153, 218, 342 Individual role-playing 314 Job classification method 342 Individual traits Job description 116 Individualism-collectivism 332 Induction 91 Induction programme Industrial disputes 91 89, 122, 130, 167, 293 Job design 399 Job enrichment 87 Job evaluation 12, 139, 148, 346 Job evaluation methodologies 392 Industrial environment 398 Job families 145, 344 Industrial relations Job grading 12, 370, 374, 379 Industrial relations strategies 378 Industrial sociology approach Industry 119, 171, 276 Job performance 118, 274 348 Job ranking method 229 Information technology Informative 383 32 342 Job redesign 267 Job rotation 13, 87, 266, 295, 307 396 Ingredients 214 Job satisfaction Innovation Job security 339, 399 13 9, 22, 262 Intellectual assets 234 Job specifications Intellectual capital 4, 18, 237 Job standards 189 Intensified competition 386 Job structure, job design Interactive role-playing Job training 314 61, 89 83 Internal audit 293 K Internal environment 331 Internal equity method 343 Knowledge 279 International companies 388 Knowledge management 275 International competition Knowledge occupation International HRM 348 348 Job knowledge Job ranking 374 Information 295 389 Knowledge workers 230 411 412 Human Resources Management Knowledge; wisdom Managing for results 180 229 KRAS Manpower KSAS 143, 181, 186, 336 Manpower planning 38 37 Manpower requirement approach 45 L Market pricing 343 Laboratory training 295 Masculinity-femininity Labour market 66 MBO Labour turnover Meaning of executive development 301 90 Labour welfare Layout 122, 219, 267 Measurable 139 12 Labour-management relations Lay off 332 Measurement 399 209 92, 118, 187 Measurement of productivity 123 Measurement strategies 317 203 Measurements 242 Leadership 274 Leadership coaching Mechanisms 315 Leadership enterprises Method 274 255 180 Leadership skills 275 Methods and techniques Leadership styles Methods of competency mapping Learners Learning 276 281 Minimum age 13, 110, 275, 299 MIS Learning organization Learning process Lectures 11 230 Mixed model 114 300, 301 MNCS 287 Mobility Learning theories 305 399 9, 83 Modern appraisal 294 104 Leniency 124 Monetary benefits 43 Levels Monetary value 374 235 Levels of evaluation 297 Morale Liberalizations Morale and satisfaction 284 Life script Loyalty 12, 64, 300 , 389 84, 221, 258, 277 Motivate 237 311 Motivated workforce 90, 124 Motivation Multinational companies 388 370 Man-power planning Management 8, 63, 115, 258, 277 Motivational function 334 M Macro 325 Multiperson comparisons 120 19 Multiple management 2, Management development 285, 299, 300 Management games/business games Management remuneration 341 N 315 National level 374 Management techniques 299 Nature Managerial obsolescence Nature of job Managing change 391 303 258, 302 Necessity 302 308 152 Index Need pay structures Organization’s culture and values 335 345 Negotiated performance appraisal Negotiating skills 103 Network benchmarking 52 P 327 Non-monetary benefits 44 Participation Pay O Objectives Objectives of succession planning OD 192 336 Pay curves 344 Pay equity 350 Pay levels 261 Off-the-job techniques On-the-job training 110 Pay for performance 360 261, 269 On-the-job coaching 395, 396 Pay competitiveness 26, 230, 239, 302, 374 OCTACPAC 317 Orientations 294 209 Nominal group technique Non-cash benefits Organization’s performance 206 Orientation program 277 350 Pay philosophy 336 294 Pay spines 344 306 Pay structure 294 336, 343 Organisational performance 105 Pay structure for manual workers Organization design 325 Pay system Organizational audit 130 Payroll 230, 233 Organizational behaviour Peers 370 Organizational career planning Organizational challenges Organizational change 344 188 117 Pension schemes 325 Perception 125 21 Performance 126, 316 8, 101 Organizational climate 261 Performance appraisal 13, 25, 101, 167, 253 Organizational culture 282, 332 Performance appraisal, potential appraisal, Organizational design 166 Performance coaching 106 Organizational development 107, 190, 253, 267 Performance evaluation Organizational development techniques 266 Performance excellences 138 Organizational effectiveness Performance management 101, 126, 232 227, 259, 271 Organizational effectiveness skills 274 114 Performance management process Organizational environment 40 Performance planning Organizational exit 55 Performance-based Organizational goals Performance-rating 111 39, 166 106 343 Organizational health 397 Performance-related pay 110 Organizational leader 148 Perquisites Organizational objectives Organizational planning 22, 303, 304 189, 190 Organizational strategies 233, 259, 304 339 Personnel administration Personnel research Physiological needs Organizational structures 1, 26 Placement Organization’s culture Planned process 77 12, 19 30 84, 88, 235, 260 269 126 264 413 414 Human Resources Management Planning 213, 272 R Pluralistic approach 384 Ranking approach Poaching Rate of return approach 44 Point method 342 120 Rating scale 121, 171 Position analysis questionnaire 159 Ratio analysis 52 Potential 197, 221, 235 Real wages Potential appraisal 169, 197, 253 Recruitment 9, 39, 47, 63, 65, 218 Potential assessment 197 Redeployment 40 Potential employees 118 Redundancies Potential gaps 160 Power distance Practices Principles 393 32, 38, 40 Reengineering 332 Regulator 395 207, 370 Reinforce 143 355 Reinforcement Privatization 31 111 Reliability 124 Proactive 269 Remedial transfers Problem solving 276 87 Remuneration 341 Problem-solving processes 260 Remuneration policy Process Replacement charts 53 181, 222, 303 347, 353, 355 Process improvement 274 Replacement transfers Process mapping 274 Resignation Production transfer Restructuring 87 Productivity 19, 37, 104, 172, 233, 257, 276, 292, 357 Productivity bargaining Profits sharing 38 Promotion 39, 83, 84, 240, 260, 306 75 Purchasing power Purpose 333 333 9, 39, 47, 187, 237, 339 Reward management 20 Reward system, job enrichment 104, 327, 264 Rights disputes 393 Rightsizing 187 265 Role of state 395 285 Role playing Role-plays Q Quality Retention Role analysis 114, 217, 353 Purpose of training Retaining employees 234 Rewards 265 Psychological withdrawal 187 Retrenchment 393 Programmed learning 295 Psychological contract 93 Retention strategies 341 12, 359 Promotional policies 294, 308, 312 141 257 S Quality circles 13, 190, 266, 288 Safety 288 Quality of life Salary 9, 234 259, 303 Quality of work life (QWL) Questionnaires 87 159 268 Salary administration 19 Scientific management 12 13, 25, 262 Index Scope Strategic competencies 218, 285 Selection Strategic HRD 29, 218 143 279 Self-analysis skills 310 Strategic human resources development Self-esteem 151, 277 Strategic plan Self-evaluation Strategic planning 160, 267 117 293 Seminars, symposiums and MBO 308 Strategic process 277 Sensitivity training Strategies 234, 237, 272 Separations 190, 311 Strengths and weaknesses 92 Several categories 396 Stress management Sickness Strokes 311 239 Subsystems Significance 258 Similarity errors Simulation 141, 153, 294, 308 253 Succession planning Succession plans 232 Skill-based 343 Succession process Skills 279 Succession savvy Supply of labour Smarter 124 Social goals 41 Supporting Sustainability 22 Sustainable Social needs SWOT Social policy 357 System 241 Systems 82 Socialization process Societal objectives 172 50, 160 83, 94 205 Systems approach 380 23 T 173 Spot rate structure Spreadsheet 113 Systematic development 252 Social skills 310 Soft benefits 48 395 Social justice 395, 397 Socialization 194, 196 196 Supply analysis 48, 49 227 Social demand approach 344 T-group/sensitivity training 155 308 Talent 187 Staffing 10 Staffing process 264 53, 191, 193 Simulation interview 183 Skills development 265 267 Subsystems of the HRD 124 251 Talent management 108, 193 223 Standard of living Tangible 241 333 Standard salary structure 345 State intervention 395 Tangible asset 234 Task analysis 184 Team building 190 Steps in benchmarking 210 Team building, learning organizations, 267 Stock option programs 359 Team performance Stock options 325 Team work Strategic 5, 14 Strategic benchmarking Team-based 209 110 269 343, 360 Team-based pay 110 415 416 Human Resources Management Teams Type 110 Teamwork 327 Type of appraisal 277, 316 123 Technical and generic competencies 194 Types of industrial disputes-interest disputes Technical skills Types of role-playing 277 313 Types of training models Technique 155, 241, 311 393 287 Techniques of recruitment 69 U Technological changes Terms of employment 392 Uncertainty avoidance 332 The challenges of HR Union The marxist approach 383 The self-assessment Theories 391 Utilization of HR 39 189 V 370 Time management Valuation 284 215 Tools 219 Valuation models Total quality management 223, 224, 288 Values TQM Variable performance pay 117, 271 Trade union Training Versatility transfer 68, 71, 391, 394 Traditional performance appraisal 239 254, 282 103 Voluntarism 87 377 4, 8, 26, 187, 203, 264, 281, 287, 293 Training and development Training design W 29, 223, 265 299 Wages 10, 11, 393 Training design process 299 Weighted checklist 121 Training needs Whole-person 153 Training needs assessment Training, OD 290 253 Training program 396 Workforce 19, 83, 193, 220, 254, 262, 288, 398 Transfer 83 Transfer policy 308 Workforce composition 300 Workforce diversity 32 88 Workforce management 173 87 Trend analysis Turnover 124 Workers participation in management 151 Trends Work culture 260 Workbooks Transactional analysis (TA) Transfers 122 Work environment 221, 279 292 Training/development 300 Traits 341 Working environment 239, 276 51 Workplace 356 Workplace learning 283 52, 84 Turnover, absenteeism 288, 372 Workplace planning 218 Workshops 125 47
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