Advanced physicochemical treatment technologies lawrence k wang phd, PE, DEE (auth ), lawrence k wang phd, PE, DEE, yung tse hung phd, PE, DEE, nazih k shammas phd (eds )

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Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies VOLUME HANDBOOK OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies Edited by Lawrence K Wang, PhD, PE, DEE Lenox Institute of Water Technology, Lenox, MA Krofta Engineering Corporation, Lenox, MA Zorex Corporation, Newtonville, NY Yung-Tse Hung, PhD, PE, DEE Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH Nazih K Shammas, PhD Lenox Institute of Water Technology, Lenox, MA Krofta Engineering Corporation, Lenox, MA Dedication The Editors of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series dedicate this volume and all subsequent volumes to Thomas L Lanigan (1938–2006), the founder and president of Humana Press © 2007 Humana Press Inc 999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208 Totowa, New Jersey 07512 All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise without written permission from the Publisher All authored papers, comments, opinions, conclusions, or recommendations are those of the author(s), and not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher For additional copies, pricing for bulk purchases, and/or information about other Humana titles, contact Humana at the above address or at any of the following numbers: Tel.: 973-256-1699; Fax: 973-256-8341; E-mail: This publication is printed on acid-free paper h ANSI Z39.48-1984 (American Standards Institute) Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials Cover design by Donna Niethe Photocopy Authorization Policy: Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by Humana Press Inc., provided that the base fee of US $25.00 is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center at 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license from the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged and is acceptable to Humana Press Inc The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: [1-58829-860-4/07 $30.00] eISBN 1-59745-173-8 Printed in the United States of America 10 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Available from publisher Preface The past thirty years have seen the emergence of a growing desire worldwide that positive actions be taken to restore and protect the environment from the degrading effects of all forms of pollution — air, water, soil, and noise Since pollution is a direct or indirect consequence of waste, the seemingly idealistic demand for “zero discharge” can be construed as an unrealistic demand for zero waste However, as long as waste continues to exist, we can only attempt to abate the subsequent pollution by converting it to a less noxious form Three major questions usually arise when a particular type of pollution has been identified: (1) How serious is the pollution? (2) Is the technology to abate it available? and (3) Do the costs of abatement justify the degree of abatement achieved? This book is one of the volumes of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series The principal intention of this series is to help readers formulate answers to the last two questions above The traditional approach of applying tried-and-true solutions to specific pollution problems has been a major contributing factor to the success of environmental engineering, and has accounted in large measure for the establishment of a “methodology of pollution control.” However, the realization of the ever-increasing complexity and interrelated nature of current environmental problems renders it imperative that intelligent planning of pollution abatement systems be undertaken Prerequisite to such planning is an understanding of the performance, potential, and limitations of the various methods of pollution abatement available for environmental scientists and engineers In this series of handbooks, we will review at a tutorial level a broad spectrum of engineering systems (processes, operations, and methods) currently being utilized, or of potential utility, for pollution abatement We believe that the unified interdisciplinary approach presented in these handbooks is a logical step in the evolution of environmental engineering Treatment of the various engineering systems presented will show how an engineering formulation of the subject flows naturally from the fundamental principles and theories of chemistry, microbiology, physics, and mathematics This emphasis on fundamental science recognizes that engineering practice has in recent years become more firmly based on scientific principles rather than on its earlier dependency on empirical accumulation of facts It is not intended, though, to neglect empiricism where such data lead quickly to the most economic design; certain engineering systems are not readily amenable to fundamental scientific analysis, and in these instances we have resorted to less science in favor of more art and empiricism Since an environmental engineer must understand science within the context of application, we first present the development of the scientific basis of a particular subject, followed by exposition of the pertinent design concepts and v vi Preface operations, and detailed explanations of their applications to environmental quality control or remediation Throughout the series, methods of practical design and calculation are illustrated by numerical examples These examples clearly demonstrate how organized, analytical reasoning leads to the most direct and clear solutions Wherever possible, pertinent cost data have been provided Our treatment of pollution-abatement engineering is offered in the belief that the trained engineer should more firmly understand fundamental principles, be more aware of the similarities and/or differences among many of the engineering systems, and exhibit greater flexibility and originality in the definition and innovative solution of environmental pollution problems In short, the environmental engineer should by conviction and practice be more readily adaptable to change and progress Coverage of the unusually broad field of environmental engineering has demanded an expertise that could only be provided through multiple authorships Each author (or group of authors) was permitted to employ, within reasonable limits, the customary personal style in organizing and presenting a particular subject area; consequently, it has been difficult to treat all subject material in a homogeneous manner Moreover, owing to limitations of space, some of the authors’ favored topics could not be treated in great detail, and many less important topics had to be merely mentioned or commented on briefly All authors have provided an excellent list of references at the end of each chapter for the benefit of interested readers As each chapter is meant to be self-contained, some mild repetition among the various texts was unavoidable In each case, all omissions or repetitions are the responsibility of the editors and not the individual authors With the current trend toward metrication, the question of using a consistent system of units has been a problem Wherever possible, the authors have used the British system (fps) along with the metric equivalent (mks, cgs, or SIU) or vice versa The editors sincerely hope that this duplicity of units’ usage will prove to be useful rather than being disruptive to the readers The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, including air and noise pollution control, solid waste processing and resource recovery, physicochemical treatment processes, biological treatment processes, biosolids management, water resources, natural control processes, radioactive waste disposal and thermal pollution control; and (2) to employ a multimedia approach to environmental pollution control since air, water, soil and energy are all interrelated As can be seen from the above handbook coverage, the organization of the handbook series has been based on the three basic forms in which pollutants and waste are manifested: gas, solid, and liquid In addition, noise pollution control is included in the handbook series This particular book Volume Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies is a sister book to Volume Physicochemical Treatment Processes and Volume Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Processes Volumes and have already included the subjects of screening, comminution, equalization, neu- Preface vii tralization, mixing, coagulation, flocculation, chemical precipitation, recarbonation, softening, oxidation, halogenation, chlorination, disinfection, ozonation, electrolysis, sedimentation, dissolved air flotation, filtration, polymeric adsorption, granular activated carbon adsorption, membrane processes, sludge treatment processes, potable water aeration, air stripping, dispersed air flotation, powdered activated carbon adsorption, diatomaceous earth precoat filtration, microscreening, membrane filtration, ion exchange, fluoridation, defluoridation, ultraviolet radiation disinfection, chloramination, dechlorination, advanced oxidation processes, chemical reduction/oxidation, oil water separation, evaporation and solvent extraction This book, Volume 5, includes the subjects of pressurized ozonation, electrochemical processes, irradiation, nonthermal plasma, thermal distillation, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, biosorption, emerging adsorption, emerging ion exchange, emerging flotation, fine pore aeration, endocrine disruptors, small filtration systems, chemical feeding systems, wet air oxidation, and lime calcination All three books have been designed to serve as comprehensive physicochemical treatment textbooks as well as wide-ranging reference books We hope and expect that the books will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water and wastewater treatment systems, and to scientists and researchers The editors welcome comments from readers in all of these categories The editors are pleased to acknowledge the encouragement and support received from their colleagues and the publisher during the conceptual stages of this endeavor We wish to thank the contributing authors for their time and effort, and for having patiently borne our reviews and numerous queries and comments We are very grateful to our respective families for their patience and understanding during some rather trying times Lawrence K Wang, Lenox, MA Yung-Tse Hung, Cleveland, OH Nazih K Shammas, Lenox, MA Contents Preface v Contributors xvii Pressurized Ozonation Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas 1 Introduction 1.1 Oxyozosynthesis Sludge Management System 1.2 Oxyozosynthesis Wastewater Reclamation System Description of Processes 2.1 Ozonation and Oxygenation Process 2.2 Flotation Process 2.3 Filter Belt Press 13 2.4 Performance of Oxyozosynthesis Sludge Management System 16 2.5 Performance of Oxyozosynthesis Wastewater Reclamation System 18 Formation and Generation of Ozone 18 3.1 Formation of Ozone 18 3.2 Generation of Ozone 19 Requirements for Ozonation Equipment 22 4.1 Feed Gas Equipment 23 4.2 Ozone Generators 24 4.3 Ozone Contactors 24 Properties of Ozone 26 Disinfection by Ozone 31 Oxidation by Ozone 35 7.1 Ozone Reaction with Inorganics 35 7.2 Ozone Reaction with Organic Material 38 Oxygenation and Ozonation Systems 43 8.1 Oxygenation Systems 43 8.2 Ozonation Systems 46 8.3 Removal of Pollutants from Waste by Ozonation 48 Nomenclature 50 Acknowledgments 50 References 50 Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment Processes Guohua Chen and Yung-Tse Hung 57 Introduction 57 Electrochemical Reactors for Metal Recovery 58 2.1 Typical Reactors Applied 58 2.2 Electrode Materials 64 2.3 Application Areas 64 Electrocoagulation 64 3.1 Factors Affecting Electrocoagulation 66 3.2 Electrode Materials 69 3.3 Typical Design 69 3.4 Effluents Treated by EC 70 Electroflotation 70 4.1 Factors Affecting EF 71 4.2 Comparison with Other Flotation Technologies 76 4.3 Oxygen Evolution Electrodes 76 ix x Contents 4 Typical Designs 77 4.5 Wastewaters Treated by EF 80 Electro-oxidation 80 5.1 Indirect EO Processes 82 5.2 Direct Anodic Oxidation 82 5.3 Typical Designs 93 Summary 93 Nomenclature 95 References 95 Irradiation Lawrence K Wang, J Paul Chen, and Robert C Ziegler 107 Introduction 107 1.1 Disinfection and Irradiation 107 1.2 Pathogenic Organisms 108 1.3 Pathogen Occurrence in the United States 108 1.4 Potential Human Exposure to Pathogens 108 Pathogens and Thier Characteristics 109 2.1 Viruses 109 2.2 Bacteria 110 2.3 Parasites 110 2.4 Fungi 112 Solid Substances Disinfection 112 3.1 Long-Term Storage 112 3.2 Chemical Disinfection 112 3.3 Low-Temperature Thermal Processes for Disinfection 113 3.4 High-Temperature Thermal Processes for Disinfection 114 3.5 Composting 114 3.6 High-Energy Radiation 115 Disinfection with Electron Irradiation 115 4.1 Electron Irradiation Systems and Process Description 115 4.2 Electron Irradiation Design Considerations 117 4.3 Electron Irradiation Operational Considerations 118 4.4 Electron Irradiation Performance 118 Disinfection with L-Irradiation 119 5.1 L-Irradiation Systems and Process Description 119 5.2 L-Irradiation Design Considerations 122 5.3 L-Irradiation Operational Considerations 124 X-Ray Facilities 126 New Applications 126 7.1 Food Disinfection by Irradiation 126 7.2 Hospital Waste Treatment by Irradiation 128 7.3 Mail Irradiation 130 Glossary 131 References 132 Nonthermal Plasma Technology Toshiaki Yamamoto and Masaaki Okubo 135 Fundamental Characteristics of Nonthermal Plasma 135 1.1 Definition and Characteristics of Plasma 135 1.2 Generation of Plasma 145 1.3 Analysis and Diagnosis of Nonthermal Plasma 165 Environmental Improvement 173 2.1 Electrostatic Precipitator 173 2.2 Combustion Flue Gas Treatment from Power Plant 183 2.3 Nonthermal Plasma Application for Detoxification 196 2.4 Air Cleaner for Odor Control 199 Contents xi 2.5 Ozone Synthesis and Applications 206 2.6 Decomposition of Freon and VOC 212 2.7 Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Treatment 215 2.8 Gas Concentration Using Nonthermal Plasma Desorption 239 2.9 Emission Gas Decomposition in Semiconductor Manufacturing Process 248 Surface Modification 256 3.1 RF Plasma CVD 256 3.2 Surface Modification for Substrate 257 3.3 Surface Modification for Glass 261 3.4 Surface Modification for Polymer or Cloth 266 3.5 Surface Modification for Metal 271 Nomenclature 277 References 280 Thermal Distillation and Electrodialysis Technologies for Desalination J Paul Chen, Lawrence K Wang, and Lei Yang 295 Introduction 295 Thermal Distillation 301 2.1 Introduction 301 2.2 Working Mechanisms 302 2.3 Multistage Flash Distillation 304 2.4 Multieffect Distillation 304 2.5 Vapor Compression 307 2.6 Solar Desalination 307 2.7 Important Issues in Design (O&M) 311 Electrodialysis 312 3.1 Introduction 312 3.2 Mechanisms 312 3.3 Important Issues in Design 314 3.4 Electrodialysis Reversal 317 3.5 Electrodeionization 319 Reverse Osmosis 321 Energy 322 Environmental Aspect of Desalination 324 Nomenclature 325 References 326 Reverse Osmosis Technology for Desalination Edward S.K Chian, J Paul Chen, Ping-Xin Sheng, Yen-Peng Ting, and Lawrence K Wang 329 Introduction 329 Membrane Filtration Theory 330 2.1 Osmosis and RO 330 2.2 Membranes 332 2.3 Membrane Filtration Theory 334 2.4 Concentration Polarization 338 2.5 Compaction 339 Membrane Modules and Plant Configuration 340 3.1 Membrane Modules 340 3.2 Plant Configuration of Membrane Modules 343 Pretreatment and Cleaning of Membrane 346 4.1 Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling 346 4.2 Feed Pretreatment 349 4.3 Membrane Cleaning and Regeneration 354 Case Study 359 5.1 Acidification and Scale Prevention for Pretreatment 359 5.2 Cartridge Filters for Prefiltration 359 5.3 Reverse Osmosis 359 xii Contents 5.4 Neutralization and Posttreatment 361 5.5 Total Water Production Cost and Grand Total Costs 362 Nomenclature 362 References 363 Emerging Biosorption, Adsorption, Ion Exchange, and Membrane Technologies J Paul Chen, Lawrence K Wang, Lei Yang, and Soh-Fong Lim 367 Introduction 367 Emerging Biosorption for Heavy Metals 367 2.1 Biosorption Chemistry 368 2.2 Biosorption Process 369 2.3 Biosorption Mathematical Modeling 372 Magnetic Ion Exchange Process 374 Liquid Membrane Process 377 4.1 Introduction 377 4.2 Mechanism 377 4.3 Applications 378 Emerging Technologies for Arsenic Removal 380 5.1 Precipitation–Coagulation, Sedimentation, and Flotation 380 5.2 Electrocoagulation 381 5.3 Adsorption 382 5.4 Ion Exchange 386 5.5 Membrane Filtration 386 Nomenclature 387 References 387 Fine Pore Aeration of Water and Wastewater Nazih K Shammas 391 Introduction 391 Description 392 Types of Fine Pore Media 393 3.1 Ceramics 394 3.2 Porous Plastics 395 3.3 Perforated Membranes 396 Types of Fine Pore Diffusers 398 4.1 Plate Diffusers 398 4.2 Tube Diffusers 400 4.3 Dome Diffusers 402 4.4 Disc Diffusers 403 Diffuser Layout 407 5.1 Plate Diffusers 408 5.2 Tube Diffusers 409 5.3 Disc and Dome Diffusers 410 Characteristics of Fine Pore Media 411 6.1 Physical Description 411 6.2 Dimensions 411 6.3 Weight and Specific Weight 412 6.4 Permeability 412 6.5 Perforation Pattern 413 6.6 Strength 413 6.7 Hardness 414 6.8 Environmental Resistance 414 6.9 Miscellaneous Physical Properties 415 6.10 Oxygen Transfer Efficiency 415 Conversion Factors 679 680 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 681 682 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 683 684 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 685 686 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 687 688 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 689 690 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 691 692 Lawrence K Wang Conversion Factors 693 [...]... industrial wastes, and sludge treatment on a large scale (1– 6) Oxidative purification and From: Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 5: Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies Edited by: L K Wang, Y -T Hung, and N K Shammas © The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 1 2 Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas disinfection with ozone as a tertiary wastewater treatment or sludge treatment has a number... flows through a hydraulic 12 Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas Table 3 Sludge Thickening by Dissolved Air Flotation Primary + WAS Primary + (WAS + FeCl 3) (Primary + FeCl 3) + WAS WAS WAS + FeCl3 Digested primary + WAS Digested primary + (WAS + FeCl 3) Tertiary (alum) Feed solids conc ( %) Loading rate w/o polymer (lb/ft2/d) Loading rate w/polymer (lb/ft2/d) Float solids conc ( %) 2 1.5 1.8 1 1 4 4 20 15... Singapore EDWARD S .K CHAIN, PhD • Retired Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA YUNG- TSE HUNG, PhD, PE, DEE • Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH PUANGRAT KAJITVICHYANUKUL, PhD • Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of... Engineers Lawrence K Wang 635 Index 699 Contributors JIRAPAT ANANPATTARACHAI, PhD CANDIDATE • Research Assistant, Department of Environmental Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand GUAHUA CHEN, PhD • Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong, China J PAUL CHEN, PhD •... Technology, Lenox, MA, Krofta Engineering Corporation, Lenox, MA PING-XIN SHENG, PhD • Research Fellow, Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore YEN-PENG TING, PhD • Associate Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore LAWRENCE K WANG, PhD, PE, DEE • Dean & Director (Retired), Lenox Institute... secondary sludge that was collected from a nearby secondary treatment plant, which were oxidized before entering the belt press by oxygenation–ozonation for dewatering 16 Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas Table 6 Heavy Metal Contents of Dewatered Filter-Belt-Press Cakea Heavy metals (mg/kg dry sludge) West NY sludge cake Cadmium Chromium Copper Nickel Lead Zinc 3 14 447 9 126 192 NJ DEP limits for land... oxidation reactions than are required for wastewater disinfection using ozone Ozone tertiary treatment may eliminate the need for a final disinfection 8 Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas Table 1 Effectiveness of Ozone as an Oxidant Ozone dosage (mg/L) 50 100 200 325 50 100 200 COD (mg/L) BOD5 (mg/L) TOC (mg/L) Influent Effluent Influent Effluent Influent Effluent 318 318 318 318 45 45 45 262 245 200... specially designed flight scrapers or other skimming devices The surface sludge layer or float can in certain cases attain a thickness 10 Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas Fig 5 A single-cell high rate DAF system (Supracell) of several inches and be relatively stable The layer thickens with time, but undue long delays in removal will cause release of particulates back to the liquid The clarified effluent... sulfuric or perchloric acid to the water, and so on) the anode gases might consist of a mixture of oxygen and ozone The reaction, which is shown in Eq ( 5), is more endothermic (207.5 kcal) than the reaction shown in Eq ( 6) (34.1 kcal), therefore, it is difficult to carry out and poor ozone yields are usually obtained: 3H 2 O o O3 + 3H 2 ( 5) 3O 2 o 2O3 ( 6) The yields and maximum concentrations attainable... of floor 14 Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas Table 4 Removal of Various Pollutants, Toxic Heavy Metals, and Organics by Flotation Data points Pollutant Classical pollutants (mg/L) BOD5 COD TSS Total phosphorus Total phenols Oil and grease Toxic pollutants (μg/L) Antimony Arsenic Xylene Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Zinc Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Butyl
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