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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY TÂM GIÁO DỤC Author: Robert Slavin PREFACE When I first set out to write Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice, I had a very clear purpose in mind I wanted to give you, tomorrow’s teachers, the intellectual grounding and practical strategies you will need to be effective instructors Most of the textbooks published then, I felt, fell into one of two categories: stuffy or lightweight The stuffy books were full of research but were ponderously written, losing the flavor of the classroom and containing few guides to practice The lightweight texts were breezy and easy to read but lacked the dilemmas and intellectual issues brought out by research They contained suggestions for practice of the “Try this!” variety, without considering evidence about the effectiveness of those strategies My objective was to write a text that • presents information that is as complete and up to date as the most research- focused texts but is also readable, practical, and filled with examples and illustrations of key ideas • includes suggestions for practice based directly on classroom research (tempered by common sense) so that I can have confidence that when you try what I suggest, it will be likely to work • helps you transfer what you learn in educational psychology to your own teaching by making explicit the connection between theory and practice through numerous realistic examples Even though I have been doing educational research since the mid-1970s, I find that I never really understand the ones or concepts in education until someone gives me a compelling classroom example; and I believe that most of my colleagues (and certainly teacher education students) feel the same way As a result, the words for example or similar ones appear hundreds of times in this text • appeals to readers; therefore, I have tried to write in such a way that you will almost hear students’ voices and smell the lunch cooking in the school cafeteria as you read These have been my objectives in the sixth edition as well as in earlier editions In addition, I have made changes throughout the text, adding new examples, re-fining language, and deleting dated or unessential material I am meticulous about keeping the text up to date, so this edition has more than 1.800 reference citations, more than one-third of which are from 1995 or later While some readers may not care much about citations, I want you and your professors to know what research supports the statements I’ve made and where to find additional information The field of educational psychology and the practice of education have changed a great deal in recent years, and I have tried to reflect these changes in this edition Only a few years ago, direct instruction and related teacher effectiveness research were dominant in educational psychology Then discovery learning portfolio and performance assessments, and other humanistic strategies returned Now, emphasis on “back to the basics” is returning, which requires teachers more than ever to plan outcomes and teach purposefully, qualities that I emphasize in this edition as intentional teaching In the first and second editions of this text, I said that we shouldn’t entirely discard discovery learning and humanistic methods despite the popularity, then, of direct instruction In the next editions, I made just the opposite plea: that we shouldn’t completely discard direct instruction despite the popularity of active, student-centered teaching and constructivist methods of instruction With this edition, I continue to advocate a balanced approach to instruction No matter what their philosophical orientations, experienced teachers know that they must be proficient in a wide range of methods and must use them with intentionality The sixth edition presents new research and practical applications of these and many other topics Throughout, this edition reflects the “cognitive revolution” that is transforming educational psychology and teaching The accompanying figure presents a concept map of the book’s organization Given the developments since the mid-1970s—such as the Carnegie Foundation reports on secondary education and the teaching profession, the National Commission on Excellence in Education report A Nation at Risk, and the adoption of national educational goals such as Goals 2000 - no one can deny that teachers matter or that teachers’ behaviors have a profound impact on student achievement To make that impact positive, teachers must have both a deep understanding of the powerful principles of psychology as they apply to education and a clear sense of how these principles can be applied To that end, I have introduced the concept of “the intentional teacher,” one who constantly reflects on his or her practices and makes instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how these practices affect students Effective teaching is neither a bag of tricks nor a set of abstract principles; rather, it is intelligent application of well-understood principles to address practical needs I hope this edition will help give you the intellectual and practical skills you need to the most important job in the world-teaching ABOUT THE AUTHOR Robert Slavin is Co-Director of the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk Johns Hopkins University, and Chairman of the Success for All Foundation: He received his Ph.D in Social Relations from Johns Hopkins in 1975, and since that time he has authored more than 200 articles and book chapters on such topics as cooperative learning, ability grouping, school and classroom organization, desegregation, mainstreaming and research review Dr Slavin is the author or coauthor of 15 books, including Cooperative Leaning School and Classroom Organization, Effective Programs for Students at Risk, Preventing Early School Failure, and Every Child, Every School: Success for All In 1985 Dr Slavin received the Raymond Cattell Early Career Award for Programmatic Research from me American Educational Research Association In 1988 he received the Palmer O Johnson Award for the best article in an AERA journal In 1994 he received the Charles A Dana Award, and in 1998 he received the Tames Bryant Conant Award from the Education Commission of the States Dr Slavin is pictured here with his daughter Becca Chapter Educational Psychology: A Foundation Tor Teaching Ellen Mathis was baffled She was a new teacher who had been trying to teach creative writing to her third-grade class, but things were just not going the way she’d hoped Her students were not producing very much, and what they did write was not very For example, she had recently assigned a composition on “My Summer Vacation,” and all that one of her students wrote was “On my summer vacation I got a dog and we went swimming and I got stinged by a bee” Ellen wondered whether her kids were just not ready for writing and needed several months of work on such skills as capitalization, punctuation, and usage before she tried another writing assignment One day, however, Ellen noticed some compositions in the hall outside of Leah Washington’s class Leah’s third-graders were just like Ellen's, but their compositions were fabulous! The students wrote pages of interesting material on an astonishing array of topics At the end of the day, Ellen caught Leah in the hall “How you get your kids to write such great compositions?' she asked Leah explained how she first got her children writing on topics they cared about and then gradually introduced “mini-lessons” to help them become better authors She had the students work in small groups and help one another plan compositions Then the students critiqued one another’s drafts, helped one another with editing, and finally “published” final versions “I’ll tell you what,” Leah offered “I’ll schedule my next writing class during your planning period Come see what we, re doing.” Ellen agreed When the time came, she walked into Leah’s class and was overwhelmed by what she saw Children were writing everywhere—on the floor, in Groups, at tables Many were talking with partners Leah was conferencing with individual children Ellen looked over the children’s shoulders and saw one student writing about her pets, another writing a gory story about Ninjas, and another writing about a dream Marta Delgrado, a Mexican American child, was writing a funny story about her second-grade teacher’s attempts to speak Spanish One student, Melinda Navens, was even writing a very good story about her summer vacation! After school, Ellen met with Leah She was full of questions “How did you get students to all that writing? How can you manage all that noise and activity? How did you learn to this?” “I did go to a series of workshops on teaching writing,” Leah said “But if you think about it, everything I’m doing is basic educational psychology Ellen was amazed “Educational psychology? I got an A in that course in college, but I don't see what it has to with your writing program.” “Well: let’s see,” said Leah “To begin with, I’m using lot of motivational strategies I learned in -ed psych For instance, when I started my writing instruction this year I read students some funny and intriguing stories written by other classes, to arouse their curiosity I got them motivated by letting them write about whatever they wanted, and also by having ‘writing celebrations' in which students read their finished compositions to the class for applause and comments My educational psychology professor was always talking about adapting to students’ needs I this by conferencing with students and helping them with the specific problems they’re having I first learned about co-operative learning in ed psych, and later on I took some workshops on it I use cooperative learning groups to let students give each other immediate feedback on their writing, to let them model effective writing for each other, and to get them to encourage each other to write The groups also solve a lot of my management problems by keeping each other on task and dealing with many classroom routines I remember that we learned about evaluation in -ed psych I use a flexible form of evaluation Everybody eventually gets an A on his or her composition, but only when it meets a high standard, which may take many drafts I apply what we learned about child development just about every day For example, I adapt to students’ developmental levels and cultural styles by encouraging them to write about things that matter to them—if dinosaurs or video games are important right now, or if children are uncomfortable about being Muslim or Jewish at Christmas time that's what they should write about!” Ellen was impressed She and Leah arranged to visit each other’s classes a few more times to exchange ideas and observations, and in time, Ellen’s writers began to be almost as good as Leah’s But what was particularly important to her was the idea that educational psychology could really be useful in her day-to-day teaching She dragged out her old textbook and found that concepts that had seemed theoretical and abstract in -ed psych class actually helped her think about problems of teaching Using Your Experience Creative Thinking Based on Leah’s explanation of her writing instruction, work with one or more partners to brainstorm about what educational psychology is and what you will learn this semester Guidelines: (1) the more ideas you generate, the better; (2) hitchhike on others, ideas as well as combining them; and (3) make no evaluation of these ideas at this time Take this list out a few times during the semester and add to it as well as evaluate it What is educational psychology? An academic definition would perhaps say that educational, psychology is the study of learners, learning, and teaching However, for students who are or expect to be teachers, educational psychology is something more It is the accumulated knowledge, wisdom, and seat-of-die-pants theory that every teacher should possess to intelligently solve the daily problems of teaching Educational psychology cannot tell teachers what to do, but it can give them the principles to use in making a good decision Consider the case of Ellen Mathis and Leah Washington Nothing in this or any other educational psychology text will tell teachers exactly how to teach creative writing to a particular group of third-graders However, Leah uses concepts of educational psychology to consider how she will teach writing, to interpret and solve problems she runs into, and to explain to Ellen what she is doing Educational psychologists carry out research on the nature of students, principles of learning, and method of teaching to give educators the information they need to think critically about their craft and to make teaching decisions that will work for their students.! WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEACHER? What makes a good teacher? Is it warmth, humor, and caring about people? Is it planning, hard work, and self-discipline? What about leadership, enthusiasm, a contagious love of learning, and speaking ability? Most people would agree that all of these qualities are needed to make someone a good teacher, and they would certainly be correct But these qualities are not enough.  Knowing the Subject Matters (but So Does Teaching Skill) There is an old joke that goes like this: Question: What you need to know to be able to teach a horse? Answer: More than the horse! This joke makes the obvious point that the first thing a teacher must have is some knowledge or skills that the learner does not have; teachers must know the subject matter they expect to teach But if you think about teaching horses (or children), you will soon realize that although subject matter knowledge is necessary, it is not enough A rancher may have a good idea of how a horse is supposed to act and what a horse is supposed to be able to do, but if he doesn’t have the skills to make an untrained, scared, and unfriendly animal into a good saddle horse, he’s going to end up with nothing but broken ribs and teeth marks for his troubles Children are a little more forgiving than horses, but teaching them has this in common with teaching horses: Knowledge of how to transmit information and skills is at least as important as knowledge of the information and skills themselves We have all had teachers (most often college professors, unfortunately) who were brilliant and thoroughly knowledgeable in their fields but who could not teach Ellen Mathis may know as much as Leah Washington about what good writing should look like, but she has a lot to learn about how to get third-graders to write well For effective teaching, subject matter knowledge is not a question of being a walking encyclopedia Effective teachers not only know their subjects, but they can also communicate their knowledge to students The celebrated math teacher Jaime Escalante taught the concept of positive and negative numbers to students in a high school in a Los Angeles barrio by explaining that when you dig a hole, you might call the pile of dirt + 1, the hole -1 What you get when you put the dirt back in the hole? Zero Escalante's ability to relate the abstract concept of positive and negative numbers to his students’ experiences is one example of how the ability to communicate knowledge goes far beyond simply knowing ii Mastering the Teaching Skills The link between what the teacher wants students to learn and students’ actual learning is called instruction, or pedagogy Effective instruction is not a simple matter of one person more knowledge transmitting that knowledge to another If telling were teaching, this book would be unnecessary Ruther, effective instruction demands the use of many strategies For example, suppose Paula Ray wants to teach a lesson on statistics to a diverse class of fourth-graders To this, Paula must accomplish many things She must make sure that the class is orderly and that students know what behavior is expected of them She must find out whether students have the prerequisite skills; for example, students need to be able to add and divide to find averages If any not, Paula must find a way to teach students those skills She must engage students in activities that lead them toward an understanding of statistics, such as students roll dice, play cards, or collect data from experiments; and she must use teaching strategies that help students remember what they have been taught The lessons should also take into account the intellectual and social characteristics of students in the fourth grade and the intellectual, social, and cultural characteristics of these particular students Paula make sure that students are interested in the lesson and are motivated to learn statistics To see whether students are learning what is being taught, she may ask questions or use quizzes or have students demonstrate their understanding-by-setting up-and interpreting experiments, and she must respond appropriately if these assessments show that students are having problems After the series of lessons on statistics ends, Paula should review this topic from time to time to ensure that it is remembered These tasks-motivating students, managing the classroom, assessing prior knowledge, communicating- ideas effectively, taking into account the characteristics of the learners, assessing learning outcomes, and reviewing information-must be attended to at all levels of education, in or out of schools They apply as much to the training of astronauts as to the teaching of reading How these tasks are accomplished, however, differs widely according to the ages of the students, the objectives of instruction, and other factors What makes a good teacher is the ability to carry out all the tasks involved in effective instruction (Reynolds, 1995) Warmth, enthusiasm, and caring are essential, as is subject matter knowledge But it is the successful accomplishment of all the tasks of teaching that makes for instructional effectiveness Can Good Teaching Be Taught? Some people think that good teachers are born that way Outstanding teachers sometimes seem to have a magic, a charismas, that mere mortals could never hope to achieve Yet research since the early 1970s has begun to identify the specific behaviors and skills that make up the “magic” teacher (Mayer 1992) An outstanding teacher does nothing that any other teacher cannot also do—it is just a question of knowing the principles of effective teaching and how to apply them Take one small example In a high school history class, two students in the back of the class are whispering to each other-and they are not discussing the Treaty of Paris! The teacher slowly walks toward them-without looking at them, continuing his lesson as he walks The students stop whispering and pay attention If you didn’t know -what to look for, you might miss this brief but critical interchange and believe that the teacher just has a way with students, a knack for keeping their attention But the teacher is simply applying principles of classroom management that anyone could learn: Maintain momentum in the lesson, deal with behavior problems by using the mildest intervention that win work, and resolve minor problems before they become major ones When Jaime Escalante gave the example of digging a hole to illustrate the concept of positive and negative numbers, he was also applying several important principles of educational psychology: Make abstract ideas concrete by using many examples, relate the content of instruction to the students’ background, state rules, give examples, and then restate rules Can good teaching be taught? The answer is definitely yes Good teaching has to be observed and practiced, but there are principles of good teaching that teachers need to know, which can then be applied in the Another way to set up contingency program is to rate the class at various times; during the day For example, you might set a timer to ring on the average of once every 10 minutes (but varying randomly from to 20 minutes) If the whole class is conforming to class rules when the timer rings, then the class earns a point The same program can be used without the timer if the teacher gives the class a point every 10 minutes or so if all students are conforming to class rules Canter and Canter (1992) suggest that teachers use a bag of marbles and a jar, putting a marble and the jar from time to time whenever the class is following rules Each marble would be worth 30 seconds of extra recess In secondary schools, where extra recess is not possible, each marble might represent 30 seconds of break time held at the end of the period on Friday Consider deducting points for serious misbehavior The group contingency reward system by itself should help to improve student behavior However, it may still be necessary to react to occasional serious misbehavior For example, you might deduct 10 points for any instance of fighting or of serious disrespect for the teacher When points must be deducted, not negotiate with students about it Just deduct them, explaining why they must be deducted and reminding students that they may earn them back if they follow class rules When behavior improves, reduce the frequency of the points and reinforcers Initially, the group contingency should be applied every day When the class’s behavior improves and stabilizes at a new level for about a week, you may change to giving rewards once a week Ultimately, the class may graduate from the point-and-reward system entirely, though feedback and praise based on class behavior should continue Combine group and individual contingencies if necessary The use of group contingencies need not rule out individual contingencies for students who need them For example, students who continue to have problems in a class using a group contingency might still receive daily or weekly report cards to take home to their parents Ethics of Behavioral Methods The behavior analysis strategies described in this chapter are powerful Properly applied, they will usually bring the behavior of even the most disruptive students to manageable levels However, there is a danger that teachers may use such techniques to overcontrol students They may be so concerned about getting students to sit down, stay quiet, and look productive that they lose sight of the fact that school is for learning, not for social control Winett and Winkler (1972) wrote an article entitled “Current Behavior Modification in the Classroom: Be Soil, Be Quiet, Be Docile,” in which they warned that behavior modification-based classroom management systems are being misused if teachers mistakenly believe that a quiet class is a learning class This point parallels the basic premise of the QAIT model of effective instruction presented in Chapter Behavior management systems can increase time for learning; but unless the quality of instruction, appropriate levels of instruction, and incentives for learning are also adequate, the additional time maybe wasted (see Canter, 1989; Emmer & Aussiker, 1990) Some people object to applied behavior analysis on the basis that it constitutes bribing students to what they ought to anyway or that it is mind control However, all classrooms use rewards and punishers (such as grades, praise, scolding, suspension) Applied behavior analysis strategies simply use these rewards in a more systematic way and avoid punishers as much as possible Applied behavior analysis methods should be used only when it is clear that preventive or informal methods of improving classroom management are not enough to create a positive environment for learning It is unethical to overapply these methods, but it may be equally unethical to fail to apply them when they could avert serious problems For example, it may be unethical to refer a child to special education or to suspend, expel, or retain a child on the basis of a pattern of behavior problems before using positive behavior management methods long enough to see whether they can resolve the problem without more draconian measures SELF-CHECK Explain how applied behavior analysis is used in the classroom Describe the appropriate and ethical use of praise, home-based reinforcement, punishment, daily report cards, and group contingencies HOW CAN SERIOUS BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS BE PREVENTED? Everyone misbehaves There is hardly a person on earth who has not at some time done something he or she knew to be wrong or even illegal However, some people’s misbehavior is far more frequent and/or serious than others’, and students in this category cause their teachers and school administrators (not to mention their parents and themselves) a disproportionate amount of trouble and concern Serious behavior problems are not evenly distributed among students or schools Most students who are identified as having severe behavior problems are male; from to times as many boys as girls are estimated to have serious conduct problems (Binder, 1988; Lowry, Sleet, Duncan, Powell, & Kolbe, 1995) Serious delinquency is far more common among students from impoverished backgrounds, particularly in urban locations Students with poor family relationships are also much more likely than other students to become involved in serious misbehavior and delinquency, as are students who are low in achievement and those who have attendance problems (see Gottlieb, Alter & Gottlieb, 1991; Kauffman, 1989) The school has an important role to play in preventing or managing serious misbehavior and delinquency, but the student and the school are only one part of the story Delinquent behavior often involves the police, courts, and social service, agencies, as well as students’ parents and peers However, there are some guidelines for prevention of delinquency and serious misbehaviors Identifying Causes of Misbehavior Even though some types of students are more prone to misbehavior than others, these characteristics not cause misbehavior Some students misbehave because they perceive that the rewards for misbehavior outweigh the rewards for good behavior For example, students who not experience success in school may perceive that the potential rewards for hard work and good behavior are small; so they turn to other sources of rewards Some put their energies into sports, others into social activities Some, particularly those who are failing in many different domains, find their niche in groups that hold norms that devalue achievement and other prosocial behavior This can all happen very early, as soon as some students realize that they are unlikely to wen in school -or to receive much support at home, from peers, or from the school itself for their academic efforts Over time, students who fail in school and get into minor behavior difficulties may fall in with a delinquent subgroup and begin to engage in serious delinquent or even criminal behavior The role of the delinquent peer group in maintaining delinquent behavior cannot be overstated Delinquent acts among adolescents and preadolescents are usually done in groups and are supported by antisocial peer norms (Kauffman, 1989; Parks, 1995) Enforcing Rules and Practices Expectations that students will conform to school rules must be consistently expressed For example, graffiti or other vandalism must be repaired at once so that other students not get the idea that misbehavior is common or accepted Enforcing School Attendance Truancy and delinquency are strongly related; when students are out of school, they are often in the community making trouble There are many effective means of reducing truancy (Haslinger, Kelly, & O’Lara, 1996) Brooks (1975) had high school students with serious attendance problems carry cards to be signed by their teachers at the end of each period they attended Students received a ticket for each period attended, plus bonus tickets for good behavior in class and for going days without missing a class The tickets were used in a drawing for a variety of prizes Before the program began, the target students were absent 60 percent of all school days During the program, absences dropped to 19 percent of school days Over the same period, truancy among other students with attendance problems who were not in the program increased from 59 percent to 79 percent Barber and Kagey (1977) markedly increased attendance in an entire elementary school by making full participation in once-a-month parties depend on student attendance Several activities were provided during the parties, and students could earn access to some or all of them according to the number of days they attended class Fiordaliso, Lordeman, Filipczak; and Friedman (1977) increased attendance among chronically truant junior high school students by having the school call their parents whenever the students were present several days in a row The number of days before calling depended on how severe the student’s truancy had been Parents of the most truant students, who had been- absent or more days per month, were called after the student attended for only consecutive days Avoiding Tracking Tracking (between-class ability grouping) should be avoided if possible (see Chapter 9) Low-track classes are idea] breeding grounds for antisocial delinquent peer groups (Howard, 1978) Similarly, behavioral and academic problems should be dealt with in the context of the-regular class as much as possible, rather than in separate special-education classes (Madden & Slavin, 1983b; Safer, 1982) Practicing Intervention Classroom management strategies should be used to reduce inappropriate behavior before it escalates into delinquency Improving students’ behavior and success in school can prevent delinquency For example, Hawkins, Doueck, and Lishner (1988) used preventive classroom management methods such as those emphasized in this chapter along with interactive teaching and cooperative learning to help low-achieving seventhgraders In comparison with control-group students, the students who were involved in the program were suspended and expelled less often, had better attitudes toward school, and were more likely to expect to complete high school Use of applied behavior analysis programs for misbehavior in class can also contribute to the prevention of delinquency Group contingencies can be especially effective with predelinquent students, because this strategy can deprive students of peer support for misbehavior Requesting Family involvement Involve the student’s home in any response to serious misbehavior When misbehavior occurs, parents should be notified If misbehavior persists, parents should be involved in establishing a program, such as a home-based reinforcement program to coordinate home and school responses to misbehavior Using Peer Mediation Students can be trained to serve as peer mediators, particularly to resolve conflicts between fellow students Students who are having problems with other students may be asked to cake these problems to peer mediators rather than to adults for resolution, and the peer mediators themselves may actively look for interpersonal problems among their classmates and offer help when they occur Peer mediators have been found to be effective in resolving a variety of interpersonal problems, from insults and perceptions of unfairness among students to stealing to physical aggression (Araki, 1990; Hanson, 1994; Johnson & Johnson 1996; Johnson, Johnson, Dudley, Ward, & Magnuson, 1985) However, peer mediators need to be carefully trained and monitored if they are to be effective (Latham, 1997a) Figure 11.4 shows a guide for peer mediators used in one conflict management program These students are demonstrating peer mediation as a way to resolve a conflict as a teacher, how would you advise student mediators to handle conflicts with a group of students? FIGURE 11.4 Peer Conflict Management Introduce yourselves: “Hi, my name is _ I’m conflict manager and this is my partner _ Ask the parties: Do you want to solve the problem with us or with a teacher?" If necessary, move to a quiet place to solve the problem Explain to the parties: "First you have to agree to four rules": a Agree to solve the problem b No name-calling c Do not interrupt d Tell-the truth Conflict Manager #1 asks Person #1: “What happened? How you feel? Conflict Manager #1 repeats what Person #1 said, using active listening: “So, what you're saying is ” Conflict Manager #2 asks Person #2: "What happened? How you feel?" Conflict Manager #2 repeats what Person #2 said, using active listening: “So, what you're saying is” Ask Person #1: “Do you have a solution?" Ask Person #2: "Do you agree with the solution?" If no: "Do you have another solution?" and so on until disputants have reached a solution agreeable to both of them Have disputants tell each other what they have just agreed to: “So will you tell each other what you've just agreed to?” Congratulate them both: "Thank you for working so hard to solve your problem Congratulations." Fill out Conflict Manager Report Form Judiciously Applying Consequences Avoid the use of suspension (or expulsion) as punishment for all but the most serious misbehavior (see Chobot & Garibaldi, 1982) Suspension-often exacerbates truancy problems, both because it makes students fall behind in their work and because it gives them experience in the use of time out of school In-school suspension, detention, and other penalties are more effective When students misbehave, they should be punished; but when punishment is applied, it should be brief Being sent to a time-out area or detention room is a common punishment and is effective for most students Loss of privileges may be used However, whatever punishment is used should not last too long It is "better to make a student miss two days of football practice than to throw him off the team, in part because once the student is off the team, the school may have little else of value to offer or withhold Every child has within himself or herself the capacity for good behavior as well as for misbehavior The school must be the ally of the good in each child at the same time that it is the enemy of misbehavior Overly harsh penalties or penalties that not allow the student to reenter the classroom on an equal footing with others risk pushing students into the antisocial, delinquent subculture When a student has paid his or her debt by losing privileges, experiencing detection, or whatever the punishment may be, he or she must be fully reaccepted as a member of the class SELF-CHECK Describe how you would prevent serious discipline problems Develop and defend a plan for preventing serious discipline problems CHAPTER SUMMARY WHAT IS AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT? Creating effective learning environments involves strategies that teachers use to maintain appropriate behavior and respond to misbehavior in the classroom Keeping students interested and engaged and showing enthusiasm are important in preventing misbehavior Creating an effective learning environment is a matter of knowing a set of techniques that teachers can learn and apply WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF TIME ON LEARNING? Methods of maximizing allocated time include preventing late starts and early finishes, preventing interruptions, handling routine procedures smoothly and quickly, minimizing time spent on discipline, and using engaged time effectively Engaged time, or time on-task, is the time individual students spend actually doing assigned, work Teachers can maximize engaged time by teaching engaging lessons, maintaining momentum, maintaining smoothness of instruction, managing transitions, maintaining group focus, practicing withitness, and overlapping In a student-centered classroom, classroom management is more participatory, with students involved in setting standards of behavior; yet rules are still needed and must be consistently communicated and enforced WHAT PRACTICES CONTRIBUTE TO EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT? Practices that contribute to effective classroom management include starting the year properly and developing rules and procedures Class rules and procedures should be explicitly presented to students and applied promptly and fairly WHAT ARE SOME STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING ROUTINE MISBEHAVIOR? One principle c: discipline is good management of routine misbehavior The principle of least intervention means using the simplest methods that will work There is a continuum of strategies from least to most disruptive: prevention of misbehavior nonverbal cues such as eye contact, which can stop a minor misbehavior; praise of incompatible, correct behavior; praise of other students who are behaving; simple verbal reminders given immediately after students misbehave; repetition of verbal reminders; and application of consequences when students refuse to comply For serious behavior problems, swift and certain consequences must be applied A call to the student's parents can be effective HOW IS APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS USED TO MANAGE MORE SERIOUS BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS? The most common reinforcer for both routine and serious misbehavior is attention from teacher or peers When the student misbehaves to get the teacher’s attention one effective strategy is to pay attention to correct behavior while ignoring misbehavior as much as possible; scolding often acts as a reinforcer of misbehavior Individual behavior management strategies are useful for students with persistent behavior problems in school After establishing baseline behavior, the teacher selects reinforcers such as verbal praise or small, tangible rewards, and punishers such as time outs (removing a child from a situation that reinforces misbehavior) The teacher also establishes criteria for applying reinforcement and punishment Home-based reinforcement strategies may involve giving students daily or weekly report cards to take home and instructing parents to provide rewards on the basis of these reports The steps to setting up such a program include deciding on behaviors to use for the daily report card and explaining the program to parents Group contingency programs are those in which an entire group is rewarded on the basis of the behavior of the group members One objection to behavior management techniques is that they can be used to overcontrol students Behavior management strategies should always emphasize praise and reinforcement, reserving punishment as a last resort HOW CAN SERIOUS BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS BE PREVENTED? There are few sure methods of preventing delinquency, but some genera] principles include clearly expressing and consistently enforcing classroom rules, reducing truancy however possible, avoiding the use of between-class ability grouping using preventive classroom management strategies, involving parents in any response to serious misbehavior, using peer mediation, avoiding the use of suspension, applying only brief punishment, and reintegrating students after punishment KEY TERMS accountability allocated time applied behavior analysis Assertive Discipline behavior modification classroom management discipline engaged time group alerting group contingencies group contingency program home-based reinforcement strategies mock participation nonverbal cues overlapping time on-task time out withitness Self-Assessment Which of the following refers to methods used to prevent behavior problems and disruptions? a management b discipline c learning environment d instruction According to research, which of the following strategies would be most likely to increase student achievement? a Increase allocated time for instruction by 10 percent above what is normal b Increase engaged rime to 100 percent of the allocated classroom rime c Increase engaged time by 10 percent above what is normal d Decrease allocated time by late starts and early finishes Engaged time is synonymous with a time on-task b allocated time c momentum d overlapping Match each of the following terms with its definition a accountability b group alerting c withitness d overlapping _ monitoring the behavior of all students and responding when necessary _ using questioning strategies that hold the attention of all students _ maintaining the flow of instruction in spite of small interruptions _ involving all students in all parts of a lecture or discussion All of the following statements about class rules are accurate except a Class rules should be few in number b Class rules should be seen as fair by students c Class rules should be clearly explained and deliberately taught to students d Class rules should be created by the teacher and the students together According to the principle of least intervention, in what order should the following management methods be used in dealing with discipline problems? a prevention b consequences c nonverbal cues d verbal reminders e praising appropriate behaviors Sequence the following steps of a behavior management program in the order in which they should be used a Select and use reinforcers and, if necessary, punishers b Establish a baseline for the targeted behavior c Phase out reinforcement d Identify the target behavior and its reinforcer(s) Daily report cards, group contingency programs, home-based reinforcement programs, and individual behavior management programs are all based on a assertive discipline practices b delinquency prevention c behavioral learning theory d the principle of least intervention Discuss ethical considerations in the use of individual and group behavior management programs 10 Explain how you would prevent the following misbehaviors: speaking out of turn, teasing, physical fighting CONTENT Chapter Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching Chapter Theories of Development Chapter Behavioral Theories of Learning Chapter Cognitive Theories of Learning: Basic Concept Chapter Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction Chapter Motivating Students to Learn Chapter Effective Learning Environments -// - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY TÂM GIÁO DỤC Author: Robert Slavin ... writing,” Leah said “But if you think about it, everything I’m doing is basic educational psychology Ellen was amazed Educational psychology? I got an A in that course in college, but I don't see what... semester and add to it as well as evaluate it What is educational psychology? An academic definition would perhaps say that educational, psychology is the study of learners, learning, and teaching... or any other educational psychology text will tell teachers exactly how to teach creative writing to a particular group of third-graders However, Leah uses concepts of educational psychology to
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Xem thêm: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY tâm lý giáo dục , EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY tâm lý giáo dục , EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY tâm lý giáo dục , Chapter 1. Educational Psychology: A Foundation Tor Teaching, Chapter 3. Behavioral Theories of Learning, Chapter 4. Cognitive Theories of Learning Basic Concepts, Chapter 5. Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction, Chapter 6. Motivating Students to Learn

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