Basic grammar

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BASIC GRAMMAR BASIC GRAMMAR LỜI CỦA NHÓM BIÊN SOẠN Qua nhiều năm giảng dạy tiếng Anh Đại Học thấy không bạn sinh viên thường lúng túng việc sử dụng (tenses) loại câu (sentences) tiếng Anh Để bạn có điều kiện ôn lại kiến thức ngữ pháp học phổ thông, mở rộng kiến thức cách dùng câu tiếng Anh, sở làm tảng để tiếp thu điểm ngữ pháp mới, định lấy làm tiêu chí để nghiên cứu biên soạn giáo trình BASIC GRAMMAR có kết hợp kỹ ngôn ngữ thực hành Ngay bày tỏ ý định với đồng nghiệp việc biên soạn giáo trình bắt đầu bàn bạc nội dung mục tiêu sách việc mạnh dạn áp dụng việc kết hợp bốn kỹ thực hành Nghe-nói-đọc-viết phần tập nhận nhiều đồng tình ủng hộ Theo kinh nghiệm giảng dạy môn Ngữ Pháp nhóm biên soạn nhiều đồng nghiệp khác, thấy nắm vững cách dùng câu tiếng Anh bạn thấy dễ dàng tiếp thu kiến thức ngữ pháp mà học tết kỹ khác, đặc biệt kỹ viết Mặt khác, theo cảm nhận lớp học ngữ pháp sinh động nhiều ngữ pháp tiếng Anh giảng dạy với phương pháp giao tiếp kết hợp bốn kỹ Nghe-nói-đọc- Viết Cuối cùng, yếu tố quan trọng khuyến khích định biên soạn giáo trình BASIC GRAMMAR xuất phát từ tâm tư sinh viên Thật vậy, nhiều năm qua có nhiều sinh viên trình bày với tâm tư họ rằng: "Chúng em mong có sách ngữ pháp tiếng Anh đầy đủ, phù hợp với thực tế học tập mà kết hợp cách có hệ thống phần lý thuyết tập thực hành để chúng em ứng dụng kiến thức ngữ pháp học không nghiên cứu, công tác chuyên môn mà sử dụng thục giao tiếp hàng ngày." Xuất phát từ nhu cầu thiết thực người học, cố gắng nhiều tìm tòi, nghiên cứu, tổng hợp biên soạn giáo trình BASIC GRAMMAR này, mong đáp ứng phần nhu cầu học tập bạn sinh viên vậy, thiếu sót lần đầu biên soạn sách ngữ pháp điều tránh khỏi Chúng mong đóng góp ý kiến bạn để sách ngày hoàn thiện Ý kiến đóng góp xin gởi địa chỉ: Phòng 311, số 97 Võ Văn Tần, P.6, Q.3, TP.HCM Điện thoại: 9300949 Email: ffl@ou.edu.vu  DÀNH CHO CÁC BẠN SINH VIÊN: Cuốn sách biên soạn chủ yếu cho sinh viên năm thứ Khoa Ngoại Ngữ - Đại Học Mở Bán Công TP Hồ Chí Minh học lớp theo hướng dẫn giáo viên tự học nhà Những sinh viên lớp thuộc năm 2, 3, sử dụng để tham khảo hay củng cố phần kiến thức ngữ pháp chưa nắm vững Ngoài ra, sinh viên lớp tiếng Anh Không Chuyên trình độ A3, A4 Trung Tám Anh Ngữ sứ dụng để tham khảo tự học thêm nhà  CẤU TRÚC CỦA SÁCH: Cuốn sách chia thành hai phần bao gồm 20 đơn vị học (unit) Phần (Part One: Tenses: Review and expansion) Những học phần trình bày hình thức cấu tạo cách dừng đa dạng tiếng Anh (vừa ôn tập vừa mở rộng) Phần tập thiết kế xếp theo hai loại Focused Practice (giúp sinh viên áp dụng lý thuyết học cách nhuần nhuyễn tình đa dạng sống) Communication Practice (ứng dụng kỹ giao tiếp Nghe-nói-đọc-viết) Ngoài ra, tập với nhiều cách dùng tương tự giúp khuyến khích sinh viên tự luyện tập thêm nhà Phần (Part Two: Clallses and Sentences: Review and expansion) Phần trình bày dạng câu tiếng Anh câu đơn (Simple Sentences), câu ghép (Compound Sentences), câu phức (Complex Sentences), lội thường gặp viết câu tiếng Anh (Sentence Problems) Các loại mệnh đề tạo nên loại câu trình bày theo đơn vị học riêng  CÁCH TỔ CHỨC BÀI HỌC: Mỗi học (unit) sách tổ chức theo cấu trúc sau: GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT Phần trình bày điểm ngữ pháp trọng tâm học nhiều ngữ cảnh tự nhiên khác (văn nói văn viết) mà sinh viên bắt gặp sống thường ngày Ngoài phần giúp lôi ý sinh viên vào học đọc, hội thoại với nội dung phong phú thực tiễn Đồng thời tạo nhiều tình cho sinh viên trao đổi, thảo luận qua chủ đề học Cuối câu hỏi giúp sinh viên gợi nhớ lại điểm ngữ pháp học GRAMMAR PRESENTATION Phần tổng hợp từ nhiều giáo trình ngữ pháp khác bao gồm sơ đồ hình thức cấu trúc ngữ pháp, cách dùng, điểm đáng lưu ý, đặc biệt ví dụ cụ thể minh họa cấu trúc ngữ pháp FOCUSED PRACTICE Các tập phần giúp cho sinh viên thực hành cách dùng tất cấu trúc ngữ pháp trình bày phần GRAMMAR PRESENTATION Bài tập chọn lọc từ nhiều sách ngữ pháp khác với chủ đề phong phú nhằm giúp sinh viên thực hành lớp luyện tập thêm nhà để sử dụng nhuần nhuyễn phần học học Ngoài ra, tập phần xếp theo thứ tự từ dễ đến khó giúp sinh viên dễ dàng tiếp cận áp dụng lý thuyết học theo phương thức vừa ôn lại cũ vừa thực hành COIVIMUNICATION PRACTICE Bài tập phần xếp theo thứ tự kỹ Nghe, Nói, Đọc, Viết (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing) Phần Nghe (Listening) giúp sinh viên vừa thực hành học vừa kiểm tra lại phát triển khả nghe Phần thực hành Nói (Speaking) gồm tình thực tế sống sinh hoạt học tập hàng ngày sinh viên Sinh viên được chia thành cặp hay nhóm thực hành nói theo chủ điểm, sử dụng điểm ngữ pháp học phần học Hai phần tập Đọc (Reading) Viết (Writing) giúp sinh viên thực hành ngữ pháp kết hợp với phát triển kỹ Đọc Viết  CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GIẢNG DẠY Giáo trình dự kiến dùng giảng dạy học kỳ gồm 15 tuần, tuần học buổi (3 tiết) Unit 19 unit 20 trình bày câu phức kép lỗi câu thường gặp cách đồng thời giúp sử dụng loại câu tiếng Anh Hai đơn vị học dành cho sinh viên tự học nhà có hướng dẫn giáo viên  LỜI CẢM ƠN Xin chân thành cảm ơn bạn đồng nghiệp, tổ môn viết Khoa Ngoại Ngữ - Đại Học Mở Bán Công TP.Hồ Chí Minh nhiệt tình giúp đỡ hoàn thành giáo trình Đặc biệt, xin cám ơn Ban Giám Hiệu Trường Ban Chủ Nhiệm Khoa Ngoại Ngữ: Tiến sỹ Lê Thị Thanh (Khoa trường), Thạc sỹ Lê Văn Khuê (Phó Khoa Trường), Thạc sỹ Đinh Trọng Kháng (Nguyên Phó Khoa Trưởng) tạo điều kiện tết cho suốt thời gian làm việc, kịp thời giúp đỡ, hỗ trợ, góp ý, động viên hoàn thành việc biên soạn giáo trình BASIC GRAMMAR Nhóm biên soạn Lệ Hoa-Hoài Minh-Xuân Lan Part 1: TENSES - REVIEW and EXPANSION Unit - SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT CONVERSATION Betty : Hi, Ellen Let's have coffee, okay? Ellen : Hi, Betty Sure, that sounds great Where you want to go? Betty : Let's get a cup from the vending machine The snack bar is too crowded Ellen : Fine Get a table, and I'll get the coffee What you take in your coffee? Betty : Cream and sugar, please (Betty sits at a table, and Ellen brings the coffee.) Ellen : So, how you like your classes this semester? Betty : I like them all, except for math I don't like the instructor He's terrible! Ellen : Why is he terrible? Betty : Well, he talks fast all the time, and he doesn't talk loud enough He has terrible handwriting, and he makes mistakes on the board every day And he never takes breaks Ellen : Does he ever give homework? Betty : Sure he does He gives an assignment every night, and it's really hard We don't understand a thing, but he doesn't care He also makes bad Jokes in class! Ellen : Let's see maybe you need to get a tutor Don't wait until finals Betty : That's a good idea Who can I get? Ellen : I know someone He never talks fast He always speaks clearly He says funny things all the time He seldom gets angry And he teaches math too! Betty : I like him already Please tell me his name! Ellen : Mr Michaels He's my adviser Betty : Mr Michaels? He's my math teacher! Source: Kirn, Elain and Jack, Darcy.A Communicative Grammar Interactions One 3nd ed (Singapore, 1996) GRAMMAR PRESENTATION FORMS AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT Subject Verb I /They/you * /They care He/ She/ It cares NEGATIVE STATEMENT Subject Do not Base form I /They/you * /They not care He/ She/ It does not care *”You” is both singular and plural YES/ NO QUESTION Do Subject Do you Does he Base form SHORT ANSWER Affirmative Yes, Subject Negative I No, he does I don’t he doesn’t WH-QUESTIONS WH-word What Do Subject you does Ellen Base form Spelling rules (3rd person form): - With most verbs, we add -s to the verb in the rd singular person, and make no other changes: run runs - With verbs that end in –o, -ch, -ss, -sh, and -x, we add -es: go goes teach teaches miss misses rush rushes fix fixes - A few verbs have irregular forms: be am/is/are have has - With verbs that end in a consonant +y, we remove the -y and add -ies: try tries but: obey obeys USES and EXAMPLES There are 11 basic uses of the simple present tense 1) repeated or habitual actions Examples: Bob works in Avonmaeth He usually drives to work She goes to church on Sunday The old man takes the dog for a walk every morning We a lot of things in our spare time Ann doesn’t often drink tea She never relaxes Adverbs of frequency are used with the Simple Present tense to express how often something happens always usually often sometimes rarely/seldom never / / / / / -/ 100% 0% Typical time expressions with the simple present tense are adverbs of frequency always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom, hardly (ever), ever, never, or adverb phrases, such as: on Monday(s), twice a year, every week, every (six months), m the morning(s) / evening(s), at 10 o’clock, etc 2) scientific facts, and physical laws Examples: Summer follows spring The earth goes around the sun Water boils at 1000C 3) states, or situations staying the same We often use stative verbs to describe these states/ situations Examples: The flat is clean The farmer owns the land Mr Adams loves Shakespeare Who knows the answer? I think it s a good idea This book belongs to my sister Note: Stative verbs are usually verbs that: a describe a state of being (be, feel) Example: Jane is tired but happy She feels good b express emotions (hate, like, love) Example: Do you like my new dress? I love "! c describe mental states (know, remember, believe/think, suppose, understand) Examples: I know a lot of good recipes Ari remembers your number I think you re right d show possession (have, own, possess, belong) Examples: Cesar has a headache Some students own laptop computers e describe perceptions and senses (hear, see, smell, taste, feel, notice, seem/ /look, appear, sound) Examples: I hear the telephone Dina seems tired f describe needs and preferences (need, want, prefer) Example: I need a pen g describe measurements (weigt, cost, contain) Example: How much does " cost? 4) facts or things that are true for a long time Example: My parents live in London They have been there for 20 years 5) generalization, definitions, observations and declarations Examples: Infants usually take two naps a day toddlers take only one Begonias are garden plants with brightly colored leaves and flower They grow in shade or partial sun I promise I’ll pay you back It says in the paper that there s going to be a strike The notice warns passengers to take care I declare this exhibition open 6) Imperatives: to ask and give instructions, orders or commands, requests, advices or suggestions, warnings, and invitations Examples: - "How I get to the station? " - “Go straight on for half a mile Then come to a garage, and take the first way.” (The subject "you" is implied.)  Divide: Many students attend classes all morning, and they work all afternoon Then they have to study at night As a result, they are usually exhausted by the weekend  Subordinate: Many students, after they attend classes all morning, also work m the afternoon Because they also have to study at night, they are usually exhausted by the weekend  Subordinate and Combine: Many students, who attend classes all morning, work all afternoon and study all night, are exhausted by the weekend  Participial Phrases: After attending classes a" morning, working a" afternoon, and studying all night, many students are exhausted by the weekend Exercise 7: Improve these stringy sentences Use any method or combination of methods He enrolled in advanced English class, but he found it too difficult So he dropped it _ The tidal wave ruined the crops, and it destroyed several villages, and it caused many deaths, so it was a real disaster _ The analysts worked many hours on the computer program, but they couldn't find the cause of the problem, so they finally gave up, and they went home _ Junk food is bad for your health, and it also contains no vitamins, and damages your stomach, so people shouldn't eat it _ The lack of rainfall has caused a severe water shortage, so people have to conserve water every day, and they also have to think of new ways to reuse water, but the situation is improving _ Jack wasn't feeling good, but he went to class, for he was worried about the coming exam _ I read the assignment, and then I began making notes on cards, for I want to memorize the main points in the lesson, but the bell rang, and I was not through, and so I had to carry my heavy book home _ An accident occurred at the busy intersection, and several persons were injured, and then the police decided to put up a traffic light _ Gertrude has beautiful red hair, for she brushes it daily, but my hair is stubby and dull- looking, for I often go swimming in the hot sun _ 10 A small child may swallow a dozen aspirins, or he may wander out into the street, for he is not old enough to think for himself, and adults must make decisions for him STOP AND CHECK : CLAUSES AND SENTENCES Exercise 1: Complete the news article with the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses Choose the affirmative or the negative forms of the verbs WHAT WOULD YOU DO? By Dewitt Rite Imagine that you are unemployed and have a family to support What you (do) if you (find) a wallet in the street? _ you (keep) the money if you (know) no one would ever find out? When Lara Williams faced that situation last week, she brought the wallet to the police, who traced it to Mr and Mrs Asuki, tourists from Japan The Asukis were pleasantly surprised to see the wallet - and their money again "If we (get) the money back, we (borrow) money for the rest of our trips It _ (take) a long time to pay back that debt," beamed Mrs Asuki The police officer who handled the situation was not surprised, however "Most people are honest," commented Lieutenant Kronsky "If they _ (be), our job (be) even harder than it is” Did Mrs Williams have a hard time making her decision? “Frankly, yes We need the money I (see) Mr Asuki’s wallet in the gutter I _ (glance) down just at that moment For a little while, it seemed like fate had sent it to us But whenever I _(have) a difficult decision to make, I always _ (discuss) the problem with my husband We both knew what was right in this situation We always tell our kids, if something _(belong) to you, _ (return) it Our kids _(follow) the rules unless we (obey) the rules ourselves” The Asukis have offered the Williamses a reward, and a friendship has sprung up between the two families "If the Williams family ever _ (come) to Japan, they _(be) our guests," said Mr and Mrs Asuki Exercise 2: Underline the adverb clauses in the following sentences and say what type of adverb clause each one is Example: When we arrived at the football field, the game had started Adverb clause of time The United Nation Organization was formed so that countries could discuss world problems We went swimming although the water was still rather cold I should be delighted if they could come with us Since I had so much work to at home, I didn't have time to come As the car has already been repaired, that won't be necessary He arranged to come early so that we should have time for a talk before dinner As I got off the bus, I met someone I hadn't seen for years He did the job as quickly as he could You should meet me where I told you 10 We booked rooms at the hotel lest we should find no vacancies on our arrival 11 Examination candidates are known by the number, and not by name, so that no one should be able to accuse the examiners of prejudice or favoritism 12 The more I see him, the more I like him 13 Provided that you agree to abide by the rules, you will be allowed to join' the society 14 However hard he tried, he couldn't force the door open 15 The demonstrators left as the police had ordered 16 He got the job although he had no qualification 17 I always keep the candle in the house in case there is a power cut 18 As the soup was very salty, we were thirsty afterwards 19 No matter what you do, don't touch this switch 20 It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now Exercise 3: Complete the following sentences, using an appropriate subordinator for each Tim’s in good shape he doesn't get much exercise Jerry's in good shape physically _ he gets a lot of exercise Florida has a warm climate, _ Alaska has a cold climate _ it's cold tomorrow, I’ll stay home I'm going to swim tomorrow it is cold (I don't care about the temperature) I'll give you my phone number _ you (should) need to get in touch with me You can't travel abroad you have a passport _ no one has any further questions, the meeting will be adjourned I'm trying to learn English I can find a good job 10 _ he earns any money, he spends it 11 _ it snows heavily, the game has been canceled 12 He speaks English much better _ he writes it 13 We decided to climb the mountain _ the weather improved 14 We left the car we generally leave it 15 We lit a fire before we left _ the house could be warm we return 16 The book was so boring I gave up reading it half way through 17 We knew that _ he arrived, nothing could be done 18 Hardly had the performance begun _ the lights went out 19 He said he'd lived in a tent _ his house burnt down 20 His speech went on for so long people began to fall asleep Exercise 4: Complete the following sentences with adverbial clauses of the type indicated Example: He speaks English much better (Comparision)  He speaks English much better than he writes it They decided to climb the mountain … (Time)  _ We left the car (Place)  _ The United Nations Organization was formed (Purpose)  _ The book was so boring (Result)  _ We went swimming (Concession)  _ We should be delighted (Condition)  _ a As…, that won't be necessary (Reason)  _ b As…, I met someone I hadn't seen for years (Time)  _ c He did the job as … (Comparision)  _ You should meet me (Place)  _ ., they live very simply (Concession)  _ 10 We arranged to hire a coach … (Purpose)  _ 11 We booked rooms at the hotel lest (Purpose)  _ 12 The men were told that they would be dismissed … (Condition)  _ 13 ., I shall expect to see you more often (Time)  _ 14 ., the more I like him (Comparision)  _ 15 Provided that , you will be allowed to Join the society (Condition)  _ Exercise 5: Underline the dependent clauses in the following sentences and tell what kind of clause each is (Adv clause, Adj Clause, or Noun Clause) Example: Who is living here is something to consider  Noun clause All things are difficult before they are easy The size of a man can be measured by the size of the thing that makes him angry Man lives by habit indeed, but what he lives for is thrill and excitement An error doesn't become a mistake until you refuse to correct it When we don't have what we like, we must like what we have All know what I read in the newspapers Today it is as hot as it was yesterday Whether he agrees or not, I will buy a new car Since Tim was the oldest, he was given first choice 10 Who the real thief was will never be known: 11 I think I shall never clearly understand this 12 The exact time when the theft was committed was never found out 13 He was a man who never found happiness 14 His suggestion was that we should stay home 15 I agree to this provided you sign your name 16 They accepted every plan we proposed 17 The rumor that you heard yesterday isn't true 18 Please explain why you have behaved like that 19 Tell me the reason why you have behaved like that 20 He walked with care lest he would stumble Exercise 6: Form compound or complex sentences (as indicated) from the following groups of simple sentences Omit a word or two where necessary The boy closed the door He walked away… (Compound) _ Richard works badly He plays games well (Compound) _ The children had finished the lessons They went home (Complex) _ We come to the school on Friday We have a holiday on Saturday (Compound) _ Jack went up the hill Jill went up the hill They fetched a pail of water (Compound) _ Jack fell down He broke his crown He came tumbling after (Complex) _ We decided to remain at home It was foggy (Compound) (Complex) _ You said something I did not understand it (Complex) _ A German is coming to see me I made his acquaintance in Hamburg last year (Complex) _ 10 The students were trapped in a cave One of them has already been brought out (Complex) _ 11 They could not decide what to They asked my advice (Compound) _ 12 She spoke French rapidly He couldn't understand her (Complex) _ 13 He is ugly He is a kind-hearted man (Compound) _ 14 Any of these problems can be solved by ordinary intelligence and hard work None of them are too difficult for that (Complex) _ 15 Type this again in that way I showed that way to you a moment ago (Complex) _ Exercise 7: Find and correct the mistake in each sentence Example: Stephanie Gould is a songwriter whom whose music appeals to all kinds of people She often performs her own songs, which she sings them in a clear, strong voice Stephanie who grew up in New York City studied classical music A friend invited her to a country music festival in West Virginia, which she heard real country music for the first time Stephanie, who’s songs are often in the top ten these days, was too poor at the time to buy a good guitar She found a used guitar at a yard sale the day after the festival, that she was on her way back to New York City She still has that guitar, that she named Lynette after the famous country singer Lynette is like an old friend whose you don want to leave behind when your fortunes improve Stephanie and Jim Alliot, which she met on a tour last year, got married recently Jim, with who she often practices, is also a musician 10 Stephanie and Jim are both people who they're kind and generous Exercise 8: Instruction as in exercise If you pass English this semester, you won’t be able to graduate Peter wishes he doesn't get so angry last night I wish I can go to the basket ball game last night Plants die unless they're not watered enough If I am rich, I wouldn't be happier than I am now Exercise 9: The following sentences show faulty sentence structures Identify the problems and then correct the sentences I watched my sister, a cleanliness fanatic, put away the produce first she washed all the bananas and oranges, then she rubbed the onions with a towel _ Because he likes to eat vegetables _ The current was swift, he could not swim to shore _ His first novel was not a best seller, it was not a complete failure _ TV weather maps have various symbols, for example, a big apostrophe means drizzle _ There is a story of a poor man, he had just enough money to support himself in the simplest way, however, he spent his days helping others _ Jean is my girl friend Last week she and I went a dance at the country club This is located near a beautiful lake _ We have a parakeet He is learning to talk We have taught him several words For instance, he can say "Good morning, Pedro." _ Cleveland caught the pass, and he ran twenty-two yards, and so he made a first down _ 10 Fever is usually the first sign of the measles, and the eyes soon grow red, or the eyelids swell, and later the sneezing and coughing make a person think that he has a cold _ REFERENCES Alexander, L.G., Longman English Grammar New York: Longman Publishing, Azar, Betty Schrampfer Understanding and Using English Grammar 2nd ed Australian: the Metropolitan Business College, [n.d.] Azar, Betty Schrampfer Fundamentals of English Grammar, nd ed Prentice Hall Regents, 1992 Bland, Susan Kesner Intermediate Grammar USA: Oxford University Press, 1996 Coffey, Margaret Pogemiller Communication Through Writing USA: Prentice Hall Regents, c 1987 Dean, M English Grammar Lessons Oxford University Press, 1994 Duckworth, Michael Grammar and Practice Oxford Business English Oxford University, 1995 Eastwood, John Oxford Practice Grammar New edition China: Oxford University Press, 2000 Fuchs, Majorie and Bonner, Margaret Focus on Grammar nd ed Longman, c 2000 Fuchs, Majorie and Bonner, Margaret Grammar Express New York, c 2002 Graver, B D ,Advanced English Practice rd ed Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1997 Ha Van Buu Patterns of English, 2nd ed Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House, 1996 Hartlet, Bernard and Viney, Peter Streamline English - Connections OUP, 1979 Hewings, Martin Advanced Grammar in Use rd ed Italy: G Canale & C S.P.A - Borgaro T.se - Turin, 1999 Langan, John Sentence Skills, 3rd ed McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1987 Molinsky, Steven J and Bliss Bill Line by Line: English Grammar Stories Books & NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983 Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann Writing Academic English nd ed New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998 Swan, Michael and Walter, Catherine How English Works Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999 Tanka, Judith and Most, Paul A Listening / Speaking Book- Interactions One New York: Mc Graw Hill, 1996 Thomson, A.J A Practical English Grammar London: Oxford University Press, 1980 Werner, Patricia K: and John P Nelson A Content - Based Grammar Mosaic Two 3rd ed Singapore: The Mc Graw-Hill Companies, Inc., c.1996 Werner, Patricia K and others Communicative Grammar Interactions One 3rd ed Singapore: The Mc Graw-Hill Companies, Inc., c 996 CONTENTS PART ONE: TENSES Unit Simple Present Tense Unit Present Continuous Tense Unit Present Perfect Tense Unit Present Perfect Continuous Tense Unit Simple Past Tense Unit Past Continuous Tense Unit Past Perfect Tense Unit Past Perfect Continuous Tense Unit Simple Future Tense Unit 10 Future Continuous Tense Unit 11 Future Perfect Tense Unit 12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense Stop and Check: Review of Tenses PART TWO: CLAUSES AND SENTENCES An Overview of Sentences Unit 13 Simple Sentences Unit 14 Compound Sentences Unit 15 Complex Sentences Unit 16 Adjective Clauses Unit 17 Adjective Clause Unit 18 Noun Clause Unit 19 Compound-complex Sentences Unit 20 Sentence Problems Stop and Check: Clauses and Sentences ... hoàn thành việc biên soạn giáo trình BASIC GRAMMAR Nhóm biên soạn Lệ Hoa-Hoài Minh-Xuân Lan Part 1: TENSES - REVIEW and EXPANSION Unit - SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT CONVERSATION Betty... nhu cầu thiết thực người học, cố gắng nhiều tìm tòi, nghiên cứu, tổng hợp biên soạn giáo trình BASIC GRAMMAR này, mong đáp ứng phần nhu cầu học tập bạn sinh viên vậy, thiếu sót lần đầu biên soạn... He's my math teacher! Source: Kirn, Elain and Jack, Darcy.A Communicative Grammar Interactions One 3nd ed (Singapore, 1996) GRAMMAR PRESENTATION FORMS AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT Subject Verb I /They/you
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