VAASA järvinen+ CLILL

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Vaasa University of Applied Science Foreign Language-Medium Studies in Tertiary Education Opportunity for Language Attainment and Gateway to European Mobility Content and Language Integrated Learning in Tertiary Education Heini-Marja Järvinen, University of Turku September 10-11, 2007 Contents  Is CLILL a viable option for improving tertiary- level students’ language skills? So, you see, the orbit of a planet is elliptical What’s an orbit? What’s a planet? What’s elliptical? Language is a problem in languagemedium instruction  Tella, Räsänen & Vähäpassi (eds) 1999: Teaching through a foreign language: from tool to empowering mediator  national, external evaluation of 15 polytechnic & university level English-medium programmes  Räsänen, 2000: Learning and teaching through English at the University of Jyväskylä  Part of an international evaluation of quality of teaching, international & Finnish students & teaching staff at the U of Jyväskylä  Hellekjär & Westergaard, 2002: An exploratory survey of content learning through English at Scandinavian universities  Questionnaires to Scandinavian universities, Shools of Economics and Business, one polytechnic  20 returns from Norway, 10 from Denmark, 12 from Sweden and 10 from Finland Findings  The use and role of language of instruction was not considered, it was downplayed, even ignored  Both staff and (undergraduate) students have language problems  Students had problems in     understanding lectures academic spoken skills academic writing study skills  Lecturers had problems with oral fluency Definition of content and language integrated learning (CLIL)  CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focussed aims, namely the learning of content, and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language (David Marsh)  Students’ language skills can be improved by  Offering separate courses in content-specific and academic English and study skills in   speaking for academic purposes academic writing  Offering CLIL courses with  a special focus on language in content instruction (content teacher)  content and language teacher collaborating (sheltered courses) What are some characteristics of CLIL and CLILL in particular? Well, Kepler was not a CLIL teacher… orbit Content and language integrated teaching rely on making content comprehensible in many ways, e.g visual Let’s look at the language component next … Language enhancement in CLIL  Comprehensible input seems to be important for comprehension skills  Challenging spoken and written output may be necessary for further development of language proficiency  Interaction with peers & in groups can create dynamic ZPDs & offers opportunities for negotiation of meaning and form  Content-specific language is necessary for content learning (CALP)  So are general & content-specific thinking skills & related language, content-specific discourse, vocabulary & concepts Graphic organisers  Graphic organisers provide a structure for the presentation of the content  ’Gapped’ graphic organisers can be used as advance organizers, note-taking devices and tests, for example  Graphic organisers help structuring the content and processing the content in different ways  Turning graphic organisers into oral or written language is a way of producing challenging output Semantic webs Cause and effect One cause-several effects A fishbone cause-effect diagram (multiple, complex causes) Cognitive academic needs Thinking skills - speech acts, text formats General skills:  identify – classify/define – describe – explain – conclude/argue – evaluate, Specific skills (Physics):  defining – classifying – making inductions/stating laws – describing states and processes –  working with graphs, diagrams, tables, etc – interpreting – writing reports (Mohan, Abuja, Thűrmann) Questions to elicit higher-order thinking  What is the difference between photosyntesis and respiration? (comparison/contrast)  Explain why antibiotics cannot cure common colds? (analysis)  What would happen if water boiled at 60 degrees Celsius? (prediction/hypothesizing)  How would you argue that the Earth is not flat? (rebuttal to argument)  What are the causes of the tides? How you know? (analysis of cause and effect) Words, words,  the importance of words A taxonomy of the words in science Level 1: Naming words 1.1 Familiar objects, new names (synonyms) 1.2 New objects, new names 1.3 Names of chemical elements 1.4 Other nomenclature Level 2: Process words 2.1 Capable of ostensible definition (e.g., being shown) 2.2 Not capable of ostensible definition Level 3: Concept words 3.1 Derived from experience (sensory concepts) 3.2 With dual meanings, i.e everyday and scientific: for example ’work’ 3.3 Theoretical constructs (total abstractions, idealisations and postulated entities) Level 4: Mathematical ’words’ and symbols Wellington & Osborne 2001: 20 Commonly used but difficult words in science Pickersill & Lock (1991) used multiple choice tests to gauge the meanings of 30 non-technical words 108 males & 89 females, aged 14 – 15 No gender differences were found Below are the words that showed to be the most difficult abundant adjacent concept conception contract convention converse disintegrate diversity emit factor incident liberate linear negligible retard tabulate valid spontaneous stimulate From Pickersgill & Lock 1991 Interaction of all kinds is important Discussion Cooperative group work Task-based learning Discussion Collaborative concept mapping Critical reasoning in science Constructing an argument Which of the following arguments is the best piece of evidence that matter is made up of particles and why? a.Air in a syringe can be squeezed b.All the crystals of any pure substance have the same shape c Water in a puddle disappears d.Paper can be torn into very small pieces Using DARTs for discussion DART= directed activities related to text) A muddled sentence DART An atom cannot be broken down chemically An element is made up of one pure substance A A An Both B atom/s element/s compound/s molecule/s mixture/s C cannot is is the and can D E F G made up of element/s not be smallest broken one a particle two or more are pure type/s of of a/an atoms down pure chemically element molecule particle/s atom/s compound physically substances Language teacher  Vocabulary – concepts  Textual: Nominalisations and noun-verb combinations in legal English, EN-participles in Chemistry texts, nominals in academic writing, verb forms in medical texts  Discourse & genre: problem-solution patterns, rhetorical patterns, move-structures in professional genres, disciplinary variation  Social: language and ideology, cross-cultural and intercultural aspects of language use Word tree Word inferencing Thank you
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