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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ************ NGUYỄN THI ̣ BÍ CH LIÊN A STUDY ON THE SEMANTIC AND LEXICOGRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF THE SHORT STORY MR KNOW ALL BY W SOMERSET MAUGHAM: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGỮ NGHĨA VÀ NGỮ PHÁP TỪ VỰNG TRONG TRUYỆN NGẮN ÔNG BIẾT TUỐT CỦA NHÀ VĂN W.SOMERSET MAUGHAM PHÂN TÍ CH THEO QUAN ĐIỂM CHỨC NĂNG HỆ THỐNG M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60220201 HANOI – 2016 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ************ NGUYỄN THI ̣ BÍ CH LIÊN A STUDY ON THE SEMANTIC AND LEXICOGRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF THE SHORT STORY MR KNOW ALL BY W SOMERSET MAUGHAM: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGỮ NGHĨA VÀ NGỮ PHÁP TỪ VỰNG TRONG TRUYỆN NGẮN ÔNG BIẾT TUỐT CỦA NHÀ VĂN W.SOMERSET MAUGHAM PHÂN TÍ CH THEO QUAN ĐIỂM CHỨC NĂNG HỆ THỐNG M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60220201 Supervisor: Prof Dr Hoàng Văn Vân HANOI - 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS CANDIDATE’STATEMENT i CKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv PART I: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1:GENER LINTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study 1.2 Aims of the study and research questions 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 Methods of the study 1.5 Design of the study PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Systemic Functional Linguistics 2.2.1 Strata of the systemic functional model 2.2.2 Metafunctions 2.3 The ideational meaning 2.3.1 Process types 10 188.8.131.52 Material process 10 184.108.40.206 Mental processes 10 220.127.116.11 Relational processes 11 18.104.22.168 Behavioral processes 12 22.214.171.124 Verbal processes 12 126.96.36.199 Existential processes 13 2.3.2 Circumstances 13 2.4 The interpersonal meaning 14 2.4.1 Constituents of the Mood 15 2.4.2 Residue 16 2.4.3 Mood types 16 i 188.8.131.52 Indicative mood 17 184.108.40.206 Imperative mood 18 2.5 The textual meaning 18 2.5.1 Types of theme 19 220.127.116.11 Ideational or Topical theme 19 18.104.22.168 Textual theme 20 22.214.171.124 Interpersonal theme 20 2.5.2 Theme and mood 20 126.96.36.199 Theme in interrogatives 21 188.8.131.52 Theme in imperatives 21 184.108.40.206 Theme in declaratives 21 220.127.116.11 Theme in exclaimatives 22 2.6 Summary 22 CHAPTER 3: THE SEMANTIC AND LEXICOGRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF THE SHORT STORY MR KNOW ALL 23 3.1 W Somerset Maugham and the story Mr Know All 23 3.2 The analysis of the story in terms of clause and clause complex 24 3.3 The analysis of the story in terms of transitivity 25 3.4 The analysis of the story in terms of mood 39 3.5 The analysis of the story in terms of theme 41 3.6 Summary 43 PART III: CONCLUSION CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION 44 4.1 Recapitulation 44 4.2 Implications of the study 45 4.3 Suggestions for further study 45 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX 1: Clause and clause complex I APPENDIX 2: The transitivity pattern IX APPENDIX 3: The mood pattern XC APPENDIX 4: The theme pattern C ii PART I: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study Since its birth in early 18th century, linguistics has witnessed a great change in the development of various approaches to grammar study such as Chomsky’s transformational generative grammar, Bloomfield’s immediate constituent grammar Systemic functional grammar, among those, which was developed by celebrities in linguistics such as Halliday, Hassan, Morley, Bloor, can be seen as the most useful tool to satisfy human’s desire to explore the language’s nature As Thompson (1996:6) states functional grammar is “a full analysis of sentence in both form and meaning as well as their relationship” Compared with traditional grammar, which considered grammar as “a set of rules which specify all the possible grammatical structures of the language where grammatical and ungrammatical sentences are distinguished clearly” (Lock, 1996:1), functional grammar “is a way of looking at language in terms of how grammar is used” (Martin et al, 1997) In more details, functional grammar concerns with the grammatical patterns and lexical items used in text, as well as choices of those items, focusing on “the development of grammatical systems as a means for people to interact with each other” (Martin et al., 1997:1) In Vietnam, there also have valuable studies of grammarians relating to functional grammar, among which there are Cao Xuân Hạo (1991) with Tiếng Việt: Sơ thảo ngữ pháp chức năng, Hoàng Văn Vân (2005) with Ngữ pháp kinh nghiệm cú tiếng Việt: Mô tả theo quan điểm chức hệ thống Thanks to all these scholars, language is seen to be “closer to life” According to Halliday, a functional grammar was designed to study the wording and interpret the wording by reference to what it means in order to “make it possible to say sensible and useful things about any text” (Halliday, 1994) In detail, it is particularly helpful for explaining how language is selected and organized in particular ways for particular socio-cultural purposes I Yet, “traditional approaches to the study of literary texts model text analysis as an interpretive activity”, where “students learn to read a text and try to argue about what meanings they think the writer was making in the text” (Eggins, 2000: 309) “From a systemic perspective”, text analysis is, however, “not an interpretive but an explanatory activity” (Eggins, 2000: 309) In fact, “the linguistic analysis of text is not an interpretation of that text; it is an explanation” – an explanation of both “WHAT” and “HOW” “a text means” (Eggins, 2000: 309; Halliday & Hasan, 1985: 327) In this way, students will become “effective readers”, who can “see the constructedness of the text and of the reading position” imposed upon them by the writer (Kress, 1990: 40) As a teacher of English, I am deeply interested in developing both language proficiency and structural accuracy for my students That is the reason why I have been deeply concerned with systemic functional grammar and my absorption in it, I believe, will help me to apply the theory teaching English to my students more effectively As shown in the title A study on the semantic and lexicogrammatical features of the short story Mr Know All by W Somerset Maugham: A systemic functional analysis, there are some main reasons for my choice of the topic Firstly, as a language teacher, what I am supposed to is to use and teach English correctly and appropriately In order to achieve this goal, analyzing texts to understand their meaning is quite necessary Secondly, understanding what a text is through analyzing, it will certainly help us a great deal in our teaching as stated by Halliday and Hasan (1985) That is reason why I choose to explore the semantic and lexicogrammatical features of Mr Know All by Somerset Maugham 1.2 Aim of the study and research questions The overarching aim of the study is to investigate how transitivity, mood and theme are employed in the story Mr Know All by W Somerset Maugham to convey experiential, interpersonal and textual meanings To achieve this aim, the following research question are raised for exploration: II How are transitivity, mood and theme employed in the story Mr Know All by Somerset Maugham to reveal the experiential, interpersonal and textual meaning ? 1.3 Scope of the study Within the framework of a minor thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts in English Linguistics, the primary focus of this study will be on investigating semantic and lexicogrammatical features of the story; they are the transitivity pattern, the mood and modality patterns, and the thematic pattern The text used as data for the study is a short story entitled Mr Know All by W Somerset Maugham 1.4 Methods of the study To achieve the aim as stated above, the study will use two main methods: qualitative and quantitative methods Quantitative method is used for literature review, re-examining the systemic functional grammar framework, analysing the data for results, and discussing research results Quantitative method is concerned with calculating the data and concerting it into percentages for discussion and cocnclusion The analyses of the clauses in terms of transitivity, mood and theme are based on Halliday’s systemic functional grammar framework 1.5 Design of the study The study is designed in three main parts: Part I – Introduction Chapter – General introduction presents rationale for the study, aim of the study, scope of the study, method of the study and design of the study Part II – Development – is the main part of the study which is organized around two chapters: Chapter 2: Theoretical backgrounds – provides the theoretical framework of the study Its focus is on introducing important concepts of systemic functional linguistics relevant to the topic of the study and a brief introduction to the author and the story Mr Know All III Chapter 3: Data analysis – analyses the semantic and lexicogrammatical features of the story Mr Know All to see how transitivity, mood & modality, and theme are patterned in the story and provides comments based on these findings Part III – Chapter - Conclusion – summarizes what has been studied; provides some implications for teaching and learning English; and makes some suggestions for further research IV PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER THEORETICAL BACKGOUND 2.1 Introduction It is not the aim of this chapter to present a comprehensive account of systemic functional linguistics; such an account is now widely available: Halliday (1992, 1996); Matthiessen (1995); Halliday & Martin (1981, 1993); Halliday & Hasan (1985); Berry (1975, 1977), Hasan, Cloran & Butt (1996); Hoang Van Van (2012) and many others In this chapter, I will draw attention to only those features of the model which appear directly relevant to a grammatical study of this kind To make the task manageable, the review will follow Hoang Van Van (2012) by organizing it around two major headings: semantics (the stratum of meaning) and lexicogrammar (the stratum of wording): metafunctional resonance Semantics is the highest stratum within language; it refers to the systems of meaning in a language, for example, how sentences relate to the real world of people, actions, places and so on Lexicogrammar is a term used in systemic functional linguistics to emphasize the interdependence of and continuity between vocabulary (lexis) and syntax (grammar) According to systemic functional theory, lexicogrammar is diversified into a metafunctional spectrum, extended in delicacy from grammar to lexis, and ordered into a series of ranked units" (Halliday, 2014) As the upper of the two content strata within language, semantics is the interface between context and lexicogrammar as presented in the diagram below Ideational meaning Interpersonal meaning Semantics Lexico-grammatical V Textual meaning From the point of view of analysis, the mapping is interpreted as decoding lexicogrammatical structure to recover the speaker’s meaning Semantics transforms experience and interpersonal relationships into linguistic meaning, and lexicogrammar transforms this meaning into words, adopting the speaker’s perspective In other words, a hearer recovers the speaker’s meanings by interpreting the choices of lexical items, and the ways in which these are put together (the grammatical structure) Within the scope of my study, this chapter will explore some basic concepts that are relevant to the thesis’s topic: there are transitivity, mood and theme But before looking at them in some detail, it is necessary to provide a brief introduction to systemic functional linguistics 2.2 Systemic functional linguistics Systemic functional linguistics is a theory about language as a resource for making meaning based on a context of culture It is developed by Michael Halliday, a professor of linguistics at the University of Sydney, Australia The theory is based on Firth’s system- structure theory (Halliday, 1985; Hoang Van Van, 2012) Beginning in 1950s, formal grammar, which was developed by Noam Chomsky and his followers, is concerned with the description of the structure of individual sentences These linguists intend to explain the language structure in the way it is At the same time, a set of rules for grammatically correct or incorrect usage are established as the guide for language users In other words, whether a sentence or an utterance is said to be wrong or right is due to its obedience to the laws of grammar Unlike formal linguists, functional linguists have generally dedicated themselves to addressing practical concerns of the application of grammar as well as relating grammar to its function within society Specifically, Halliday (1994) views language not as a system of rules but as “a system of meaning” Halliday approaches language not from within the internal working of the linguistic system, but primarily from outside He begins with the question: Why is language structured in the way it is and not in some other way? And his answer is: because it reflects the functions which language is required to serve as a mean of VI social communication In other words, it shows how people use language to make meaning in order to navigate their social interactions on their lives That is, the reason why systemic functional linguistics takes language to its functions through meaning, not just formation (cf Eggins, 1994; Martin, 1985; Lock, 1996) Systemic functional linguistics has two characteristics: systemic and functional It is systemic because it is based on systemic theory, which emphasizes meaning as the fundamental element in analyzing language Halliday (1994) states “systemic theory is theory of meaning as a choice, by which a language or any other semiotic system is interpreted as networks of interlocking options” (Halliday, 1985) Functionally, systemic functional linguistics is designed to explore how language is formed “It is functional in the sense that it is designed to account for how language is used” (Halliday, 1985) which is represented in three metafunctions: experiential- textual – interpersonal 2.2.1 Strata of the systemic functional model The model below is based on Halliday (1978 and elsewhere), Hasan (1993, 1995, 1996; Hasan & Perrett (1994); Teich (1999) and Hoang Van Van (2012) in interpreting language as consisting of four strata, which are termed: context – semantics – lexicogrammar and phonology Figure - Four strata of systemic functional model According to the model, phonology refers to the system of sounding; lexicogrammar refers to the system of wording; semantics refers to the system of meaning in a language and context refers to the social system VII Also according to the model, each stratum can be further divided into functional components or functions The ideational, interpersonal and textual functions of language are considered in the semantic stratum Here, ideational meaning refers to the way one uses representational tools to compose the idea In the context stratum for example, functional components are concerned with field (what is going on in the communicative event), tenor (the social roles and relationships involved) and mode (the channel in which communication takes place and the medium for communication) There are many other components relating to systemic functional linguistics However, in this study, I will draw attention to only those features of the model which appear directly relevant to my study Therefore, I will focus on exploring two strata: semantics and lexicogrammar to see what they are and how lexicogrammar resonates semantics In systemic functional linguistics, clause rather than sentence is the unit of analysis In systemic theory, a clause is a unit in which the meanings of three different kinds are combined Three distinct structures, each expressing one kind of semantic organization, are mapped onto one another to produce a single wording These semantic structures are referred to as meta-functions 2.2.2.Metafunctions: Modes of meaning In order to account for this meaning-making potential of language, Halliday (1994) proposes three metafunctions at a semantical level: Experiential – “construing a model of experience” Interpersonal – “enacting social relationships” Textual – “creating relevance to context” (Halliday, 1994) The experiential meaning construes our experience of the world around us and inside us It’s expressed through the system of transitivity which consists of six types of process: material, behavioural, mental, verbal, relational, and existential A clause is analyzed into Process, Participant and Circumstance VIII REFERENCES English Alice Caffarel, Martin, J R and Christian M I M (2004) Language Typology, a functional perspective Amsterdam: John Benjamin Berry, M (1975) An Introduction to Systemic Linguistics: Structures and Systems, Vol.2 London: B.T Batsford Ltd Downing, A and Locke, P (2002) A University Course in English Grammar London and New York: Routledge Eggins, S (1994) An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics London: Frances Pinter Halliday, M.A.K (1970) Language Structure and Language Function (In) New Horizons in Linguistics Lyons, J (Ed.) Harmondsworth: Penguin Halliday, M A K, (1994) An introduction to Functional Grammar, nd Edition, London: Edward Arnold Halliday, M.A.K and C.M.I.M Matthiessen, C (1997) Systemic Functional Grammar: A First Step into the Theory Sydney: Macquarie University Halliday, M.A.K and C.M.I.M Matthiessen (2014) Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar.4th Edition, New York, Routledge (Taylor and Francis) Halliday, M A K., and R Hasan (1985) Language, Context and Text: Aspect of Language in Social-Semiotic Perspective Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press 10 Martin, J R (1985) Systemic Functional Linguistics and an Understanding of Written Texts Department of Linguistics, University of Sydney 11 Martin, J R Matthiessen, C & Painter, C (1997) Working with Functional Grammar London: Arnold 12 Matthiessen C.M.I.M., Halliday M.A.K (2009) Systemic functional grammar: a first step into the theory, Higher Education Press 13 Linda Gerot and Peter Wignell (1994) Making Sense of Functional Grammar Sydney: Great Stabler IX 14 Lock, G (1996) Functional English Grammar: An introduction for second language teachers Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 15 Suzanne (1994) An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics London: Pinter Publishers 16 Thompson, G (1996), Introducing Functional Grammar Oxford: Oxford University Press 17 Teich, E (1999) Systemic Functional Grammar in Natural Language Generation: Linguistic Description and Computational Representation Continuum International Publishing Group 18 Vân, Hoàng Vân (2005a) The Meaning and Structure of a Science Fiction Story: A Systemic Functional Analysis Jounal of Science (Foreign Language) No2 Pp.28-45 19 Vân, Hoàng Văn (2006) Introducing Discourse Analysis Hanoi: Education Publishing House 20 Vân, Hoàng Văn (2012) An Experiential Grammar of the Vietnamese Clause Ha Noi: Education Publishing House Vietnamese Diệp Quang Ban (2002) Ngữ pháp Tiếng Việt, tập Hà Nội: NXB Giáo dục Cao Xuân Hạo (1991) Tiếng Việt –Sơ thảo ngữ pháp chức Hà Nội: NXB Giáo Dục Hoàng Văn Vân (2005b) Ngữ pháp kinh nghiệm cú Tiếng Việt –Mô tả theo quan điểm chức hệ thống In lầ n thứ2 Hà Nội: NXB Khoa học Xã hội Halliday, M.A.K (2014) Dẫn luận Ngữ Pháp Chức năng(Hoàng Văn Vân dịch) Hà Nội: NXB Đa ̣i ho ̣c Quố c gia Hà Nô ̣i X ... W SOMERSET MAUGHAM: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGỮ NGHĨA VÀ NGỮ PHÁP TỪ VỰNG TRONG TRUYỆN NGẮN ÔNG BIẾT TUỐT CỦA NHÀ VĂN W .SOMERSET MAUGHAM PHÂN... W .SOMERSET MAUGHAM PHÂN TÍ CH THEO QUAN ĐIỂM CHỨC NĂNG HỆ THỐNG M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60220201 Supervisor: Prof Dr Hoàng Văn Vân HANOI - 2016 TABLE OF... nghiệm cú Tiếng Việt –Mô tả theo quan điểm chức hệ thống In lầ n thứ2 Hà Nội: NXB Khoa học Xã hội Halliday, M.A.K (2014) Dẫn luận Ngữ Pháp Chức năng( Hoàng Văn Vân dịch) Hà Nội: NXB Đa
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Xem thêm: Nghiên cứu về các đặc điểm ngữ nghĩa và ngữ pháp từ vựng trong truyện ngắn Ông biết tuốt của nhà văn Somerset Maugham. Phân tích theo quan điểm chức năng hệ thống., Nghiên cứu về các đặc điểm ngữ nghĩa và ngữ pháp từ vựng trong truyện ngắn Ông biết tuốt của nhà văn Somerset Maugham. Phân tích theo quan điểm chức năng hệ thống., Nghiên cứu về các đặc điểm ngữ nghĩa và ngữ pháp từ vựng trong truyện ngắn Ông biết tuốt của nhà văn Somerset Maugham. Phân tích theo quan điểm chức năng hệ thống.