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AMERICAN HEADWAY THE WORLD’S MOST TRUSTED ENGLISH COURSE TEACHER’S BOOK SECOND SDITION Liz and John Soars – Amanda Maris Oxford university press OXTORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 198 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 USA Great Clarendon Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP UK Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam OXFORD and OXFORD ENGLISH are registered trademarks of Oxford University Press in certain countries © Oxford University Press 2010 Database right Oxford University Press (maker) Contents No unauthorized photocopying All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate copyright clearance organization Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the ELT Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content Editorial Director: Laura Pearson Publishing Manager: Erik Gundersen Managing Editor: Louisa van Houten Development Editor: Tracey Gibbins Design Director: Susan Sanguily Design Manager: Maj-Britt Hagsted Senior Designer: Michael Steinhofer Senior Production Artist: Julie Armstrong Production Artist: Elissa Santos Image Editor: Robin Fadool Design Production Manager: Stephen White Senior Manufacturing Coordinator: Eve Wong Production Coordinator: Elizabeth Matsumoto ISBN Teacher’s Book (pack): 978-0-19-470453-3 ISBN Teacher’s Book (pack component): 978-0-19-472994-9 ISBN Teacher’s Book Access Card (pack component): 978-0-19470456-4 Printed in China ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors and publisher are grateful to those who have given permission to reproduce the following extracts and adaptations of copyright material: p43 I Believe Words and Music by Ian Duiy and Michael Gallagher © Templemill Music and Mute Song All rights on behalf of Templemill Music administered by Wamer/Chappell Music Ltd, London W6 8BS Reproduced by permission: p55 ‘Rocket Man, Steve Bennett’ BBC Saturday Live, 10 March 2007 © BBC Radio Reproduced with kind permission of Steve Bennett and BBC Radio: p88-89 ‘Don’t panic It’s only a Fish’ by Lucy Elkins, Daily Mail, 17 April 2007 © Daily Mail 2007: pl43 Matthew and Son Words & Music by Cat Stevens © Copyright 1966 Cat Music Limited Used by permission of Music Sales Limited All Rights Reserved International Copyright secured; pl46 Our House Words and Music by Christopher Foreman and Cathal Smyth © 1982 EMI Music Publishing Limited EMI Music Publishing Limited, London W8 5SW Reproduced by permission of International Music Publications Limited (a trading name of Faber Music Ltd) All Rights Reserved; pi50 Somewhere Only We Know Words & Music by Tim Rice-Oxley, Tom Chaplin & Richard Hughes © Copyright 2004 Universal Music Publishing MGB Used by permission of Music Sales Limited All Rights Reserved International Copyright secured Although every effort has been made to trace and contact copyright holders before publication, this has not been possible in some cases We apologize for any apparent infringement of copyright and if notified, the publisher will be pleased to rectify any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity We would also like to thank the following for permission to reproduce the following photographs: Alamy p143; iStockphoto p152 (laptop), (figure/emmgunn) Introduction Welcome to American Headway - Second Edition American Headway, Second Edition is a multilevel, four- skills series for adults and young adults who want to use American English both accurately and fluently The revised Second Edition consists of six levels that take students, including true beginners, up through the intermediate and advanced levels What’s the same? American Headway, Second Edition combines the best of traditional teaching methods with more recent approaches to make the learning of English stimulating, motivating, and effective The series enables students to analyze the systems of language in context as it exposes them to a variety of challenging and interesting types of text Students are encouraged to produce accurate and level-appropriate language, and to bring their own personal experiences and feelings to the learning context Each level of American Headway, Second Edition contains approximately 80 to 120 hours of classroom material Teaching time can be extended well beyond this by using the extra activities in the new Teacher Resource Center, Teacher’s Book, Workbook, and on the Student Practice Multi-ROM Unit Organization Each Student Book unit in American Headway, Second Edition consists of the following sections: Starter The Starter is a quick activity that launches the unit and is related to either the topic or the target language Presentation A Presentation section follows the Starter It has a personalized heading (for example, What can you do?) followed by a definition of the language item being studied (e.g., can/can’t) Within each Presentation section, a Grammar spot guides students to an understanding of the target language with questions, charts, and mini-tasks There is usually a referral to the Grammar Reference at the back of the Student Book (The Grammar Reference is intended for self-study, although teachers might choose to have students refer to it briefly during class.) Practice The Practice section provides a wide variety of engaging exercise types, such as matching, fill-in-the-blank, survey, role-play, and information-gap activities Students’ attention is focused directly on the target language and related language areas in exercises labeled Check it American Headway, Second Edition features a mix of practice activities, both controlled and free, personal and impersonal Skills Reading and listening are always taught together with speaking Reading and listening texts feature pre-activities to arouse students’ interest and curiosity, and to get them thinking and talking about what they might read or listen to A variety of comprehension activities give students clear reading or listening tasks Follow-up activities invite students to personalize the topic and can be anything from a short discussion to project work Vocabulary Vocabulary either relates to the topic of the text, or is utilized in the text A variety of vocabulary exercise types provide lexical input, encourage good learning habits, and work on the systems of vocabulary, such as collocations, prefixes, and suffixes Everyday English An Everyday English section finishes off the unit and focuses on high-usage functional, situational, or social language What’s new to the Second Edition? Reading and listening texts The vast majority of the texts are new Teachers can get tired of using the same texts year after year, so the topics in this edition have been updated Sometimes a parallel text on the same topic was found, and sometimes a new topic and a new text were selected Speaking Patterns of sounds and rhythms in speech vary depending on accent, register, the message, sentence length, etc Nevertheless, this edition offers students more guidance in this area of their English pronunciation This has been done by introducing new features called Music of English and Spoken English These features add to the emphasis on activating language by focusing on particular phrases, expressions, or grammatical structures used in everyday communicative situations, such as short answers, making a comment softer or stronger, ways of agreeing and disagreeing, expressing emphasis, and the use of items such as just, pretty, I don’t care/I don’t mind, and as well or too Intonation is particularly important with this aspect of language, so there are clear models with controlled practice of stress and intonation Writing The Writing section now appears separately at the Student Book This section provides models for students adapt, and follow in order to produce a satisfying piece of writing lesson is cued from the unit, and can be used at discretion back of the to complete, writing Each the teacher’s Design The design is completely new It is cleaner, fresher, and more modern Photographs and illustrations have been carefully chosen not only to enhance and clarify activities, but also to inform and stimulate students American Headway American Headway continues the development of American Headway Starter, I, and Students at this level are beginning to display a certain confidence in their language abilities This knowledge is tested and extended Students are exposed to larger areas of the language, such as auxiliary verbs, modal verbs, and the perfect aspect In addition, American Headway features activities that strengthen students’ language skills through discussion activities, longer reading passages, more detailed listenings, and extensive writing activities Both fluency and accuracy are given equal attention at this intermediate level Student Book The Student Book contains twelve units Each unit contains language input (Grammar, Vocabulary, and Everyday English) plus skills development (Reading, Speaking, Listening, and Writing) In addition, a complete Audio Script, point-by-point Grammar Reference, and Word List are at the back of the Student Book The audio program for Student Book is contained on a set of three CDs Much of the program is also available on the Student Audio Download Center Exercises that have been recorded are clearly labeled Student Practice Multi-ROM An interactive Multi-ROM is included with the Student Book The Multi-ROM reinforces the material in the Student Book and contains interactive grammar, vocabulary, and writing activities, as well as video interviews with comprehension activities It is designed for students to use outside class, and the activities can be used for self-study or assigned as homework Workbook The Workbook is mainly for home Study, although the exercises can also be used in class to provide extra review and consolidation The Workbook contains further practice of all the grammar and vocabulary presented in the Student Book The Workbook also includes new spotlight on Testing lessons that help students prepare for standardized exams The audio program for the Workbook is contained on a Workbook CD, which is designed for use by students on their own Workbook exercises that have been recorded are labeled The Audio Script at the back of the Workbook can also be used to complete most tasks The program is also available on the Student Audio Download Center Teacher Resource Center The new Teacher Resource Center brings together all classroom presentation, practice, and assessment materials in one customizable online library PowerPoint® presentations, reproducible masters, and a variety of PDF, audio, video, and other media files can be accessed anytime, anywhere Teacher’s Book The Teacher’s Book details the aims of each unit and provides stepby-step guidance on how to utilize the activities in each section of the unit The Teacher’s Book also contains notes on the language input (including areas of potential confusion) , answers to all Student Book exercises, and cultural notes The workbook Answers Key and extra photocopitable material including songs, are at the back-of the Boole The Teacher’s Book also contains Progress Tests and Stop and Check quizzes American Headway, Second Edition also includes: - A Test Generator CD-ROM, containing customizable tests for each level - A Program Tour of the course - A Student Audio Download Center with audio files from the Class Audio CDs, Workbook CD, and Spotlight on Testing lessons Key features of American Headway A Balanced Approach American Headway, Second Edition adopts a balanced approach to teaching English by combining the best of traditional methods with current approaches A Traditional Approach - Grammar is given a high profile It is not disguised The grammatical systems of English are presented, practiced, tested, and explained - Vocabulary acquisition is an important element of every unit - There are pre-communicative exercises to provide controlled practice These boost students’ confidence, especially at low levels A Current Approach - Students are guided to work out rules for themselves They are encouraged to adopt a certain responsibility for their own learning - Real-life situations are rehearsed in the classroom, with role plays, situational activities, authentic material, extracts from newspapers and magazines, and interviews with real people - The language is seen as a whole Learners acquire new language items by seeing them and using them in communicative activities Effective Teaching Teachers will appreciate the comprehensiveness and effectiveness of American Headway, Second Edition It has been designed to meet the practical lesson-to-lesson needs of the teacher The units provide a balanced, cohesive timetable for the presentation, practice and personalization of target language in a variety of exercise types, relevant vocabulary work, extensive skills work, and practical everyday situational English Effective Learning Students will appreciate the accessibility and effectiveness of American Headway, Second Edition The units speak directly to the students The contents page, unit openers, headings, instructions, explanations, and cross-references are designed to guide students through the book with maximum understanding and involvement The Syllabus The syllabus of American Headway, Second Edition combines language input (Grammar, Vocabulary, and Everyday English) with skills work, (Reading, Speaking, Listening, and Writing) Grammar In American Headway, Second Edition, the language that students are exposed to and the language that they are invited to produce is very carefully graded Over the series, the depth of language analysis gradually increases Students’ knowledge is confirmed and extended, and the range of their linguistic abilities widens accordingly It is our belief that an understanding of the grammar of English is one of the key enabling skills for language learners In American Headway, Second Edition, structures that are simpler in form and meaning are taught before approaching more complex ones An understanding of the basics will help when more difficult items are encountered This is exemplified by the sequence of presentations of tense forms in American Headway through American Headway American Headway - to be - Present Simple - Past Simple - Present Continuous - going to future - Present Perfect Simple American Headway - verb tense review - extension of Present Simple and Present Continuous - presentation of Past Continuous - will and going to - extension of Present Perfect Simple - presentation of the Present Perfect Continuous a presentation of the Past Perfect American Headway - a verb tense review - extension of Present Simple and Present Continuous with state and event verbs - comparison and contrast of the Past Simple, Past Continuous, and Past Perfect - comparison and contrast of, will, going to, and the Present Continuous for future meaning - comparison and contrast of the Present Perfect Simple and the Present Perfect Continuous Teachers are constantly consolidating and extending their students’ knowledge Every classroom activity can be seen as a test of the state of the individual student’s language abilities It is our view that learners learn in the context of good teaching, but not necessarily as a direct result of it A grammatical syllabus enables students to build a view of the structure of English Over time, recognition of an item raises awareness that in the end leads to automatic production Vocabulary In American Headway, Second Edition, vocabulary is developed in its own section There are several important features about the way vocabulary is handled: - New words are taught in lexical sets and learned in context - Vocabulary learning strategies show students how to begin to assume more responsibility for their own vocabulary acquisition - Systems of vocabulary (such as synonyms, antonyms, and compound nouns) help students perceive patterns in the language - Collocations (for example, fly+ a plane, or tell + a story) put new vocabulary in context and make it immediately usable Everyday English The Everyday English section at the end of each unit covers three main areas: - survival skills (e.g., at the airport) - functions (e.g., greetings) - language for special occasions (e.g., holiday greetings) Skills work The skills work in American Headway, Second Edition is carefully selected according to the level of the students The ideal task should be realistic within the students’ linguistic abilities and should challenge and interest them Tasks should build confidence in the skill and leave students with a sense of satisfaction and achievement Reading and Listening Items come from a wide variety of sources such as newspapers, magazines, short stories, biographies, reference books, real interviews, radio broadcasts, and songs They are all authentic, but at lower levels we have adapted the language to suit the level Speaking American Headway, Second Edition aims to enable students to speak, make conversation, be sociable, and function in the target language Speaking activities range from totally controlled to totally free There are many repetition exercises, especially at the lower levels, where students are invited to repeat items simply to show that they can get their mouths around the sounds Often this is for “display” purposes, so students can have the satisfaction of their teacher’s praise when they succeed Many speaking activities are personalzed Students are invited to relate the material in the Student Book to themselves, their lives, their family, and experiences There is a lot of pair and group work to maximize students’ contribution to the lesson Writing In the Writing sections, students complete a number of practical tasks such as writing informal letters, in which structures and linking words are practiced It is probably the best use of class time to set up the All Everyone, All everything every all all every 10 yourself themselves yourselves each other each other themselves myself 11 1 b f c d a e 2 N N 4.N 3 suitcases is some homework fruit trip job 10 furniture travel a suggestion some bread work lovely weather experience ‘s too much traffic a paper How many times 10 How much time 12 1 clear, deer where, bear stay, weigh know, phone shy, high enjoy, noise now, aloud poor, sure plane, south, Spain boy, coat, enjoyed known, nearly, five wearing, rose, hair smoke, pipes, days likes, ride, motorcycle 13 1 b e f a c d 2 moving into clear up applied for plug it in knocked down b a c d f e let me down pay you back getting over sort everything out put out work it out 14 1 coats and jackets bags umbrellas glasses cell phones c b a b c Actually, it’s a very classy-looking black and white umbrella with a silver point It’s pretty big—it looks like a golfing umbrella And it has a white handle with a black stripe down the side of it UNIT 11 1 Luke is fighting with his younger brother 2 must have may get annoyed must have may be studying might not know could be jealous can’t have Noisy neighbors must be may have could be must know may be can’t have Letters (p 88) f c h e g b d a He must be sick He could be in the coffee shop He might have a doctor’s appointment He may be stuck in a traffic jam His bus might be late He may be talking to a friend from another class He must want to miss the test 2 He can’t be sick He can’t be in the coffee shop He can’t have a doctor’s appointment He can’t be stuck in a traffic jam His bus can’t be late He can’t be talking to a friend from another class He can’t want to miss the test be listening, be taking be sitting be reading be taking be holding, be going be digging, be repairing Sample answers He must have had an accident He might have been snowboarding They must have had an argument They can’t have enjoyed their meal He can’t have passed his driving test He may have been nervous The cat could have eaten the bird The bird might have escaped They must have missed their plane The plane could have been delayed They can’t have enjoyed the movie It must have been boring She must have lost her cell phone It might have been stolen He must have received good news He may have won the lottery You couldn’t have studied hard for your exams I might have left my cell in the Internet cafe He must have been on a diet They could have gotten married in secret He may have called while we were out 1 He was struck by a train Jan came out of his coma after 19 years It had changed beyond all recognition 2 Jan might have worked for the railway for many years Gertruda must have been amazed when he opened his eyes The doctors may not have expected Jan to wake up Jan couldn’t have ever seen a cell phone before They must really be enjoying life together now He was playing in the backyard of his home After several months He was in bad shape and had lost a lot of weight Arnie might have been stolen by a dog breeder Arnie could be a pedigree dog The family couldn’t have expected Arnie to return The family must have been surprised to hear from the neighbor Lucky may be a mixed-breed dog Arnie must have been treated very badly -ness consciousness, laziness, moodiness -ment disappointment, excitement -dom freedom, boredom, wisdom -ity curiosity, stupidity, generosity -th length, strength strength illness freedom generosity length wisdom disappointment, stupidity moodiness curiosity 10 laziness, boredom, excitement 10 about, on, to for on with, of in to with on, for for, for 10 from 11 on 12 on 11 1   x x  Shaksper None The Earl of Oxford He was an aristocrat He went to college, traveled a lot, and was known to be a writer There is a lot in the plays that is similar to events in his life None might not have couldn’t have written could just have been must know couldn’t he have found out must have written UNIT 12 “He has a collar with my address.” “I bought him from a breeder in 2005.” “Felix is more of a member of the family than a pet.” “Felix has been disappearing for days on end.” “When he comes home, he’s not eating his food.” “Paul Flashman is feeding Felix.” “He has always wanted a cat of his own.” “I miss my cat terribly.” 10 “I’ll anything to get him back.” 2 He said that the cat had been running wild for years He told reporters that Felix was his He claimed that Mrs Small had told the police complete lies He insisted that Mrs Small had never loved Felix like he did He explained that he had always had a good relationship with his other neighbors He thought that Mrs Small was complaining because she didn’t like him They police said they would investigate the situation She said she was going to Taiwan soon I thought the movie would be interesting She said she couldn’t help me because she had too much to I was told (that) Daniel had bought the tickets She thought it was a stupid idea, and it wouldn’t work He complained that they’d had terrible weather on their trip They told me they’d never been to Peru They added that they wanted to go someday He wondered why she was crying He asked me if he could borrow my car The customs officer asked me where I had come from She wanted to know how long I was going to be at the gym She asked us if we would be back early She asked me when I had to go to work She wanted to know how much it cost to fly to New York Why you want to borrow the money? What’s your job? And how much you earn? Are you married? Do you have any children? How long have you lived there? When would you like the money? 2 …why he wanted to borrow the money …what his job was …how much he earned …if he was married … if he had any children …how long he had lived in his apartment … when he would like the money He asked Sue if she could cook dinner The teacher told the class to hand in their homework on Monday My wife reminded me to mail the letter Marta invited Paul to come over for dinner The judge ordered Stanley Fox to pay a fine of $200 Flora persuaded Emily to buy the black shoes Marco encouraged Anthony to sing professionally She begged me not to tell her father He asked her not to go He told Debra he was going to bed Jeremy asked his dad how much he earned The teacher told the class to turn to page 34 The secretary asked Miss Fulton to call back later The teacher told the class they had done very well on the test The police officer told the children not to run across the road Pam asked Roy if he was going to the concert 10 Harry told his daughters to get up told asked said asked/told explained tell speak replied/said 10 you ask 11 tell 12 speak/talk 13 said 14 talk/speak 15 said Jo agreed to lend Matt $25 Harry admitted that he had broken the camera Timmy denied that he had pulled her hair The student explained that he/she hadn’t done the homework because he /she had been sick Jessica’s dad promised to buy her a pizza if she cleaned her room Patrick complained that there was a fly in his salad Sarah refused to marry Jento because she didn’t love him Amanda offered to cook dinner for her and Kai A break in get away, get by, went off, showed up At work getting me down, ended up, took on, get on Settling in settling into, pop in, fixing it up, looking forward to Bad Luck going on, run over, beaten up, given up 10 1 shoulder sour country though cough mouse doubt though thought, counts enormous, mouse doubt, furious ought, cough trouble, neighbors 11 1 I told you we’d run out of brown rice You said you would record it for me whenever I’m not here My sister told me today that they had had a really awful time in Boston Lisa said she had been to Washington, DC for the weekend, and she thought it was one of the most beautiful cities she had ever seen It was absolutely packed She needs it for her recipe The tickets will be more expensive if they book later There’s a festival next month “You didn’t say you wanted brown rice.” “You obviously weren’t listening to me—again.” “You said you would record it for me.” “Lot’s of people have told me that Boston is a wonderful place.” “I think it said in the newspaper that there was a festival there next month.” ... tense forms in American Headway through American Headway American Headway - to be - Present Simple - Past Simple - Present Continuous - going to future - Present Perfect Simple American Headway... and clarify activities, but also to inform and stimulate students American Headway American Headway continues the development of American Headway Starter, I, and Students at this level are beginning... Introduction Welcome to American Headway - Second Edition American Headway, Second Edition is a multilevel, four- skills series for adults and young adults who want to use American English both
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