slide môn lý thuyết dịch THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION

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Unit 2: THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION Core readings  Bell, T R (1984) Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice London and New York: Longman (pp 12-21)  Larson, M.L (1998) Meaning-based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence University Press of America (pp 3-12)  Newmark, P (1988) A Textbook of Translation Prentice Hall (pp 11-30) Contents  Larson’s  Bell’s model (1984) model (1991)  Newmark’s model (1995) Larson’s model (p.4 ) Bell’s model (p.21) Newmark’s translation process  Text analysis (before translating)  The process of translating I Text analysis main steps:  Read the ST to understand its content and the author’s point of view => General and close reading  Determine the ST’s intention  Choose an appropriate translation method  Identify possible/ potential problems I Text analysis Contributing factors: Text intention Text types Readership Stylistic scales Setting of the text Quality of the ST Cultural aspects Text intention  Intention of the text : the author’s attitude to the subject matter  Intention of the translator ◦ In general: identical with that of the author ◦ Exception: shortening and/ or over-translation for particular target readership Text types ◦ Narrative ◦ Description ◦ Discussion ◦ Dialogue Stylistic scales ◦ Formality ◦ Generality and difficulty ◦ Emotional tone Stylistic scales  Formality ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Officialese Official Formal Neutral Informal Colloquial Slang Taboo Stylistic scales  Generality or difficulty ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Simple Popular Neutral Educated Technical Opaquely technical Stylistic scales  Emotional tone ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Intense (hot) Warm Factual (cool) Understatement (cold) => Attitude of the author ◦ Negative ◦ Neutral ◦ Positive Setting of the text ◦ Where would the target text be published? ◦ Addition/ omission of titles/ subtitles/ subheadings, etc.? ◦ Is the TL readership identical with the SL readership? Quality of the ST ◦ Well or poorly written? ◦ What modification is needed? Quality of the ST ◦ Neologisms ◦ Metaphors ◦ Cultural words ◦ Proper names ◦ Technical terms ◦ “Untranslatable words” II Translating process  levels “more or less consciously in mind” (p 22-30) ◦ Textual level: literal translation ◦ Referential level: visualize the text ◦ Cohesive level: structure, smooth and emotional tone of the text ◦ Natural level: the translation makes sense and it reads naturally  Keep in parallel the levels Discussion Which approach you prefer when you translate?  Approach 1:  ◦ Read through the ST ◦ Quickly produce the draft translation ◦ Spend much time revising the draft translation to have the final version Discussion (cont.)  Approach 2: ◦ Carefully read the ST ◦ Produce the draft translation, make reference if necessary ◦ Revise the draft translation until you are satisfied with it  Which approach you actually follow? (a) Students are arranged by class number and not move from classroom to classroom between classes They also stay together as a small group for their entire elementary, junior-high, or high-school levels in one location “do not” = ‘không thể’ OR ‘không phải’ The draft proposal suggests that Vietnam would be able to build a university that is internationally competitive within 10 years This is exactly the sort of over-optimistic and unachievable time target that was announced when the National Universities in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City were first set up by merging various local universities This historical lesson must be learnt and what is important now is to articulate a time frame that is consistent with the fact that no Vietnamese university is seriously ranked within ASEAN, let alone East Asia Satisfying the local demand for electricity from wind is not the end of the story Cheap electricity produced from wind can be used to electrolyse water, producing hydrogen, now widely viewed as the fuel of the future With automobiles powered by fuel cell engines ex­ pected on the market within a few years and with hydrogen as the fuel of choice for these new engines, a huge new market is opening up   The cause of autism has also been a matter of dispute Though Asperger regarded it as a biological defect of affective contact —innate, inborn, analogous to a physical or intellectual defect— Kanner tended to view it as a psychogenic disorder, a reflection of bad parenting, and most especially of a chillingly remote, often professional, "refrigerator mother."  Researchers have had a hard time agreeing on the causes of autism On the one hand, Asperger saw the condition as representing a constitutional defect in the child's ability to make meaningful emotional contact with the external world On the other hand, Kanner regarded autism as a consequence of harmful childrearing practices For many years confusion about this condition reigned The study suggests that people who smoke cigarettes are continually damaging their cardiovascular system, which adapts in order to compensate for the effects of smoking It further states that people who not smoke not have the benefit of their system adapting to the smoke inhalation Consequently, the effects of passive smoking are far greater on nonsmokers than on smokers [...]... (cool) Understatement (cold) => Attitude of the author ◦ Negative ◦ Neutral ◦ Positive 5 Setting of the text ◦ Where would the target text be published? ◦ Addition/ omission of titles/ subtitles/ subheadings, etc.? ◦ Is the TL readership identical with the SL readership? 6 Quality of the ST ◦ Well or poorly written? ◦ What modification is needed? 7 Quality of the ST ◦ Neologisms ◦ Metaphors ◦ Cultural... especially of a chillingly remote, often professional, "refrigerator mother."  Researchers have had a hard time agreeing on the causes of autism On the one hand, Asperger saw the condition as representing a constitutional defect in the child's ability to make meaningful emotional contact with the external world On the other hand, Kanner regarded autism as a consequence of harmful childrearing practices For... years confusion about this condition reigned The study suggests that people who smoke cigarettes are continually damaging their cardiovascular system, which adapts in order to compensate for the effects of smoking It further states that people who do not smoke do not have the benefit of their system adapting to the smoke inhalation Consequently, the effects of passive smoking are far greater on nonsmokers... prefer when you translate?  Approach 1:  ◦ Read through the ST ◦ Quickly produce the draft translation ◦ Spend much time revising the draft translation to have the final version Discussion (cont.)  Approach 2: ◦ Carefully read the ST ◦ Produce the draft translation, make reference if necessary ◦ Revise the draft translation until you are satisfied with it  Which approach do you actually follow?... as the fuel of choice for these new engines, a huge new market is opening up   The cause of autism has also been a matter of dispute Though Asperger regarded it as a biological defect of affective contact —innate, inborn, analogous to a physical or intellectual defect— Kanner tended to view it as a psychogenic disorder, a reflection of bad parenting, and most especially of a chillingly remote, often... consistent with the fact that no Vietnamese university is seriously ranked within ASEAN, let alone East Asia Satisfying the local demand for electricity from wind is not the end of the story Cheap electricity produced from wind can be used to electrolyse water, producing hydrogen, now widely viewed as the fuel of the future With automobiles powered by fuel cell engines ex­ pected on the market within... Translating process  4 levels “more or less consciously in mind” (p 22-30) ◦ Textual level: literal translation ◦ Referential level: visualize the text ◦ Cohesive level: structure, smooth and emotional tone of the text ◦ Natural level: the translation makes sense and it reads naturally  Keep in parallel the 4 levels Discussion Which approach do you prefer when you translate?  Approach 1:  ◦ Read through the. .. classes They also stay together as a small group for their entire elementary, junior-high, or high-school levels in one location “do not” = ‘không thể’ OR ‘không phải’ The draft proposal suggests that Vietnam would be able to build a university that is internationally competitive within 10 years This is exactly the sort of over-optimistic and unachievable time target that was announced when the National...3 Readership 3 types: ◦ Expert ◦ Educated layman ◦ The uninformed => Distinctive in terms of level of education, social class, age and gender 4 Stylistic scales ◦ Formality ◦ Generality and difficulty ◦ Emotional tone 4 Stylistic scales  Formality ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Officialese Official Formal Neutral Informal Colloquial Slang Taboo 4 Stylistic scales  Generality
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