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TIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIATIẾNG ANH ÔN THI TRUNG HỌC PHỔ THÔNG QUỐC GIA B PHẦN ÔN TẬP CỤ THỂ PART ONE : PHONETICS  The vowel sounds: There are 20 vowels in the English language, 12 of them are pure vowels (single vowels), and the left eights dipthongs (combination of two vowels) - The 12 pure vowels: / I - i: /, / e - æ/, / o - o:/, / Λ - a: /, / u - u:/, / ∂ - з/ - The dipthongs: / ei - - oi /, / au - u /, / i∂ - e∂ - u∂/ Practical Exercises Ex1: Classify /i:/ and /I/: Evening, tin, easy, eat, it, jean, since, this, meat, teach, film, interesting, tea, sea, seen, sit, seat, minute, fifty, cheese, chinese, free, three, be, she, pleased… Ex 2: Classify /a:/ and / Λ /: Cut, cup, cart, card, done, come, mar, march, must, darn, last, lust, heart, harm, hut, much, calm, farm… Ex 3: Classify /u:/ and / u/: Look, cook, book, soot, shoot, pull, pool, could, shoe, suit, stood, stewed, to, too, wooed, wood, food, cool… Ex 4: Classify / æ / and / e /: Dad, dead, man, many, mad, any, at, sat, head, hand, fan, can, land, dense, send, set, met, letter, stretch, fed, catch… Ex 5: Classify / o: / and / o / : Corn, cord, copy, swan, sworn, sod, soared, shot, stock, talk, spot, sport, chalk, shock, loss, got, caught, bought… Ex 6: Classify / з / and / ∂/: Her, teacher, heard, shirt, first, fur, stir, prefer, refer, occur, skirt, hurt, learn, today, sir, sister, brother… Ex 7: Classify / au / and / ∂u /: Now, no, show, how, hoe, loud, load, tone, town, couch, know, noun, known, foal, fowl, rouse, rose, stout, stoat, found, phone… Ex 8: Classify / i∂ /, / e∂ /, / u∂ /: Hear, hair, sure, tour, wear, near, fear, year, stair, cure, beard, cheer, scared, careful, fierce, moor, shared, careless, theatre… Notes: Tripthongs and other vowel sequences: / /: fire, hire, tyre, buyer, wire, flyer, iron,… / ∂u /: slower, lower, grower, sower, mower,… / au /: flower, power, tower, shower, sour, flour,… / ei /: greyer, player, layer, payer, prayer,… / oi /: employer, destroyer, royal, loyal, annoyance,… The consonants sounds: There are 24 consonants in English, which are divided into voiceless and voiced consonants as they are shown below: 2.1 Voiceless consonants: / p /, / f /, / θ /, / t /, / s /, / ∫ /, / t∫ /, / k /, / h / 2.2 Voiced consonants: / b /, / v /, / δ /, / d /, / z /, / Ʒ /, / dƷ/, / g /, / l /, /m /, / n /, / ŋ /, / r /, / w /, / j / Practical Exercises Ex 9: Classify / δ / and / θ /: Think, thigh, though, thought, breath, breathe, bath, bathe, cloth, clothe, clothing, clothes, threaten, although… Ex 10: Classify / s / and / ∫ /: She, see, sugar, seat, sound, show, sure, suit, sugary, sunny, soon, saturn, shrink, scream, settle, surely… Classify / k/ and / t∫ /: Chess, chimney, choice, chaos, chemist, chest, chemical, chicken, cheap, catch, chemistry, school, scholar… Ex 12: Classify / s / and / z / : See, seat, please, measure, mouse, pass, mass, bags, close, has, sum, sick, tease, sues, rise, lays, eyes… The consonant clusters: 3.1 / s / + / p, t, k, f, m, n, w, j / Spy, stay, sky, smile, snow, sleep, swear, suit, speak,… 3.2 / p / + / l, r, j /: Plough, play, proud, pray, pure, puritant,… 3.3 / t / + / r, w, j /: Tree, try, twin, twice, tune, tunic,… 3.4 / k / + / l, r, w, j /: Clerk, clay, crown, cry, quite, quick, cure, curious,… 3.5 / b / + / l, r ,j /: Blind, blow, blown, brown, bring, brick, beauty, bureau,… 3.6 / g / + / l, r /: Glass, glance, grass, grow,… 3.7 / d / + / r, w, j /: Draw, dress, dwell, dwinkle, duty, duke,… 3.8 / f / + / l, r, j /: Fly, flat, free, frozen, few, fuse,… 3.9 / θ / + / r, w /: Throw, throat, thwart, thwack,… 3.10 / v / + / j /: View, viewer,… 3.11 / ∫ / + / r /: Shrink, shriek,… 3.12 / m / + / j /: Music, mule,… 3.13 / n / + / j /: New, nude,… 3.14 / spr /: spread, spray, … 3.15 / str /: strand, stray, string,… 3.16 / skr /: scratch… 3.17 / spj /: spure, spurious, … 3.18 / spl /: splendid, split,… 3.19 / stj /: stupid, student,… 3.20 / skj /: skew, skewer,… 3.21 / skw /: square, squash,… The homonyms: air be ceiling choos e course doe for ere heir aisle isle I’ll eight bee beach beech bean sealing cell sell cheep chews choose site cite sight cord coarse days daze dear dough fair fare feat fough gneiss t hair hare hear here hire horse hoarse lock loch law male mail meat meet mete mite naught nought night knight no or oar ore one won pale peal peel peer pier plane reigh rein rain raze rays raise rows write right wright sauce sourc see e show chew Sole soul some sum Son sun sough t sweet suit tail tale threw too would four two wood fort warn yoke worn yolk way your PART TWO ate been cheap chord deer feet niece aye I beat beet check chequ cote e die coat flowe dye r flour great grate high lore might know pail plain rose sea hole whole made maid nap knap not knot pear pair pare key quay rowed road rode sent scent cent sort throug h weigh yore sew stare sow stair tied tide week wore weak war eye so STRESS A The aims: - To help the sts know the way to mark stresses, and pronounce words correctly To emphasize the important of stresses To show the rules to mark stresses To provide the sts with exercises on stresses and intonation B.Teaching procedure: I Definition: Stress is the degree of the loudness or prominence with which a sound ort a word is pronounced II Degree: In phrases or sentences: Primary stress: (/) The strongest and loudest stress of all Secondary stress: (Λ) The second loudest stress Tertiary stress: (\) weaker than secondary stress Weakstress: (٧) Zero stress, the weakest degree of loudness In words: 2.1 Primary stress: (/) The loudest one 2.2 Secondary stress: (\) The weaker one III The marking rules for word- stress: For disyllables words: Usually on the first syllables: mother, ready, colour, palace, student, teacher,… Usually on the root syllables with words having suffixes or prefixes: become, react, foretell, unpleasant, disorder, peaceful, kindness, scientist,… (But: foresight, forecast, unkeep) 1.3 Usually on the sound of “ate”, “ize”, “ise”, “fy”: dictate, surprise, defy,… For words with more than syllables: Usually on the 3rd syllables from the end: family, cinema, regular, singular, international, satisfactory,… Usually on the 3rd last syllables with words ending in “ate”, “ize”, “ise”, “fy”, “logy’, “logist”, “cracy”, “ility”: recognize, demonstrade, qualify, psychology, biologist, biology, democracy, responsibility… Usually on the 2nd syllables from the end with words ending in “ian”, “ience”, “ient”, “al”, “ial”, “ual”, “eous”, “ious”, “iar”, “tion”, “sion’: physician, experience, expedient, parental, essential, habitual, courageous, dilicious, familiar,… (Except for: Television) Usually on the suffixes “ese”, “ee’, “eer”, “ier”, “ette”, “ade”, “esque”: Portugese, refugee, employee, engineer, volunteer, adequade, picturesque, cigarette,… Others rules: 3.1 Words having more than one function: Noun Verb Noun Verb rebel rebel conflict conflict progress progress permit permit suspect suspect conduct conduct record record export export 3.2 Usually on the syllables that either have long vowel sound, dipthong sound, or end in more than one consonant : affect, obtain,… IV Rules for phrase-stress: Compound nouns: (/ \) farm-house, fire-engine, cowboy, black-bird, But: (\ /): pass-by, sun-set, ice-cream, steak-dinner, glass-window, silk-dress, nylon-stock, cotton-flower,… Compound adjectives: ( \ /) light-blue, absent-minded, blue-eyed, hard-working,… But: (/ \) sun-burnt, sun-lit, sea-sick, sea-faring,… Adjective-nouns: ( \ /) a sad song, a beautiful picture, a fresh egg, an interesting lesson, Present participle-noun: ( \ /) a travelling circus, a singing student, an amusing story, a sleeping child,… Gerund – noun: (/ \) a dancing teacher, an eating apple, a looking glass, a stepping-stone, a magnifying glass, a washing machine,… Qualifier-adjective: (Λ /)very tired, rather old, pretty bad, quite important, too weak,… Verb- adverb: (Λ /) come here, speak clearly, try carefully, read aloud, sit down, … Verb-adverbial particle: ( \ /) put on, look up, put off, come through, take off, call on, hand over, go over,… Verb-adverbial particle-noun: (\ Λ /) put on the coat, turn on the light,… 10 Verb-noun-adverbial particle: (\ Λ /) put the coat on, turn the light on,… 11 Verb-preposition: ( / Λ)look at, speak to, wait, for, look up,… PART THREE : VOCABULARY - - I Nouns (n): Definition: To call out the names of things, objects, actions, or movements… Functions: Subject (S): Gender of a verb (A teacher usually works at school) Object (O): Follow verbs or prepositions (He buys some cakes for his birthday party) Complement (C): Make the coplementation (She was a famous singer) Compounds (Co): Summer holiday, birthday cakes,… Possessive cases (Pc): the boss’s car, his teacher’s remarks,… Noun phrases (Np): Free words combination or compounds Plural forms: Adding “s” to almost count-nouns: singular plural singular plural a table tables an apple apples a student students an umbrella umbrellas a house houses an egg eggs a cat cats an eel eels a dog dogs an orange oranges Adding “es” to the count-nouns that end in “ s, ss, sh, ch, o, x ” with /iz/ sound: singular plural singular plural a bus buses a class classes a dish dishes a wish wishes a watch watches a torch torches a potato potatoes a tomato tomatoes a box boxes 3.3 Adding “ies” to the count-nouns that end in “y” with its preceding consonants: singular plural singular plural a lorry lorries a lady ladies a story stories 3.4 Adding “ves” to the count-nouns that end in “f, fe”: singular plural singular plural a wife wives a leaf leaves a knife knives a loaf loaves 3.5 Irregular changes: singular plural singular plural a man men a woman women a child children an ox oxen a tooth teeth a goose geese a louse lice a mouse mice a medium media a phenomenium phenomenia 3.6 Collective noun: crew, family, group, team,…(either singular or plural form, either singular or plural verb) 3.7 Always plural form-nouns: clothes police breeches pants pyjamas trousers scissors pliers (kìm) binoculars glasses scales shears (kéo cắt arms damages earnings cỏ) goods greens (vegetable) outskirts savings pains (trouble, effort) spirits surroundings stairs valuables athletics ethics mathematics physics politics 3.8 Unchange the names of creatures: deer, sheep,carf, cod, pike, plaice, salmon, squid, trout, turbot (these nouns can take either singular or plural verbs) 3.9 Plural form but singular verb-noun: news, mumps (bệnh sưng quai hàm), billiards, bowls Uncount-nouns: 4.1 Substances: bread beer Cloth coffee cream dust gin Glass gold ice jam oil paper tea sand soap stone water wine wood 4.2 Abstract nouns: advice beauty courage death experience fear help Hope horror information knowledge mercy Pity relief suspicion 4.3 Others: baggage camping damage furniture luggage parking shopping Work weather 4.4 Notes: Particular sense of uncount nouns: 4.4.1 a help: A great help to + O (He gave a great help to our family) 4.4.2 a relief: A relief to + V (That gave me a relief to continue my study) 4.4.3 a knowledge: A good/ bad knowledge of + N (Pete has got a good knowledge of history) 4.4.4 a dislike / dread / hatred / horror / love of + …(He had a great love for funny stories) 4.4.5 a mercy / pity / shame / wonder + that…(It’s a pity that I couldn’t come) 4.4.6 a fear/ fears; a hope/ hopes; a suspicion/ suspicions: We have a suspicion / suspicions that no one will agree to help Compound nouns: 5.1 Noun-noun: Hanoi-capital; halldoor; hitch-hiker; kitchen-table; traffic light; winter clothes; petrol tank;… 5.2 Noun-gerund: fruit-picking; weight-lifting; lorry-driving; bird-watching; coal-mining; surf-riding;… 5.3 Gerund-noun: waiting-list; landing card; driving board; dining room; driving licence; swimming pool;… 5.4 Free combination: - shop window; church bell; picture frame; garden gate; college library; gear level;… - city street; corner shop; coutry lane; … - summer holiday; spring flowers; Sunday paper; dawn chorus; November fog; … - steel door; stone wall; silk shirt;… - coffee cup; golf club; chess board; football ground;… - fish-farm; gold-mine; oil-rig; … - football match; beauty contest; pop music;… Suffixes: 6.1 er/ or/ ist/ ant/ ee/…: teacher, visitor, terrorist, vegetarian, applicant, employee,… 6.2 ent/ ce/ ion/ ism/ ance/ age/…: government, difference, action, capitalism, assistance, marriage,… 6.3 hood/ dom/ ship/ ness/ iety/…: neighbourhood, freedom, friendship, sadness, variety, 6.4 ility/ ing/ al/ our/ y/…: possibility, fishing, refusal, arrival, behaviour, difficulty,… II Adjectives (adj): Kinds (Classification): Main kinds: a Demonstrative: this, that, those, these b Distributive: each, every, either, neither c Quantitative: some, any, no, little, few, many, much, numbers d Interrogative: which, what, whose e Possessive: my, your, his, her, our, its, their f Quality: clever, dry, fat, golden, heavy,… Participles: a present: ING-form boring, interesting, exciting,…(for objects) b past: ED-form broken, tired, bored,…(for human-beings) c Notes: Present participles are different from gerund e.g He was fishing./ His hobby is fishing Functions (Position): 2.1 Noun-subordinator: a new book, a kind lady, a large room,… 2.2 Verb-complementation: Follow the certain verbs as be, become, seem appear, feel, get, grow (become), keep, look (appear), make, smell, sound, taste, turn,… But some verbs can take either an adjective or an adverb: Eg: - He looks calm (=He himself is calm) - He looks calmly at the angry crowd (= He shows no attitude to the angry crowd) - He turned pale (= He became pale) - He turned angrily to the man behind (=He was angry with the man behind) - The soup tasted horrible (= The soup was not delicious itself) - They tasted the soup suspiciously (= They thought there was something wrong with the soup) Comparison forms: 3.1 Positive degree: as + adjs + as Eg: - She is as tall as my wife - Peter was as hard-working as I was (me) 3.2 Comparative degree: 3.2.1 Mono syllable - adjectives: adjs-ER + than Eg: - Lan is shorter than Na - She was better at English than we were (us) 3.2.2 Multi syllable - adjectives: more + adjs + than Eg: - She was more hard-working than us - We are more intelligent than him 3.3 Superlative degree: 3.3.1 Monosyllable-adjectives: the adjs-EST Eg: - Nam is the best in our class - She was the kindest lady I’ve ever met 3.3.2 Multi syllable - adjectives: the most + adjs Eg: - Sharol was the most intelligent in my group - She is the most hard-working girl I’ve ever known Notes: For adjs ending in “er”, “y”, “ly”, or the irregular cases: Adjective Comparative Superlative clever Cleverer the cleverest pretty Prettier the prettiest happy Happier the happiest silly Sillier the silliest good Better the best bad Worse the worst far farther/ further the farthest/ furthest little Less the least many / much More the most old older/ elder the oldest/ eldest 3.4 Parallel: - “The… the”: The older she gets, the wiser she become - And: It’s getting darker and darker She has now more and more free time - Gerunds/ infinitives: Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a bike It’s nicer/ better/ more fun to go with someone than to go alone 3.5 Like/ alike: Tom is very like Bill Tom and Bill are alike 3.6 Like/ as: He swims like a fish You look like a ghost Do as I told you 3.7 Like + N/ as + N: He worked like a slave (He worked very hard/ He wasn’t a slave) He worked as a slave (He was a slave in fact) 3.8 The adjectives: The rich, the poor,… Clauses: That – clause: It is disappointed that he failed the exam It’s better that someone should tell him find/ think/ believe + that it + adjs + to + V: I found that it is impossible to start now She thought that it was silly to ask him to stay It be + adjs + (of O) + infinitives: a Character: brave, careless, cowardly (nhút nhát), cruel, generous, good, nice (=kind), mean, rude, selfish, wicked, wrong,… b Sense: clever, foolish, idiotic (ngu), intelligent, sensible (nhạy bén), silly, stupid,… Pronoun + be + adjs + noun + infinitives: Using the above adjectives and: astonishing, curious, ridiculous(lố bịch), unreasonable, funny(=strange), odd (lập dị), pointless, useful, useless,… - That’s the amazing idea to show - It was an unreasonable result to accept It’s + adjs + infinitives: advisable, inadvisable, better, best, desirable, essential, good, important, necessary, unnecessary, vital (tất yếu),… It be + adjs + (for O) + infinitives: convenient, dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, possible, important, safe, unsafe,… S + be + adjs + infinitives : - Angry, delighted, dismayed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sorry, sad,…( S + be + glad/ happy/ sorry/ sad + to say/ tell/ inform; Others adjs + to find/ learn/ hear/ see/…) - Able, unable, apt, inclined, liable, prone, prepared, quick, reluctant, slow, ready, willing, unwilling Special cases: - Due: (time) >The race is due to start in minutes - Due to: a result of >The accident was due to his carelessness - Owing to: because of >owing to his carelessness, we had an accident - Certain/ sure + to V= opinion >He is sure to take legal action - Certain/ sure that + (clause) = opinion >I am certain that the price will be higher - Certain/ sure/ confident of + N/G: He was sure of entering the haunted house - Bound + to V= obligation > We were bound to leave - Afraid/ ashamed of + N/G: She was afraid of being left alone - Sorry for/ about + N/G: Tom felt sorry for making so many mistakes - Afraid/ ashamed/ sorry + to V: I’m sorry to tell you that bad news - Anxious about = worried He was anxious about going in the dark alone - Anxious for O to V = wish He was anxious for you to go in the dark alone - Anxious that + (clause) We are anxious that we couldn’t come - Fortunate/ lucky that +(clause) = It’s a good thing…It was lucky that we weren’t late - S + be fortunate/ lucky to V She was lucky to have such an interesting book - Possible/ probable/ likely + future = perhaps It’s possible that man will live longer - Aware/ conscious of N/G We should be aware of protecting our nature - Aware/ conscious + that +(clause) She was concious that she would be late Suffixes: able/ ible/ ish/ ed/ ing/ ful/ less/…: talkable, visible, whitish, bored, amusing, careful, hopeless,… y/ ly/ en/ ese/ ous/ al/ ive/…: wealthy, manly, golden, chinese, poisonous, logical, effective,… ade/ ate/ ent/ wide/ ic/ ist/…: adequade, humanate, dependent, worldwide, domestic, communist, … like/ style/ type/…: childlike, Romantype, Germanstyle,… Nationality: a an: American, Venezuelan, German, Mxican, African,… b ese: Chinese, Vietnamese, Portugese, Sudanese, Lebanese,… c i: Pakistani, Iraqui, Israeli, Yemeni, Saudi,… d ian: Argentinian, Australian,Brazillian, Italian,…  David wanted to buy a Christmas present for a very special person, his mother David’s father gave him $ a week as pocket money and David put $2 a week into his bank account After three months David took $ 20 out of his bank account and went to the shopping mall He looked for a perfect gift Suddenly he saw a beautiful brooch in the shape of his favorite animal He said to himself “My mother loves jewelry, and the brooch costs only $17.” He bought the brooch and took it home He wrapped the present in Christmas paper and placed it under the tree He was excited and he was looking forward to Christmas morning to see the joy on his mother’s face But when his mother opened the present she shouted with fright because she saw a spider (Note: brooch - ghim cài áo) What is the main idea of the passage ? A David’s money B David’s father’s money C Disadvantages of buying presents D David’s present for mother at Christmas What did David buy for his mother ? A a perfect gift B a beautiful brooch C a spider D an animal Who is “a special person” ? A his father B his mother C his favorite animal D his friend According to the author, his mother likes… A nothing B jewelry C a long coat D a handbag What is TRUE about David ? A His father gave him $10 a week B He wanted to buy a perfect gift for his mother at Christmas C He placed the present in his mother’s room D He saw a brooch in a restaurant  Rebecca Stevens was the first woman to climb Mount Everest Before she went up the highest mountain in the world, she was a journalist and lived in a small flat in south London In 1993, Rebecca left her job and her family and traveled to Asia with some other climbers She found that life on Everest is hard “ You must carry everything on your back,” she explained, “so you can only take things that you will need You can’t wash on the mountain, and in the end I didn’t even take a toothbrush I am usually a clean person but there is no water, only snow Water is very heavy so you only take enough to drink!” When Rebecca reached the top of Mount Everest on May 17 th 1993, it was the best moment of her life Suddenly she became famous Now she is writing a book about the trip and people often ask her to talk about it She has a new job too, on a science program on television Rebecca is well-known today and she has the more money, but she still lives in the little flat in south London among her pictures and books about mountain According to the text, Rebecca was the first woman to _ A win the Nobel Prize B climb Mount Everest C write the novel D go to the North of Pole Rebecca was ever a/an _ A engineer B library C journalist D travel agent When did Rebecca leave her job and her family and travel to Asia ? A 1992 B.1983 C 1893 D 1993 Rebecca went to Everest with _ A her family B a climbing group C her husband D without anyone Rebecca didn’t take much luggage because she _ A didn’t have many things B was too weak C had to carry it herself D had a bad back Rebecca didn’t wash on Everest because _ A it was too cold B she didn’t take it C She is a dirty person D there was not enough water Rebecca became famous when she _ A got to the highest place in the world B was on a telephone programme C wrote a book about her trip D appeared in newspapers Now Rebecca has a A new house B car C new job D close friend After her trip, Rebecca A stayed in the same flat B earn the same money C did the same job D bought a bigger house 10 In Rebecca’s flat, there are A many dogs and cats B many plants and flowers C many pictures and photos D many pictures and books about mountains  Ernest Miller Hemingway, one of the greatest writers in American literature, was born in America in 1899 He was the second of the six children As a young man, he was very active In 1918, he left his country and went to work as a driver in Italy where he was badly wounded He began his writing career in 1922 and settled in Paris in the same year In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize Later in his life, he became very ill and returned to live in America until his death in 1961 What is the topic of the text ? A Hemingway’ biography B American literature C Hemingway’s family C Hemingway’s death He was badly wounded in Italy when he was………… A sixteen B seventeen C eighteen D nineteen According to the text, Hemingway …………………… A had six children B was the second of the six children C had six brothers D had six sisters Which of the following is NOT true about Hemingway’s life, according to the text ? A He was one of the greatest American writers B He used to work as a driver C He won the Nobel Prize D He wrote his last book in 1961 Where did he live later in his life ? A In France B In Italy C In America D In Paris  Earnest Hemingway was born in Oak park As a boy he (1)…… often taken on frequent hunting and fishing trips by his father to Michigan (2)…… he soon got acquainted with the life of the Indians After school Hemingway (3)……as a newspaper reporter After the st World War, he lived in Paris and (4)…a group of expatriated American writers (5)…considered themselves a lost generation In Paris he published "Three stories and Ten poems" (1923) and "In our Time" (1924) (6)………… made him (7)……… immediately He (8)………… in 1616 A was B has C were D have A where B which C that D when A works B worked C was working D has worked A joins B joined C met D meets A whom B that C who D which A who B whom C where D which A fame B famous C famed D famously A death B dead C died D die  Would you like a robot in your house?…(1)…is now generally accepted that in the future robots will…….(2) over many of our tasks, especially jobs nature But it is doubtful….(3) robots will ever be able… (4) any of the more creative types of work In the home robots might….(5)…to the cleaning, table laying and washing up, but it is considered ….(6) so far that they will be used to the cooking-……(7)… not in the near future Robots in the home might not … (8)…to the cooking, plans the meals and so on They would be used ….(9) slaves, freeing people to more of… (10)…they wanted A this B it C there D that A take B give C make D A that B whether C what D if A B to doing C to D doing A be used B used C use D be using A like B unlike C likely D unlikely A at last B at times C at first D at least A be enough creative B creative enough C enough creative D be creative enough A the same B like C as D alike 10 A things B the things C thing D a thing  People are very interested in robots Some of (1) look like mechanical dolls to play with Most of them look like other machines of today’s high technology Serious research on intelligent robots began in the 1960s in several countries Now we are on the fifth (2) of robots The first robots were very (3) They cost$ 500,000 when a worker could the same work for $15 an hour By the early 1970s ,a robot brain, a computer, cost $300,000 Today’s robots cost from $15,000 to $150,000 One of the advantages of robots is that they can work in situations that are dangerous or (4) for human workers Today there are millions of people who work at machines in the world Robots will replace them Part of the problem will be solved because of the (5) in the number of births There will be fewer people looking for jobs ,and they will not like some of them The students of today must be sure that these changes are good Robots must improve, not harm, the quality of human life A robot B us C them D it A years B period C age D generation A useful B expensive C cheap D various A harmful B useful C careful D hard A loss B decrease C improvement D development  Michael Faraday, the great English physicist, was born in 1791 in London His family was very poor and he didn’t learn much When he was fourteen, he worked in a bookshop where he had a good chance to read books He used to go to some talks about science One day Michael went to a talk by Humphry Davy, England ’s greatest scientist of the time He liked his talk very much, and a few months later he became Davy’s laboratory assistant Like Davy, he became interested in electricity He spent a lot of time study it and at last he saw that electricity could be made by a machine He died in 1987 According to the passage, which of the statements is not true A - He war born in 1991 in London B - His family wasn’t rich C - He didn’t have much schooling D - He worked in a library He died at the age of -A - 80 B - 76 C - 85 D - 70 M Faraday used to work as a/an A - laboratory assistant B - library assistant C electrician D - mechanic The word “It” in line of refers to A - physics B - Science C - electricity D machine What is the main idea of this passage A - How to make electricity B - Professor Humphry Davy’s Friend C - Micheal Faraday ‘s interests D - The English physicist, M Faraday  Recent studies have shown that with natural conditions (1) _Mars similar to _(2) _on the earth ,man can live there Today our knowledge about Mars is getting better and better, and scientists have predicted in the 21st _(3) , man will set foot on _(4) _ planets, and Mars will be the first that man _(5) _ to A of B on C in D about A they B planet C these D those A century B year C time D week A much B all C other D this A will come B came C have come D coming  Smoking causes lung cancer, which is the number one cancer among men Ninety percent of the people who get lung cancer die Smokers have six times as much cancer of the mouth, tongue, and throat as nonsmokers Smokers have twice as such heart disease Smoking gives people breathing problems It also harms the stomach Smoking causes one million early deaths in the world every year Smokers breathe smoke out into the air They breathe it out on their children and on their wives or husbands Children whose parents smoke have more breathing and lung problems than other children Women who are married to smokers are more likely to have lung cancer than those married to nonsmokers All of the facts from research show that smoking is bad So why people smoke? What causes lung cancer ? A drinking B smoking C over eating D physical inactivity Ninety percent of the people who get lung cancer die Because medicine is… A of great help B of some help C of almost no help D of some helps Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a smoking harm? A It causes lung cancer C It harms the stomach B It causes heart disease D If affects people’s brain How the children whose parents smoke? A They have more lung problems than others B They have as lung problems as others C They don’t have as lung problems as others D They not have more lung problems than others What is the main idea of this passage? A Harms that smoking does to the smokers themselves B Smoking harms C Harms that smoking does to nonsmokers D The reasons for smoking  Let’s take a look at a modern farm of the Smiths Life on the farm is very different from farm life as many city people could imagine it Good roads and cars mean that they can get to town, their shopping, and be back home in a short time If they buy food in great amount, it can be kept in a home freezer For Mr Dixson’s children, modern farm life is different from the life their parents new Today a big yellow bus takes them to a large school miles away Just like city children, they spend a lot of time watching television or talking to their friends on the telephones Whose farm is it? A The Dixson’s B The Smiths’ C The farmers’ D The Dixson’s children’s What helps them get to town and be back in a short time ? A Good roads and trains B good cars and buses C Good roads and cars D Good public bus service According to the passage, Mr Dixson’s children are taken to school by a A big yellow car B big yellow bus C big red bus D big yellow lorry The word “it” in line refers to A road B house C food D farm What is the main idea of this passage ? A Life on a modern farm B The Smiths’ farm C Mr Dixson’s farm D The farmers’ life today  As we know wild animals and places are now being disappeared gradually, wild animals and wild places are seriously threatened almost everywhere, and clarified that, one rare and specious species has become extinct every year of this century There are many reasons leading to that result in which we have already know clearly population growth , industrial development,…etc Lack of people’s attention and knowledge of Protecting people’s living environment Such as : animals for food, trees for fire or making furniture Government of every country should sit together to negotiate to release the damage of disappearing wild animals and places What is the topic of the passage ? A Wild animals and wild places B The reason why wild animals and places disappear C Human’s benefit from wild animals and places vanishing D What should we to protect our world ? What happen every year of this century ? A People died B Industry develops C One kind of animal has been extinct D Animals and plants satisfies people’s needs What does the word “ extinct ” mean ? A vanish B disappear C Kill D destroy The synonym of “ Negotiate ” is A talk B discuss C argue D laugh According to the passage and your opinion what would our world happen if all kinds of wild animals and plants disappeared ? A Only man exists in the world B There’s nothing C Other kinds of wild animals and plants appear D The earth vanished  Environmental pollution is a term that (1)…… to all the ways by which man pollutes his surrounding Man dirties the air with gases and smoke, (2)…… the water with chemicals and other substances, and damages the soil with (3)……… fertilizers and pesticides Man also pollutes his surrounding (4)…… Various other ways (5)…… people ruin natural beauty by (6)……… junk and littler on the land and in the water They operate machines and motor vehicles that fill the air with (7) ……… noise Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems facing mankind today Air, water, and soil are necessary to the survival of all living things Badly polluted air can cause illness, and (8)…… death Polluted water kills fish and other (9)……… life Pollution of soil reduces the amount of land that is (10)…… for growing food Environmental pollution also brings ugliness to man’s naturally beautiful world A refers B attends C directs D aims A poisons B pours C puts D surrounds A extreme B too C such D all A for B with C in D through A Besides B As instance C Therefore D For example A scattering B dismissing C filling D dispering A embarrassing B disturbing C confusing D dismissing A therefore B consequently C even D including A water B marine C hydro D coastal 10 A able B capable C probable D available The Mary Celeste, a ship which built in 1861 in Canada, started its journey on November th ,1872 from New York to Italy There were eleven people on board, Captain Briggs, his wife , his daughter and a crew of eight A month later, another ship called Dei Gratia which controlled by a friend of Captain Briggs, saw the Mary Celeste sailing strangely about half way between the Azones and the Portuguese coast The captain of Dei Gratia decided to reach near it to see what was happening He sent a boat to investigate but when the crew members came they did not see anyone except a big fire on board What might have happened and what must have happened to all people on the Mary Celeste? The answer is now a mystery What is the main idea of the passage? A: A strange thing that happened to the Mary Celeste B: The disappearance of the Mary Celeste C: The biography of the Mary Celeste D: A long journey of the Mary Celeste According to the passage, the Mary Celeste was built in? A: Canada in 1681 B : Italy in 1861 C: Canada in 1861 D: New York in 1681 How many people of the crew were there on board of the Mary Celeste? A: five B: eight C: three D: eleven According to the passage, what was happening to the Mary Celeste at the time it was seen by the Dei Gratia? A: nothing B: someone C: no one D: something strange What did the crew members of the Dei Gratia see when they came near to the Mary Celeste? A: it stopped running B : no one was on board the ship C: it was burning D: it was sailing strangely  Camping holidays are always popular with students and young people- they are a cheap and easy way to see a country People often travel by train, by coach or on foot, so one thing is important to remember before starting: you can only take with you what you can carry- usually in a rucksack on your back If you travel with a friend, of course some items can be shared- a tent, a gas stove, food Other things must be taken by each person- clothes, footwear, a sleeping bag So you must be sure of how much you can carry Most people find 10 kg about right Much more than that and you need another holiday when you get home! And remember, if the weather is wet your rucksack is heavier Many people who go camping for the first time take too much and then find they have forgotten the essentials - a tin of bean is no good without a tin opener! But with practice and good advice you can enjoy a fantastic holiday 1.What’s a cheap and easy way to see a country? A sightseeing B traveling C camping D flying What does each person often take when traveling? A a tin opener B food C a train D both A and C What does the word “ they” in line refer to? A young people B Camping holidays C students and young people D transportation Which is not true about going camping? A carry everything people like B people should ask for advice before going C people should practise before going D people just carry the essential According to the passage, each person should carry…… to go camping A 10 kg B approximately 10 kg C over 10 kg D more than 10 kg THE END Good luck!  REFERENCE TEST I/ NGỮ ÂM Tìm từ mà phần gạch có cách phát âm khác với từ lại: A family B can C party D graduate A high B advice C guide D river A pleasure B please C easy D leave Tìm từ có dấu nhấn đặt vị trí khác với từ lại: A informal B provide C problem D supply A employment B different C president D evident II/ TỪ VỰNG - NGỮ PHÁP Chọn từ cụm từ thích hợp để điền vào chổ trống câu cho sau: My father helps my mother with the housework He proves to be _, especially when my mother is sick A support B supporting C supportive D supported You give a party in your new house to celebrate moving into it A housekeeping B house guest C housecoming D housewarming Anna made a lot of mistakes because she was A inattentive B unattentive C imattentive D disattentive It was so noisy that I couldn’t concentrate _ my lesson A in B at C from D on 10 Nowadays, the divorce rate is higher than it used to be young people are allowed to decide on their marriage A despite B but C even though D in spite of 11 The farmers in my village often their work very early in the morning A beginning B is beginning C begins D begin 12 Americans often say “Thank you” when you help them something A B makes C to doing D doing 13 The workers _go to work late last week A use to B used C used to D were used to 14 Today, the scientists in the world research on Aids A doing B does C make D are doing 15 Your must be typed into copies to hand in for our company A applicants B application C applicating D applying 16 Ms Linda’s application for the job was refused, she felt very disappointed A as soon as B before C while D when 17 The Browns got used to _in the countryside A live B be lived C life D the life 18 Bird flu _by the virus H5N1 A are caused B is causing C is caused D caused 19 After he his English course, he went to England to continue his study A finish B finishes C finished D had finished 20 - Go to the cinema in the evening with me - Let me ask my parents permission A for B about C with D to 21 We _ for HaNoi on the earliest plane tomorrow A leave B are leaving C were leaving D will have left 22 _ his poor health, Mr Brown still works hard to support his family A Despite of B Despite C Although D Because of 23 - Must I also include my official high school transcripts? - Yes Remember that they _ translated into English and certified by appropriate authorities A can be B will be C may be D must be 24 he tried hard, he didn’t succeed in his work A Despite B Inspite of C But D Though 25 Why didn’t you listen to me I was talking to you? A while B until C by the time D whenever 26 What will you when you graduate _ high school? A for B from C in D to 27 When we were kids, we understand the importance of choosing a career A don’t B won’t C didn’t D weren’t 28 Mary and I are looking forward you A of seeing B for seeing C to seeing D to se 29 When we were kids, we understand the importance of choosing a carrer A don’t B won’t C didn’t D weren’t 30 Your TOEFL score to the admissions office A must submit B can be submitted C must be submitted D can submit III/ ĐỌC HIỂU: Đọc kỹ đoạn văn.Chọn câu trả lời số A, B, C, D cho câu sau: Most young couples have meals regularly in their parents’ home with little or no pay, and give their children to the care of old couple free of charge Investigations have shown that parents of many couples don’t mind providing meals and caring for their children However, this practice shouldn’t become an accepted social custom The old couples’ expense on food has already increased while young couples spend more on clothing and furnishing and less on food If this trend continues, many young couples might take these privileges for granted and become more dependent It is not the right for young peoples to make the use of the old couples’ love, not only because our nation is well – known for its special respect paid to the elderly , but also because the young must become independent What young people should is to become more considerate towards their old parents After years of hard work, they are worthy of such consideration 31 Most married young couples _ A live in with their parents B have meals regularly in their parents’ home for they have little or no fee C have not become independent completely D pay no respect to the elderly 32 The writer thinks it is for old couples to provide meals or care for their married children A wrong B an accepted social custom C right D understandable 33 According to the passage, young couple should _ A spend less on clothing and furnishing and more on food B look after their children themselves C be less demanding and more caring towards their old parents D pay for the meals they have in their parents home 34 Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A What troubles young people most is that no one will look after their children except their own parents B The reason why young couples depend on their parents to different degree is that their home is smaller C Old couple should give money to their children instead of providing meals or caring for them D It would be natural that if young couples went on depending on their old parents they would have to provide meals and caring for their children when they get married 35 This article is particularly written for A old couples B both young and old couples C young couples D young couples’ children Chọn từ thích hợp số A, B, C, D để điền vào chỗ trống đoạn văn sau: When my parents married, they rented a small house and they didn’t have a lot of money for furniture The kitchen had a sink for washing up and a cooker, but that was all They (36) _ an old table and chair from the market They borrowed a sofa which was (37) old, but they covered it with modern materials so it was bright and cheerful Outside, there was a small garden (38) _ the house, but in front of it there was only the road Luckily the road wasn’t busy, so I could cross it to reach the park on the opposite side We lived there (39) I was ten and we were very happy We had to move house because it was too small when my twin sisters were born We all (40) _ sad when we left 36 A bought B sold C became D brought 37 A more B also C even D little 38 A before B through C by D behind 39 A when B after C until D to 40 A spent B thought C had D felt IV/ VIẾT Xác định từ cụm từ gạch dưới, cần phải sửa để câu trở thành xác: 41 In spite of my father is old, he still goes to work A B C D 42 The result of that test must be inform before August A B C D 43 She has disappeared three days ago, and they are still looking for her now A B C D 44 My little daughter is going to being taken to day care center A B C D 45.There are also many single mothers and single fathers which are raising A B C children by themselves D Chọn câu tương ứng thích hợp (ứng với A B, C, D) 46 “They are playing soccer now.” The passive voice is: A Soccer is played now B Soccer is being played now C Soccer are being played now D Soccer is be played now 47.”No parking” It means: A There is no park here B You can’t go to the park here C You are not allowed to park your car here D There’s not enough space for parking here 48 It rains so we can’t go to school A If it rains, I could go to school B If it didn’t rain, I could go to school C If it not rain, I could go to school D If it rains, I can go to school 49 “Open your book” the reported speech is: A I told him to open his book B I told him open his book C I told him opening his book D I told him to open your book 50 He asked me how I earned my living A He wanted to know what my job was B He wanted to know how I lived C He wanted to know how I enjoyed my life D He wanted to know how much I got for a salary REFERENCE TEST I/ NGỮ ÂM Tìm từ mà phần gạch có cách phát âm khác với từ lại: A graduated B asked C processed D finished A bank B safe C value D cash A wine B decline C design D engine Tìm từ có dấu nhấn đặt vị trí khác với từ lại: A engineer B national C scientist D figure A intelligent B interest C dependent D computer II/ TỪ VỰNG - NGỮ PHÁP Chọn từ cụm từ thích hợp để điền vào chỗ trống câu cho sau: Nowadays, the number of divorces has increased in some societies This means that there are a lot of ……………… A nuclear families B single- parent families C extended families D traditional families Nam’ll apply to the …………… to become a teacher of English A university of Economics B university of Architecture C university of Education D university of Technology Nowadays women ………………… the same wages as men A.should pay B.will be paid C.will pay D should be paid “………….” means “an economic process in which prices increase so that money becomes less valuable.” A Renovation B Reform C Inflation D Intervention 10 If you work long hours, you ……………… exhausted A will be B would be C will D would have been 11 The manager told me ………………… harder A work B working C to work D worked 12 They are trying to persuade the rich to… their money to the charities A provide B invest C finance D contribute 13 After I ……………… from college, I …………… as a teacher A had graduated / work B had graduated / worked C graduated / worked D graduate / work 14 Banks are very important …………………… business people? A for B with C to D on 15 We prepare ………………… the final exam A to B for C about D with 16 ……………… he is old, he wants to travel around the world A In spite of B Although C Despite D Because 17 She went to the bank ………………… some money A to save B to apply C to withdraw D to ask 18 Quoc Hoc Senior High School, ……………… founded in 1896, is a beautiful school in Hue A that was B which C which was D which is 19 The coffee is ……………… hot that I can’t drink it A too B very C such D so 20 ……………… cheap, it was in good condition A Although it B Being C Although it was D Despite it was 21 These shops have goods for sale at ………………… prices A attraction B attracted C attract D attractive 22 Things …………… greatly since we ……………… Doi Moi policy A have changed / have had B changed / has had C have changed / had D changed / had 23 You may jot down your qualifications and experience A mention B note down C type D find out 24 I try to my homework …………………………….the noise A.because of B although C despite of D in spite of 25 It was so noisy that I couldn’t concentrate ………………… my lesson A in B at C from D on 26 They would like to live in the country…………….there is plenty of snow A which B that C where D when 27 His brother……………….high school years ago A finish B finished C finishes D has finished 28 The opposite of “possible” is ………………… A dispossible B unpossible C inpossible D impossible 29 She apologized …………….waiting so long A to me for B for keeping me C for me D for me keeping 30 We have been living here……………….1990 A for B from C since D during III/ ĐỌC HIỂU: Đọc kỹ đoạn văn trả lời câu hỏi cách chọn phương án tương ứng với A, B, C D A Young Businessman Although he is only twelve, James Harries has his own antiques business and a flower shop “He has a good eye for a bargain,” say his mother “He was only when he bought that for 5p.” she points to a china statuettte worth $4,000 “James gets most of his stock of antiques from jumble sales Last year he bought a necklace for 10p which turned out to be valuable He sold it for $8,000.” James didn’t get on at school so his parents hired a private tutor “Other children think I’m strange because I earn my own living and I don’t want to join in their games.” James explains the success of his flower shop: “My prices have risen less than those of my competitors this year Also I’ve got a special offer for wedding parties I give them a Rolls-Royce for the day if they spend more than $100 on flowers My employees don’t particularly like working for a 12-year-old, but I pay their wages so they can’t complain!” With his high income, James could afford many luxuries, but he prefers to save his money “I put aside as much as I can I have a lot of plans for the future and I will need to be rich to carry them out.” 31 What does James Harries trade in? A Antiques and flowers B Antiques C A flower shop D Flowers 32 The necklace he bought last year …………… A was worthless B cost him a lot of money C brought him a lot of money D was worth 10p 33 James is different from other children because he …………… A didn’t get on at school B he had a private tutor C makes money and supports himself D he is strange 34 His employees don’t like working with him because …………… A he pays their wages B he is too young C they can’t complain D he is 12 years older 35 Which of the following is NOT true about James? A He spends a lot of money on many luxuries B He had a tutor because he didn’t well at school C He earns a lot of money D He saves money for his future plans Chọn từ thích hợp (ứng với A, B, C, D) để điền vào chổ trống đoạn văn sau Society has changed in many ways (36)………… the introduction of computers, and people’s lives at home and at the office have been affected Most people are working for fewer hours per week than they (37) ………… to, and manufacturers and advertising agencies are becoming much more interested in how people spend this extra leisure time One recent report stated that, (38) ………… the number of hobies had not increased, each hobby had become more specialised A second finding is that nowadays, many managers would rather (39) ……… time with there families than stay late in the office everyday Home life is seen to be just as important as working Some companies now (40) ……… managers take their annual holidays even if they don’t want to, because this leads to such an improvement in their performance if they have some rest 36 A since B from C for D at 37 A ought B have C want D used 38 A as B because of C although D but 39 A spent B spend C to spend D spending 40 A cause B force C make D have IV/ VIẾT Xác định từ cụm từ gạch dưới, cần phải sửa chữa để câu trở thành xác: 41 If you listen to the questions carefully, you would answer them easily A B C D 42 Many people have complain about the dirty smoke from the factory A B C D 43 Tom said that he is going to leave for London the following day A B C D 44 He is believed be the best player in our team A B C D 45 The students which were late had to wait outside A B C D Chọn câu có nghĩa tương đương với câu cho: 46 We stayed in that hotel despite the noise A Despite the hotel is noisy, we stayed there B We stayed in the noisy hotel and we liked it C Although the hotel was noisy, we stayed there D Because of the noise, we stayed in the hotel 47 They can’t work and travel because they are old A Because of their old age, they can’t work and travel B In spite of their old age, they can work and travel C Despite their old age, they still work and travel D Eventhough they work and travel, they are old 48 “Have you heard of their marriage?” A She asked me if I hear of their marriage B She asked me weather I had heard of their marriage C She asked me if I had heard of their marriage D Both B & C are correct 49 The flowers are being watered in the garden by Jane now A Jane is to water the flowers in the garden now B Jane waters the flowers in the garden now C Jane is watering the flowers in the garden now D Jane are watering the flowers in the garden now 50 Despite the bad weather, people travel by air A Eventhough the weather is bad, people travel by air B Because the weather is bad, people travel by air C In spite of people travel by air, the weather is bad D Although the bad weather, people travel by air  Good luck to you  KEYS: REFERENCE TEST 1 C 11 D 12 A 13 C 14 A 15 C 16 D 17 A 18 D 19 10 C 20 A B D A B B C D C 10 A 11 C 12 D 13 B 14 C 15 B 16 B 17 C 18 C 19 D 20 C 21 D 22 C 23 B 24 D 25 D 26 C 27 B 28 D 29 B 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 D A C D B D C C D A C A C C B A A D C B C C B B B A C A C C A 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B B D D A B C C C C 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B A D A C A B D C D 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 A C A C C B C B A A [...]... plan/…(She is coming soon) 3 The recognition: - now/ right now/ at present/ at this time/ at this moment/… - follow a command, request,… 4 Notes: - The ING-forms ( getting, running, having, writing, dying, lying,…) - The omission of the verbs of awareness or sensation as: be/ see/ hear/ understand/ know/ like/ want/ glance/ feel/ think/ smell/ love/ hate/ realize/ seem/ remember/ forget/…( use the simple... Tell Tempt Think Trust Understand Urge Warn Want Wish… To be demonstration, purposes, results: enough / save money/… e.g The house, to be demolished, is very old She has nothing to eat We haven’t got enough to have one each They saved money to go abroad To form absolute phrases: To tell the truth; To cut a long short story;… e.g To tell the truth, she was a real liar To form exclamation: e.g To think she... object Possessive case person who, that Who, whom, that whose thing Which, that Which, that Of which, whose II/ Usage: 1 Relative pronoun: Which It is used to replace for a noun showing things and to joint two clauses Which can make as a subject or an object It’s gone with subordinate clause to say more clearly about the noun that it replaces This subordinate is called Relative clause 1.1 Which can make... Depend on Dream of End in Give up Get to Forget about Go back to Hesitate about Insist on Keep on Lead to Long for Mean by Persist in Plan on Put off Rely on Return to Result in Safe from Succeed in Think about Think of Take to Threaten with Worry about Object to Look forward to… Absorbed in Annoy at Careful in Content with Far from Given to Interested in Responsible for Skilled in (at) Accustomed to Ashamed... walks to school 4.2 Restricted (inversion): hardly ever/ never/ rarely/ scarely ever/ seldom e.g: Never will she eat this kind of food Inversion cases: Hardly…ever Hardly…when In no circumstances Neither…nor Never No sooner…than Not only Not till Nowhere On no account Only by Only in this way Only then/ when Scarely ever Scarely…when Seldom/ so PART FOUR : Tenses - ... tense: Form: S + are / is / am + being + VPII Eg: They are cleaning the house → The house is being cleaned ( by them) c The simple past tense: Form: S + was / were + VPII Eg: My mother bought this color T.V last month → This color T.V was bought last month d The past continuous tense: Form: S + was / were + being + VPII Eg: She was writing a letter to her mother at 8 p.m yesterday → A letter was being written... a birthday party last Sunday → A birthday party is going to be given last Sunday h Model verbs: Form: can could should may S+ might + be + VPII must have to had to used to Eg: She has to do this work right now → This work has to be done right now PART SIX COMPARISONS I/ Comparative of equality: Form: S1 + be/V + as (so) + adj / adv + as + S2 Eg: I am as intelligent as her She works as hard as her father... + than + S2 Eg: She works harder than her father Huong is taller than Mai They run faster than any others This river is longer than that one Note: good / well - better bad / badly - worse much / many - more little / few - less far - farther / further old - older / elder Eg: She is worse than I think They do more than they say + For long adj / adv Form: S1 + be/V + more + adj / adv + than + S2 Eg: He... seeing to run - running * Gerund is the same form with present participle but gerund is used as a noun and present participle is used as an adjective Eg: I like swimming ( in this sentence swimming is a gerund ) I am swimming ( in this sentence swimming is a present participle ) II/ Its functions: 1 plays as a subject ( it stands in front of verb ) Eg: Fishing is my favorite pastime Going to school by... All of them have been arrested III- GERUNDS: 1 Formation: V-ING 2 Functions: Subject (S): Fishing is his hobby Getting into the city centre at this time of day isn’t easy Complement (C): (of to be) Her passion is studying What we really want is escaping from this terrible place Compound nouns: 2.3.1 Gerund-noun: fishing-rod cooking-apple driving licence wrapping paper writing paper cooking oil 2.3.2
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