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Fascinating Facts • José Martí’s father was Spanish and his mother was from the Canary Islands • Though famous as a freedom fighter, José Martí was a small, thin man Because of an injury he got when he was imprisoned, he walked with a cane for the rest of his life • José Martí lived in New York for a time While he was there, he started a magazine for children called Edad de Oro, which means “golden age.” Genre Nonfiction Comprehension Skill Sequence Scott Foresman Social Studies Text Features • Captions • Time Line • Map José Martí by Ann Rossi In this book you will read about José Martí Martí was a writer from Cuba He wanted Cuba to be free Martí worked his whole life for Cuban independence He died fighting for freedom Write to It! José Martí José Martí wrote essays and poetry to Ann about Rossi liberty How express how hebyfelt you like to express your own ideas? Write about liberty This could be a short poem, a song, or an essay of one or two paragraphs Vocabulary exile immigrant liberty Write your ideas on a separate sheet of paper revolutionary patriot Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14669-2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication or parts thereof, may be used with appropriate equipment to reproduce copies for classroom use only 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 Opener: ©Corbis ©Brown Brothers ©Benvenuti/GTPhoto ©Maps.com/Index Stock Imagery Offices: Glenview, Illinois • Parsippany, New Jersey • New York, New York Editorial ©Photo restoration by J.A.Sierra/Timetable History of Cuba/Jerry Sierra ©Historical Picture Archive/Corbis Sales Offices: Needham, Massachusetts • Duluth, Georgia • Glenview, Illinois 11 ©SuperStock Coppell, Texas • Sacramento, California • Mesa, Arizona 14 ©Audrius Tomonis 15 (CL) ©Scott Smith/Index Stock Imagery, (TR) ©Jeffrey Boan/Miami Herald Publishing Company Who Was José Martí? José Martí was born in Cuba in 1853 Cuba still belonged to Spain at that time Cuba had been a Spanish colony for hundreds of years Many Cubans wanted Cuba to be independent from Spain Martí worked to help Cuba gain independence from Spain He wrote essays and poems, and he published newspapers Many people consider Martí to be the most important Cuban writer of the 1800s Martí also gathered supplies and organized a political party to fight for Cuba’s freedom In the end, Martí lost his life fighting to make Cuba free José Martí became the national symbol of Cuba’s struggle for independence from Spain Cuba is the largest island in the West Indies It is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) south of Key West, Florida This is the house where José Martí was born in Havana Martí’s Childhood José Martí was born in Havana, Cuba, on January 28, 1853 He was the oldest of six children He was the only son The family was poor Martí’s mother made sure he received a good education Martí loved to write Martí had published several poems by the time he was fifteen In 1868 the Ten Years’ War began The Ten Years’ War was a Cuban struggle against Spanish rule A year later, when he was sixteen, Martí started a newspaper called the La patria libre (The Free Fatherland ) Martí had begun his lifelong fight for Cuban independence Martí’s support for Cuban independence made him an enemy of the Spanish government in Cuba He was arrested and sentenced to six years of hard labor in prison In 1871 he was sent away to Spain Martí in Exile Martí continued to fight for Cuba’s independence during his exile, the time he spent away from his country He wrote political essays Martí also wrote and published a pamphlet about how awful it was to be a political prisoner in Cuba Martí continued his education in Spain He became a student at the University of Madrid He later studied at the University of Zaragoza Martí left Spain shortly after graduating from the University of Zaragoza He traveled in France and then in Mexico, where he continued writing Martí then moved to Guatemala and taught history and literature It was in Guatemala that he married Carmen Zayas Bazán She was the daughter of another immigrant who had left Cuba Martí was a political prisoner in Cuba This is how Havana, Cuba, looked during Marti’s lifetime A Brief Return Home The Ten Years’ War ended in 1878 The Pact of Zanjon was signed at the end of the war It called for a number of political changes in Cuba It also allowed people living in exile to return to Cuba Martí and his wife returned to Cuba that same year Cuba, however, was still governed by Spain Martí continued to fight Spanish rule In 1879 he was exiled once again to Spain From Spain Martí went to France and then to the United States In 1881 Martí moved to Venezuela and started a newspaper called Revista Venezolana, or the Venezuelan Review That same year Martí returned to live in the United States Life in the United States Martí spent much of his time from 1881 to 1895 in New York City He continued to write Martí wrote newspaper articles, poetry, and essays He wrote about his love of freedom, justice, and education Martí worked as a journalist for several Latin American newspapers He wrote articles about life in the United States In 1886 Martí wrote an article about the unveiling of the Statue of Liberty He described the parades, the crowds, the speeches, and the statue He wrote about the importance of liberty He shared his hopes of freedom for his own people His articles made him famous throughout Latin America 10 Parades, speeches, and celebrations accompanied the unveiling of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886 Martí spent a lot of time working for Cuban independence In 1892 he helped organize and form the Cuban Revolutionary Party A revolutionary is a person who is trying to bring about a major change in government During the next few years, Martí began to gather supplies and plan an invasion of Cuba 11 Martí died before Cuba gained independence from Spain He was killed in battle on May 19, 1895 Martí had spent his life fighting for freedom for Cuba Although he died in battle, the struggle Martí had begun finally did lead to Cuba’s independence Martí became the symbol of Cuba’s struggle for independence from Spain Return to Cuba In late January 1895 Martí left New York to go back to Cuba In April he and other patriots arrived in Cuba Patriots are people who love their country and who are willing to fight for it On April 11, 1895, Martí and his followers began their fight for Cuban independence The Life and Times of José Martí 1874 Martí graduates from university 1871 1878 Martí is exiled to Spain The Ten Years’ War ends Martí and his wife arrive in Cuba 1853 José Martí is born in Havana, Cuba, on January 28 1850 1855 1868 The Ten Years’ War, Cuba’s first fight for independence, begins 1860 1865 1881 Martí moves to Venezuela and then settles in the United States 1870 1869 Martí publishes his first newspaper, La patria libre 12 1895 January: Martí leaves New York for Cuba April 11: A new war for Cuban independence begins May 19: Martí is killed in battle 1875 1880 1885 1879 Martí is exiled again 1890 1895 1892 Martí helps form the Cuban Revolutionary Party 13 Students represent their schools in the José Martí Parade in Miami, Florida Martí’s image appears on the Cuban peso This monument was built to honor José Martí Martí Remembered Today many people remember Martí as a hero They remember Martí as a supporter of liberty and as a man who spent his life fighting for his country Many people today still read Martí’s poems and other writings Schoolchildren also honor Martí 14 People can walk along Memorial Boulevard in Miami to see the monument honoring José Martí In late January every year there is a parade held in celebration of Martí’s birthday 15 In this book you will read about José Martí Martí was a writer from Cuba He wanted Cuba to be free Martí Glossary worked his whole life for Cuban independence He died fighting freedom exileforbeing forced to live away from one’s country immigrant a person who leaves Vocabulary one country to live in another exile liberty freedom from the control of another immigrant country; independence liberty patriot a person who loves Write to It! José Martí wrote essays and poetry to express how he felt about liberty How you like to express your own ideas? Write about liberty This could be a short poem, a song, or an essay of one or two paragraphs Write your ideas on a separate sheet of paper revolutionary and supports his or her country revolutionarypatriot a person who is trying to bring about a major change in government Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14669-2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication or parts thereof, may be used with appropriate equipment to reproduce copies for classroom use only 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 16 Opener: ©Corbis ©Brown Brothers ©Benvenuti/GTPhoto ©Maps.com/Index Stock Imagery ©Photo restoration by J.A.Sierra/Timetable History of Cuba/Jerry Sierra ©Historical Picture Archive/Corbis 11 ©SuperStock 14 ©Audrius Tomonis 15 (CL) ©Scott Smith/Index Stock Imagery, (TR) ©Jeffrey Boan/Miami Herald Publishing Company ... who had left Cuba Martí was a political prisoner in Cuba This is how Havana, Cuba, looked during Marti s lifetime A Brief Return Home The Ten Years’ War ended in 1878 The Pact of Zanjon was signed
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