4 8 jose marti and the fight for cuban independence

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Fascinating Facts • José Martí’s father was Spanish and his mother was from the Canary Islands • Though famous as a freedom fighter, José Martí was a small, thin man Because of an injury he got when he was imprisoned, he walked with a cane for most of his life • José Martí lived in New York for a time While he was there, he started a magazine for children called Edad de Oro, which means “golden age.” Genre Nonfiction Comprehension Skill Sequence Text Features • • • • Captions Time Line Map Sidebars Scott Foresman Social Studies AND THE FIGHT FOR CUBAN INDEPENDENCE by Ann Rossi José Martí was one of the most famous Cuban writers of the 1800s He was also a Cuban patriot who wanted his country to be free He faced prison and even death because of this You will read about Martí’s life and how he used his writing to help others learn of Cuba’s fight for independence Vocabulary tourist revolutionary patriot immigrant exile amnesty liberty Write to It! José Martí wanted to make changes when he saw things that he did not think were right He often wrote newspaper articles to try to bring about change Think of something in your community that you would like to see change Write a two- or three-paragraph newspaper article describing what you would like to see changed, why it should change, and how you would change it Write your article on a separate sheet of paper AND THE FIGHT FOR CUBAN INDEPENDENCE by Ann Rossi Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions Unless otherwise acknowledged, all Offices: photographs are the property Foresman,New a division of Pearson Editorial Glenview, Illinoisof•Scott Parsippany, Jersey • NewEducation York, New York Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) Sales Offices: Needham, Massachusetts • Duluth, Georgia • Glenview, Illinois ISBN: 0-328-14671-4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication or parts thereof, may be used with appropriate equipment to reproduce copies for classroom use only 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 Opener: ©Brown brothers Coppell, Texas • Ontario, California • Mesa, Arizona ©Scott Smith/Index Stock Imagery ©Maps.com/Index Stock Imagery ©Photo restoration by J.A.Sierra/Timetable History of Cuba/Jerry Sierra ©Corbis 11 ©SuperStock 15 (T) ©Audrius Tomonis, (B) ©Jeffrey Boan/Miami Herald Publishing Company Monument to a Cuban Patriot Each year, millions of people travel to the Miami area to enjoy its warm weather, fine beaches, cultural sites, and wide variety of fun things to These tourists may spend their time admiring the downtown skyline’s glass-walled skyscrapers, or they may choose to explore one of Miami’s neighborhoods, such as Little Havana Both those who visit and those who live in Little Havana can walk along Memorial Boulevard and study the monuments to learn about the history and culture of Cuba While exploring the neighborhood, they might stop to look at the memorial honoring the Cuban writer and revolutionary José Martí Some visitors may wonder who José Martí is Martí dedicated his life to fighting for Cuban independence from Spain Martí’s desire to free his country from foreign rule can be easily understood by Americans, whose own revolutionary patriots fought to free the United States from British rule Martí is often thought to be the symbol of Cuba’s struggle for independence from Spain Little Havana The Little Havana district in Miami, Florida, gets its name from Havana, Cuba, because of the thousands of Cubans who settled in this part of Miami beginning in the late 1950s Many of these Cuban immigrants opened shops and restaurants that carry goods that remind them of their homeland Restaurants serve special meats, fish, black beans and rice, plantains, and other traditional Cuban foods In Maximo Gomez Park, neighborhood people gather to play dominoes and chess, two games that are very popular in Cuba This is the José Martí Memorial in Miami, Florida Martí’s Early Years On January 28, 1853, José Julián Martí y Pérez was born in Havana, Cuba He was the eldest child of Mariano Martí and Leonor Pérez His parents also raised five daughters Though his family was poor, Martí received an excellent education Martí’s mother was a firm believer in the importance of education One of Martí’s teachers was a poet He took a special interest in young Martí’s education Because of his teacher’s encouragement, Martí had published several of his own poems by the age of fifteen Spanish Rule of Cuba In 1492 Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain in hopes of finding a westward sea route to Asia While exploring, he landed in Cuba Nearly twenty years later, in 1511, Spanish soldiers and settlers took control of Cuba, and Cuba became a Spanish colony During Martí’s lifetime, almost four hundred years later, Cuba was still ruled by Spain Attempts by Cubans to gain independence failed Not until 1898 was Cuba freed from Spain, after Spain was defeated by the United States in the Spanish-American War The Ten Years’ War, Cuba’s first struggle for independence from Spain, began in 1868 Like other Cubans fighting for independence, Martí thought Cuba should rule itself In 1869, at the age of sixteen, Martí started a newspaper dedicated to Cuba’s independence With the publication of La patria libre (The Free Fatherland ), Martí began his lifelong fight for Cuban liberty Martí’s sympathy with and support of those fighting for Cuban independence brought him into conflict with the Spanish government He was arrested and sentenced to six years of hard labor Later, in 1871, he was exiled to Spain, where he would live for several years, forbidden to return to Cuba Cuba, the largest island in the West Indies, is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) south of Key West, Florida Twice an Exile The Writings of José Martí Martí did not let his absence or his distance from Cuba stop him from fighting for his homeland’s independence Martí wrote numerous political essays He also wrote a harsh criticism of Cuban prisons, exposing the horrible treatment of political prisoners This attack was published as a pamphlet Martí shared his mother’s belief in the importance of a good education Although he was far from home, he continued to learn and study in Spain After attending classes at both the University of Madrid and the University of Zaragoza, Martí graduated in 1874 from the University of Zaragoza He received two degrees, one in philosophy and the other in law After graduating Martí set out on a series of travels, first in France, then in Mexico and Guatemala In Guatemala, Martí took a job as a professor, teaching history and literature While there he married Carmen Zayas Bazán, the daughter of another exiled Cuban Cuba’s Ten Years’ War ended in 1878, with the signing of the Pact of Zanjon This treaty called for a number of political reforms, or changes, to take place in Cuba José Martí wrote a lot of poetry Many of his poems were published during his lifetime, including the collections Ismaelillo, published in 1882, and Versos sencillos (Simple Verses) published in 1891 Some of his poetry was published after his death, including a collection of the poems he wrote between 1878 and 1882 These poems were published in 1913 as Versos libres (Free Verses) In keeping with the title, the poems in this collection have the theme of freedom Martí wrote many political essays as well, which have been gathered together Some of Martí’s essays reveal his admiration for the United States and its political figures, including the writers of the United States Constitution Martí had firsthand experience of the horrors of Cuban prisons At the end of the Ten Years’ War, exiled Cubans were given amnesty, a pardon for offenses against the government, and were allowed to return to Cuba Within the year Martí and his wife were back on Cuban soil Martí, however, would not remain in Cuba for long Although the Ten Years’ War was over, Spain still governed Cuba Back in his homeland, Martí continued to push for Cuban independence As a result, he was exiled once again in 1879 Martí was put in a Spanish prison, although he remained there only a short time because he escaped From Spain he again went to France and then to New York City In 1881 Martí moved to Venezuela, hoping to make a home for himself He began his new life by founding the Revista Venezolana (Venezuelan Review), but the political viewpoints expressed in this newspaper angered the dictator of Venezuela Martí was forced to leave Venezuela, and he returned to the United States José Julián Martí y Pérez Living in New York From 1881 to 1895 Martí spent most of his time in New York City He traveled occasionally, and he continued to write In addition to poems and political essays, Martí wrote newspaper articles and a magazine for children Martí wrote about his love of liberty, or freedom He wrote about justice and education Many of his essays helped countries to better understand one another While in New York, Martí worked as a journalist for several Latin American newspapers, including La nación (The Nation), a newspaper from Buenos Aires, Argentina Martí wrote about life and important events in the United States One major event he wrote about was the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886 The Statue of Liberty was a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States Martí vividly described the sights and sounds of the celebration, including the parades, the crowds, the speeches, and the statue itself He explained how France had played an important part in the War of Independence when the Thirteen Colonies fought Great Britain and became the United States The statue reminded Martí of the liberty he hoped to bring to his own people 10 Martí’s articles made him famous throughout Latin America His writing helped others understand the importance of liberty While he was in the United States, Martí spent much of his time planning how to achieve independence for Cuba He traveled to Florida and other places, gathering support among exiled Cubans His writing and speeches inspired Cubans from many backgrounds to unite in the effort to achieve Cuban independence In 1892 Martí helped form the Cuban Revolutionary Party In the years that followed, Martí collected supplies and planned an invasion of Cuba to free his homeland from Spanish rule Liberty Enlightening the World, popularly called the Statue of Liberty, was dedicated in New York on October 28, 1886 11 A Last Return A few years later, in 1898, the United States declared war on Spain after an American battleship exploded and sank in Havana harbor The battleship had been sent to Havana to protect American citizens in Cuba The United States blamed Spain for the explosion Spain surrendered shortly after the United States declared war and agreed to give up its right to rule Cuba At last, Cuba had achieved independence In early 1895 Martí left New York and went on his last journey to Cuba Now, he felt, the time was right to fight for Cuba’s independence Cubans from many backgrounds were ready to fight with him By early April 1895 Martí and the patriots who accompanied him had arrived in Cuba Just over one month later, on May 19, Martí was killed in battle José Martí had spent his entire life telling people about the benefits of freedom for Cuba Although he did not live to see a free Cuba, Martí continued to inspire others to fight for Cuba’s independence 1874 Martí graduates from university The Life and Times of José Martí 1878 The Ten Years’ War ends The Pact of Zanjon allows political exiles to return to Cuba Martí and his wife arrive in Cuba 1871 Martí is exiled to Spain 1853 José Martí is born in Havana, Cuba, on January 28 1850 1868 1881 The Ten Years’ War begins 1855 1860 1865 Martí moves to Venezuela and then settles in the United States 1870 1869 Martí publishes his first newspaper, La patria libre 12 1895 Martí leaves New York A new war for Cuban independence begins May 19: Martí is killed in battle 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1892 1879 Martí helps form the Cuban Revolutionary Party Martí is exiled again 13 Remembering Martí Many people today continue to remember and honor Martí They consider him a patriot who loved his country so much that he was willing to fight—and die—for its liberty People remember Martí when they read his writings, which continue to educate and inspire Martí’s memory has been honored in many ways Statues have been erected in cities such as Havana, Cuba, and Miami, Florida Schools, an airport, and a park are named after him Students and teachers also honor Martí In late January the José Martí Parade takes place in the Miami area to celebrate his birth Students and teachers participate in the parade by singing songs, reciting poems, and decorating floats Although Martí died more than a hundred years ago, his dedication to independence continues to inspire others 14 The image of José Martí is found on Cuban money Students from the Miami area represent their schools in the José Martí Parade 15 José Martí was one of the most famous Cuban writers of the 1800s He was also a Cuban patriot who wanted his country to be free He faced prison and even death because of this You will read about Martí’s life and how he used his writing to help others learn of Cuba’s fight for independence Glossary amnesty a pardon for offenses against a government exile being forced to live away from one’s country immigrant a personVocabulary who leaves one country to live in another tourist liberty freedom from the control of another country; revolutionary independence patriot patriot a person who immigrant loves and supports his or her country exile revolutionary a personamnesty who is trying to bring about liberty a major change in government tourist a person who travels for enjoyment Write to It! José Martí wanted to make changes when he saw things that he did not think were right He often wrote newspaper articles to try to bring about change Think of something in your community that you would like to see change Write a two- or three-paragraph newspaper article describing what you would like to see changed, why it should change, and how you would change it Write your article on a separate sheet of paper Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14671-4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication or parts thereof, may be used with appropriate equipment to reproduce copies for classroom use only 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 16 Opener: ©Brown brothers ©Scott Smith/Index Stock Imagery ©Maps.com/Index Stock Imagery ©Photo restoration by J.A.Sierra/Timetable History of Cuba/Jerry Sierra ©Corbis 11 ©SuperStock 15 (T) ©Audrius Tomonis, (B) ©Jeffrey Boan/Miami Herald Publishing Company ... Boulevard and study the monuments to learn about the history and culture of Cuba While exploring the neighborhood, they might stop to look at the memorial honoring the Cuban writer and revolutionary... was defeated by the United States in the Spanish-American War The Ten Years’ War, Cuba’s first struggle for independence from Spain, began in 1868 Like other Cubans fighting for independence, Martí... change, and how you would change it Write your article on a separate sheet of paper AND THE FIGHT FOR CUBAN INDEPENDENCE by Ann Rossi Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and
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