C13 organic chemistry

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Chapter 13a Organic Chemistry 13-1 Carbon Bonds 13-2 Alkanes 13-3 Petroleum Products 13-4 Structural Formulas 13-5 Isomers 13-6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 13-7 Benzene 13-8 Hydrocarbon Groups 13-9 Functional Groups 13-10 Polymers Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds; inorganic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds of all elements other than carbon The general properties of carbon compounds are: Most carbon compounds are non-electrolytes The reaction rates of carbon compounds are usually slow Many carbon compounds oxidize slowly in air but rapidly if heated Most carbon compounds are unstable at high temperatures 13-3 Petroleum Products Fractional distillation Catalytic cracking Modern cracking uses zeolites as the catalyst 13-3 Petroleum Products 13-5 Isomers Optical Isomers http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/ch m19104/isomers/stereoisomers/index.htm Structural Isomers https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=9TARwJPJjjk 13-6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated compounds have double or triple carbon-carbon bonds and are more reactive than saturated compounds, which have only single carbon-carbon bonds (alkanes and similar compounds) 13.7 Benzene Aromatic compounds Aliphatic compounds are organic compounds that not contain benzene rings 13.8 Hydrocarbon Groups Alkanes or Hydrocarbons Methane carbon Ethane carbons Propane carbons Butane carbons Pentane carbons Hexane carbons Heptane carbons Octane carbons Table 13.1 13-9 Functional Groups Alkenes Ethene Alkynes carbons Acetylene carbons Propene carbons Propyne carbons Butene Butyne carbons carbons Pentene carbons Pentyne carbons Hexene carbons Hexyne carbons Heptene carbons Heptyne carbons Octene Octyne carbons carbons Fig 13.9, etc Acetylene gas welding and cutting Testing for Type of Plastic See Lab 19 Chapter 13b Organic Chemistry 13-11 Carbohydrates 13-12 Photosynthesis 13-13 Lipids 13-14 Proteins 13-15 Soil Nitrogen 13-16 Nucleic Acids 13-17 Origin of Life 13-11 Carbohydrates                                                                                                                                                   D -Allose  D             -Altrose    D                -Mannose  D    D                                   -Gulose     D    -Idose                 -Galactose  D                                                     -Glucose (an aldose)  D -Glucose                       α-D-Glucose                                                      β-D-Glucose              D -Talose                                           β-D-Glucose (chair form)  13.11 Polysaccharides                                                               Sucrose                                                Lactose  Amylopectin                                                           Maltose  13.11 Polysaccharides Cellulose in wood is extracted and converted to paper at this plant in Maine Microorganisms in the stomachs of cows help them digest cellulose in plants 13.12 Photosynthesis 13.12 Photosynthesis 13-13 Lipids Soap Molecule with Polar head and non-polar tail Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acid 13-13 Lipids 13-14 Proteins The polypeptide chain forms a backbone structure in proteins: On first inspection, this structure appears to be connected entirely by single C-C or C-N bonds It should therefore be as flexible as a simple hydrocarbon chain Note that flexing in a covalent structure does not occur by bending bonds, and the normal tetrahedral or trigonal planar bond angles are maintained Instead, different shapes are obtained by torsional rotation about the axis of the bonds: 13-15 Soil Nitrogen 13-16 Nucleic Acids Chromosomes consist of DNA molecules Changes in the sequence of the bases in a DNA molecule can result in a mutation 13-17 Origin of Life 2001 Space Odyssey HAL 9000 Where did Clarke and Kuberick get the name HAL? IBM IBM thought Hardware would be King! Net worth in 2013 $112.5 billion Who really became King? Bill Gates software MS DOS! Net worth $72.6 billion in 2013 Microsoft Net worth $290 billion in 2013 Intelligent Design http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1CwL7xXUriE#t=23 DNA Moon same size as the sun to us Atmosphere Magnetic field Just right size for the right gravity Just the right distance from the sun Titius -Bode Law-planetary distances from sun have a pattern Dark energy and matter Patterns in electron energy levels The brain-greatest brain authority says we know nothing The eye-seeing only colors Only basic forces?? What about Intelligence? What are the forces and where they come from? There is no evidence that one species has changed into another Tunneling affect of electrons Not enough time for man to evolve by chance (14 billion years) Paranormal evidence [...]... holders, trash cans and protective packing (7) Other-layered or mixed plastics-PLA or Polyactic Acid (D & L conformations cause numbers to differ) Testing for Type of Plastic See Lab 19 Chapter 13b Organic Chemistry 13-11 Carbohydrates 13-12 Photosynthesis 13-13 Lipids 13-14 Proteins 13-15 Soil Nitrogen 13-16 Nucleic Acids 13-17 Origin of Life 13-11 Carbohydrates                                      
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