Mineral resources 5

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Mineral, Vitamins & Energy By Dr Hamda Qotba, B.Med.Sc, M.D, ABCM 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Objectives 1) Demonstrate minerals source, absorption and side effect of their deficiency 2) Illustrate vitamins function, source, and condition related to deficiency 3) Define fibers, their effects and diseases related to deficiency 4) Introducing energy requirements and BMR calculation 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Mineral elements Account 3% body weight Essential constituent of soft tissue,fluid & skeleton Calcium Phosphorus potassium sulphur sodium chlorine iron fluorine copper zinc iodine cobalt manganese chromium selenium 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Function Are constituent of bone & teeth (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) Control the composition of body fluid (extracellular & blood= sodium & chloride ) (intracellular = Potassium,phosphorus, magnesium) Incorporate into enzyme & protein (sulphur is part of A.A methionine & cysteine) 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Calcium Adult body contains 1-1.5kg of ca Function    Deposit in soft tissue to harden them Plays part in controlling heart action, skeletal muscle & excitability of the nerve Has role in blood clotting Absorption Facilitated by vit D, proteins Reduced by phytic acid, oxalic acid 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Calcium Sources dairy product, fortified flour, egg,leafy vegetable, fish, cabbage, broccoli Requirement Adult 500mg/day, Pregnancy 1200mg/day excreted in urine and feces Deficiency Rickets in children & Osteomalacia in adult 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Function Phosphorus Combined with calcium to form the bone & teeth  Essential cell component (phospholipid)  Maintain acid/ base balance  Release energy from carbohydrate & fat  Absorption Assisted by formation of soluble salt Sources Meat, egg, dairy, fish, cereals Deficiency Teeth decay 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Iron Function Formation of hemoglobin  Constituent of enzyme  Storage  Liver, bone marrow & spleen in the form of ferritin Absorption facilitated by ascorbic acid inhibited by phytic acid, lack of gastric secretion 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Iron Sources Meat, egg, flour, bread, leafy vegetable, liver, kidney, dried fruits Requirement (10-15mg/day)  To replace loss from urine, bleeding & menstruation  Formation of additional hemoglobin  In lactation Deficiency IDA 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba Iodine Function Formation of thyroxin Source vegetables, seafood cabbage, turnip & hard water (goitrogens ) Deficiency Endemic goiter, cretinism in children 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 10 B1 Deficiency  Beriberi: occur for men in the sea, alcoholic with poor diet, eating polished rice, polyneuritis  Wet: pain, muscle weakness, inability to perform coordinated movement  Dry: edema, swelling, heart failure  Infantile: cardiovascular symptoms 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 30 Riboflavin Function:  B2 oxidation and reduction in body tissue Sources:  milk, yolk, liver, kidney and heart Effect of cooking:  sun light exposure Deficiency:  inflammation of lips & tongues, waxy eruption, crack , cornea infiltrated with blood vessels 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 31 Nicotinic acid Niacin Function  oxidation and reduction in body tissue Sources  whole grain cereal, milk, egg, liver, meat, veg Deficiency  Pellagra: maize eating people reddish-brown discoloration of skin, GIT inflammation, 3Ds 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 32 B12 Cyanocobalamin Function  Normal development of RBC, treatment of pernicious anemia Sources  Liver, kidney, heart, meat, fish, cheese Deficiency  Lack of intrinsic factors cause pernicious anemia 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 33 Folic acid Folate Function  Essential development of RBC, treatment of anemia Sources  Green leafy veg Effect of cooking  Lost during cooking Deficiency  Megaloblastic anemia 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 34 Vit C Ascorbic acid Function  Connective tissue formation, RBC formation Sources  Orange, GF, tomato, lemon, G.L.veg., Effect of cooking  Lost by storage, cooking, A A oxidase Deficiency  Scurvy: weakness, irritability, hemorrhage, gum inflammation, bone degeneration 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 35 Energy Requirement: Growth and maintenance of body tissue  Maintenance of body temp  involuntary muscle movement  Voluntary muscle movement  Sources: from oxidation, 1gm CAH 16kJ (4kcal)  Fat 37kJ (9kcal)  Protein 17kJ (4kcal)  2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 36 Energy 4.2 J = 1cal Measurements Direct calorimetry  Indirect calorimetry  Basal metabolism  Amount of energy required to carry out the basic processes such as cellular activity, heart beat & respiration 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 37 BMR: Man 65kg  woman 55kg  1.14k cal/min 0.91k cal/min Total energy requirement: time X number of unit /min Factors affecting energy requirement Age  Environmental temp  Disease  Pregnancy  Energy intake  2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 38 Specific dynamic action of food The increased of energy expenditure due to food metabolism equals 10% of expenditure Excess energy intake is stored as fat in the body 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 39 Fiber Definition: plant material that can’t be digested by enzymes of GIT Found in the cell wall and within cell of seed, roots, leaves, fruits 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 40 Composition:  Cellulose: glucose polysaccharide, tough fibrous strand, leafy veg  Pectin, plant gum, mucilages: non cellulose polysaccharide  Pectin combine with water to form gel  Plant gum to cover site of injury  Mucilages hold water in seed to prevent drying  Lignin: gives the wood its strength and shape 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 41 Analysis of fiber: Crude fiber content  Roughage  Effects of dietary fibers: Mouth:keeps teeth, gum healthy  Stomach: slow emptying of stomach & digestion  Small bowel: viscosity & transit time, complete absorption  Large bowel: bacteria in stool, H2O, stool bulk, defecation, intracolonic pressure, colonic transit time  2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 42 Fiber in diet: depends on type of diet Fiber hypothesis: 1970 ( degenerative disorder in UK) Low intake of fiber related to the following disease:  Colonic disorder (con., d.d,c.c,app)  Disorder which are 2dry to colonic disorder (h.h, dvt, pe)  Metabolic disorder (ob, dm, ac, gs) 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 43 Disadvantage of fiber in diet:  Mineral deficiency  Flatulence 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 44 [...]... of all body fluids Function  Needed for all chemical reactions  Maintain body temp & lubrication  Person can live on it , die without it Sources  Fluids 1000- 250 0ml  Food 1000- 150 0ml  Metabolic activity 200-400ml 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 15 Water Balance: maintain by kidney, lost through urination, sweating, defecation Dehydration: loss of water usually happens during excessive vomiting, diarrhea,... animals (7-dehydrocholesterol) are converted to vitamin D by exposure to ultraviolet light Vitamin D (either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3) is metabolized in the liver to 25- hydroxyvitamin D and then to 1, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney 1, 25- Dihydroxyvitamin D is considered to be the biologically functioning form of vitamin D 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 23 Vitamin D Food sources: 1 Non dietary by conversion inside... Qotba 24 Diet recommendations Based on the available literature and assuming some exposure to sunlight, an AI for ages 0 - 50 years was set at 200 IU (5 µg)/day There was no compelling data to increase the vitamin D requirement either during pregnancy or lactation 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 25 Vitamin D Deficiencies: In humans, deficiency symptoms include rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults, muscle weakness,... muscle paralysis 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 13 Other minerals Chlorine: from NaCl deficiency cause vomiting Magnesium: essential element, deficiency occur in some disease Copper: improve anemia Zinc: deficiency cause growth failure, poor wound healing it occurs with parasitic infection,malabsorption Cobalt: B12, necessary for RBC development 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 14 Water 65- 70% of body weight It is the basis of... kidney, butter, oily fish and milk Destroyed by cooking and exposure to light 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 19 Vitamin A Diet recommendations: For adult human males, the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 750 ug Retinol for adult females, 1200ug 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 20 Deficiencies: 1 2 3 Vitamin A Night blindness is one of the early signs of vitamin A deficiency, because of the role of vitamin A in vision... GF, tomato, lemon, G.L.veg., Effect of cooking  Lost by storage, cooking, A A oxidase Deficiency  Scurvy: weakness, irritability, hemorrhage, gum inflammation, bone degeneration 2004 Dr Hamda Qotba 35 Energy Requirement: Growth and maintenance of body tissue  Maintenance of body temp  involuntary muscle movement  Voluntary muscle movement  Sources: from oxidation, 1gm CAH 16kJ (4kcal)  Fat 37kJ
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