MINERAL mineral resources

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MINERAL Pada Bahan Makanan : ±96% bahan organik dan air ± 4% unsur mineral/zat anorganik/kadar abu Berdasarkan penelitian : ada 14 unsur mineral yg diperlukan tubuh manusia  mineral makro : terdapat dalam tubuh dalam jumlah cukup besar :Na, Cl, K, Ca, P, Mg dan S  mineral mikro : terdapat dalam tubuh dalam jumlah kecil : Fe, I, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co dan F Unsur mineral dalam bentuk : ion bebas Terikat dg zat organik lain Fungsi mineral : zat pembangun dan pengatur Sulfur (S) The average human body contains about teaspoon of sulfur You may know sulfur as the mineral that gives rotten eggs their distinctive smell Natural Food Sources Dried beans, cabbage, clams, eggs, fish, garlic, legumes, meat, milk, onions, poultry, wheat germ  Main Functions Sulfur is necessary for the formation of hair, nails, cartilage and tissue It is needed for metabolism and a healthy nervous system, plus it aids bile secretion in the liver  Deficiency Symptoms Sulfur deficiency is only found in conjunction with protein deficiency, and can be alleviated by increasing protein consumption  Toxicity Symptoms Excess sulfur is excreted in urine, so is essentially nontoxic Zinc (Zn) Zinc is an important trace element involved in antioxidant reactions It can boost your immune system and has been reported to be effective in fending off bad colds Vegetarians should be conscious of ensuring an adequate intake of zinc  Natural Food Sources Beef, black beans, blackstrap molasses, chicken heart, egg yolk, fish, lamb, maple syrup, milk, nuts, oysters, pork, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, turkey, wheat germ, whole grain products, yeast  Main Functions Zinc is a component of insulin and over 100 enzymes, proteins, nucleic acids and hormones It helps in the healing of wounds, tissue repair, growth, energy conversion and sexual development It regulates blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate and cholesterol levels  Deficiency Symptoms Although uncommon, zinc deficiency symptoms include anemia, stunted growth, birth defects, sterility, mental problems, skin problems, hair loss and a decreased ability to taste food If your diet is too rich in copper or iron, it could lead to a zinc deficiency Manganese (Mn) Not a lot is known about this trace element, but it may play a role in treating heart arrhythmia, osteoporosis, epilepsy and back pain Our bodies store about 10 mg of manganese in the bones, liver, kidneys and pancreas  Natural Food Sources Beans, blackberries, blueberries, bran, brown rice, buckwheat, carrots, chestnuts, hazelnuts, legumes, oatmeal, peanuts, peas, pecans, seaweed, spinach, tea, wheat germ, whole grains  Main Functions Manganese is used in bone formation, muscle coordination, nervous system function and is involved in several enzyme reactions It is also used, along with vitamin K, to promote blood clotting  Deficiency Symptoms Deficiencies are rare, as manganese is widely available in the food supply However, symptoms may include seizures, epilepsy, poor muscle coordination, facial twitching, bone deformities and general weakness Manganese deficiencies in children may lead to stunted growth and development Iron (Fe) There are forms of Iron , ferrous and ferric compound Ferrous compound is more difficult for the body to absorb Iron is found in many plants, but even that is often in a form that is difficult to absorb (some iron-rich vegetables like spinach also contain oxalic acid, which interferes with the absorption of iron and other minerals) Vitamin C greatly improves iron absorption  Natural Food Sources Enriched bread, beans, blackstrap molasses, chickpeas, clams, egg yolk, fish, green leafy vegetables, lentils, liver, mussels, oysters, peaches, prunes, raisons, red meat, seaweed, seeds, soybean flour  Main Functions Iron binds with hemoglobin molecules and carries oxygen in your blood and throughout your body It is involved in enzyme activities related to energy storage and availability Iron also forms part of several enzymes and proteins in the body Main Functions of Iron  Transport and storage of oxygen  Aid in energy production and cell diffusion  Helps the immune and central nervous systems Low Iron Level Low iron levels can cause people to develop iron deficiency anemia When a person is anemic, their blood contains low levels of oxygen Deficiency  Fatigue  Weakness  Rapid heartbeat  Fainting  Susceptibility to infection, and  Swelling of the tongue  lethargy, poor concentration, pale skin and shortness of breath Vegetarians have to ensure they get an adequate iron intake, as menstruating or pregnant women Iodine (I) Iodine, also referred to as iodide, is a trace mineral necessary for thyroid gland function and development Iodized salt is the main source of iodine in most diets  Natural Food Sources Lobster, milk, mushrooms, nutritional yeast, oysters, canned salmon, salted nuts and seeds, saltwater fish (cod, haddock, herring), sea salt, seaweed, shrimp, table salt  Main Functions Iodine is necessary to form thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism It also promotes normal cell function, keeps skin hair and nails healthy and is important for overall growth and development  Deficiency Symptoms Goiter, or thyroid enlargement, is a symptom of iodine deficiency, as is dry hair, irritability, nervousness, slow metabolism and obesity If pregnant women are deficient in iodine it may cause cretinism, a form of mental retardation of the fetus Fluorine (F) Fluoride is found mainly in the teeth - no wonder it is such a common ingredient in toothpastes In many parts of the world, fluoride is added to tap water Studies have proven that this significantly decreases tooth decay in children, especially when fluoride is consumed before the teeth erupt  Natural Food Sources Apples, calf liver, cod, eggs, kidney, canned salmon, canned sardines, fluoridated tap water, some cheese, tea  Main Functions Fluoride is essential for healthy bone and tooth formation, as it helps the body retain calcium It prevents acid and plaque formation in the mouth caused from food, especially sugar  Deficiency Symptoms If the water in your area is not fluoridated, supplements are necessary - especially for infants and children - or increased dental cavities may result Cobalt (Co) Cobalt is a trace mineral stored primarily in the liver It acts as a catalyst that helps form vitamin B12, which is essential for making red blood cells  Natural Food Sources Clams, dairy products, kidney, liver, meats, oysters, some seaweed  Main Functions Cobalt works in concert with Vitamin B12 for the functioning of enzymes and production of red blood cells It also helps form the myelin covering around the nerves  Deficiency Symptoms Cobalt is found mainly in animal products, so deficiency is quite common among strict vegetarians A deficiency in cobalt may lead to a deficiency in vitamin B12, which can lead to pernicious anemia and nervous system disorders Cuprum (Cu)    Cu is available in the liver, kidney, hair and brain Main Functions Cu is essential for hemoglobin growth and is as a cofactor for an enzyme that catalyzes the tyrosinase, sitokrom oksidase, and ascorbat oksidase Deficiency Symptoms decreasing in elastine synthesize, so that aorta and tendon tissues are less elastic In the baby, it caused leucopenia (less leucocyte) and bone demineralization Boron (B) Boron is a trace element found mostly in the parathyroid glands It helps you absorb calcium in your bones Boron's role in the body was only discovered in the 1980's  Natural Food Sources Apples, beans, beer, carrots, cider, grains, grapes, leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, pears, raisons, some drinking water supplies  Main Functions Boron helps regulate the levels of calcium in the body, which may help to preserve bone and prevent osteoporosis It promotes normal growth, development and metabolism  Deficiency Symptoms Poor bone development is the main boron deficiency symptom Selenium (Se) Selenium is a strong antioxidant found in many natural sources, depending on how abundant the selenium concentration is in a region's soil The soil in China, New Zealand and southeastern U.S is particularly selenium-deficient Some studies have shown selenium to be an effective supplement for preventing heart disease and cancer  Natural Food Sources Bran, broccoli, brown rice, cabbage, chicken, garlic, kidney, liver, milk, mushrooms, nuts (especially Brazil nuts), nutritional yeast, oatmeal, onions, seafood, whole grain products  Main Functions Selenium works in conjunction with vitamin E and is involved in several enzyme systems It is necessary for healthy skin, muscles and heart function Selenium promotes the formation of antibodies and can help prevent infection It also helps prevent the absorption of metals such as mercury, silver and thallium and may protect against prostate cancer  Deficiency Symptoms Selenium deficiency can lead to premature aging, muscular aches, nerve cell damage, mental retardation and infertility It has even resulted in myocardial deaths Chromium (Cr) The body's use of chromium is not fully understood by science yet There has been some recent press that chromium picolinate or GTF may help diabetics control their blood sugar and aid in weight loss efforts  Natural Food Sources Apples, barley, beef, brewer's yeast, broccoli, calf liver, cheese, chicken, corn, eggs, molasses, mushrooms, peanuts, sweet potato, tomato, whole grain products, wheat germ  Main Functions Chromium helps insulin work efficiently when metabolizing glucose It is also involved in using proteins, fats and carbohydrates  Deficiency Symptoms Chromium deficiency is common in the modern diet, mainly because of the consumption of processed grains Symptoms include numbness in the fingers and toes, high blood sugar, glucose intolerance, clumsiness and nerve disorders Chromium deficiency may even lead to symptoms similar to diabetes
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