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PRINCIPLES OF INTERNET MARKETING Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part PRINCIPLES OF INTERNET MARKETING NEW TOOLS AND METHODS FOR WEB DEVELOPERS JASON I MILETSKY Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Principles of Internet Marketing: New Tools and Methods for Web Developers Jason I Miletsky Executive Editor: Marie Lee Acquisitions Editor: Amy Jollymore Managing Editor: Tricia Coia © 2010 Course Technology, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act—without the prior written permission of the publisher Developmental Editor: Mary Pat Shaffer Editorial Assistant: Julia Leroux-Lindsey Marketing Manager: Bryant Chrzan Content Project Manager: Heather Furrow, Jennifer Feltri Art Director: Marissa Falco Cover Designer: Cabbage Design Company Cover Artwork: © CSA Images Manufacturing Coordinator: Julio Esperas Proofreader: Brandy Lilly Indexer: Kevin Broccoli Compositor: International Typesetting and Composition For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to ISBN-13: 9781423903192 ISBN-10: 1-423-90319-6 Course Technology 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan Locate your local office at: Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd For your lifelong learning solutions, visit Visit our corporate web site at Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and sellers Course Technology, a part of Cengage Learning, reserves the right to revise this publication and make changes from time to time in its content without notice Printed in Canada 12 11 10 09 08 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Brief Contents v Pref ace xii CHAP TER An Over vi ew o f the Web CHAP TER Types o f Web Si tes CHAP TER So cial M e di a and Soci al Networki ng Si tes CHAP TER B lo g g in g 119 CHAP TER Web-B as ed V i deo 149 CHAP TER W ik is , RSS, Mashups, and V i r tual Worl ds 182 CHAP TER U n der s t an di ng the Brand 216 CHAP TER Plan n in g a nd Dev el opi ng the Si te 259 CHAP TER E-Co m m erce Si tes 298 CHAP TER 10 Pro g r am s and Languages 337 CHAP TER 11 Dr ivin g Tr af f i c: Marketi ng Strategi es 362 CHAP TER 12 Capt u r in g and K eepi ng an Audi ence 404 CHAP TER 13 Traffic Analysis and Measuring for Success 430 APPEN DIX A An alyzin g Si t e Traf fi c In dex 35 74 452 459 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Contents vi Pref ace CHAPTER xii An Over view o f t he Web A Brief History of the Web Through 2001 A Brief History of the Web from 2002 Forward Social Networking on the Web: Its Impact on Relationships and Marketing Trends and Demographic Breakdowns Where Do We Go from Here Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes CHAPTER Types o f Web Si t es 15 20 23 26 27 28 32 33 35 The People Behind a Web Site Owners Venture Capitalists Creative Directors Account and Project Managers Programmers Graphic Designers Copywriters Marketers Types of Web Sites Web Portals B2B (Business to Business) B2C (Business to Consumer) C2C (Consumer to Consumer) B2E (Business to Employee) Social Networking 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 43 47 50 53 53 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part CONTENTS Informational Entertainment Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes CHAP TER 59 61 67 67 68 73 73 So cial M e di a and Soci al Net w o r k ing Si t es 74 An Overview of Social Media and Social Networking Sites The Rise and Dominance of Social Media Social Media Optimization Social Media Marketing Who Is Using Social Media and How? Social Networking Sites: Types and Audiences Generalist Social Networking Niche Market Social Networking Social Bookmarking Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes CHAP TER 75 76 79 81 85 86 87 97 110 111 112 113 117 117 B lo g g in g 119 What Is Blogging? The Growth of Blogs Types of Blogs Who Blogs, Who Reads Them, How, and Why Blogging as a Marketing Strategy The Benefits of Blogging The Benefits of Staying Involved in the Blogosphere The Pitfalls of Blogging Requirements for a Successful Marketing Blog Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes 120 122 123 129 132 133 136 137 139 141 142 142 147 148 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part vii CONTENTS CHAPTER Web-B as ed V i deo 149 Figuring Out the Format The Flash (.flv) File Format: A Closer Look Who’s Watching What Video as a Social Media Tool Web-Based Video as a Marketing Tool Off the Web: What Goes into Video Production Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes viii CHAPTER 150 155 157 161 166 172 174 175 176 180 180 W ik is , RSS, Mashups, and V i r tual Worl ds 182 Wikis RSS Feeds Mashups Virtual Worlds Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes CHAPTER 183 193 197 200 210 210 211 214 215 U n der s t an di ng t he Brand 216 Breaking Down the Brand Distinguishing the Brand from the Company The Importance of Branding Brand Loyalty Elements of the Brand The Brand Promise The Brand Personality The Unique Selling Proposition Image Consistency The Web’s Place in Brand Building The Web’s Hybrid Status Individual Message Delivery Increased Markets Reinforcement of the Brand Message Heightened Consumer Interaction Chapter Summary 217 218 219 220 227 228 229 231 232 238 245 246 247 248 250 251 251 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part CONTENTS Key Terms Review Questions Projects Endnotes CHAP TER 252 253 257 258 Plan n in g a nd Dev el opi ng the Si te 259 Getting the Site Started Developing the Idea Defining the Site Objectives Needs Assessment Understanding the Audience Gathering the Information How the Target Market Affects the Development of a Web Site Getting the Site Developed Working with an Outside Company Baselines: Design and Development Web Site Navigation Navigation Elements: Search Engines, Site Maps, Tag Clouds, and Breadcrumbs Page Layout Graphic Design Content Development Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Projects CHAP TER 260 260 261 261 262 264 266 271 272 278 278 282 286 290 291 291 292 293 296 E-Co m m erce Si tes 298 An Overview of E-Commerce Sources of Revenue Direct Sales Indirect Sales Paid Memberships and Subscriptions Advertising Shopping on the Social Web The Store Layout The Shopping Cart and Check-Out Process Intuitive and Personal Content Provision Feedback and Reviews Chapter Summary Key Terms 299 306 307 313 314 316 317 317 319 328 329 331 332 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part ix CHAPTER 13 Traffic Analysis and Measuring for Success c Somewhere between 42% and 58% d It is impossible to know 15 Google Analytics is unable to provide information on the type of browser that most visitors to a site are using True or False? 450 16 Using Google Analytics, it is possible to break total visits to a site down by: a Hour b Day c Week d All of the above 17 A high bounce rate would be most likely to have which of the following effects? a Increase the average time spent on a site b Decrease the average number of pages viewed per visit c Help increase sales d Have no effect on other statistics 18 Most tracking programs present data: a For the last 30 days b For the last quarter c For the 24 hours prior to when the information is being reviewed d For any timeframe specified by the user 19 Which of the following measurement tracks the number of people who visit a site by typing the URL in the browser address bar? a Direct traffic b Referring site c Search engine d None of the above 20 Most tracking programs allow marketers to see which keywords are most often used to find a site True or False? Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Projects Projects In one paragraph for each, discuss some goals that would likely be set for each of the following, and explain why: • A B2B site • An e-commerce site • A social network • A blog For each of the goals that you identified for each type of site in Project #1, describe the statistics that would be most helpful in knowing whether or not each goal was achieved Use the information discussed in the section on Google Analytics as a basis for your discussion Research three tracking programs, other than Google Analytics, that are available to Web site marketers In a two-page report, discuss: • How each differs from Google Analytics • How each differs from the others • The types and sizes of sites that would most benefit from each program In a paper no longer than two pages, discuss how, as a site developer, understanding the goals of a site in advance might change the way you would set out to build a site You’re the Web developer for a large company Your boss is planning an online, print, and radio advertising campaign to help drive traffic to the company’s site You start talking about landing pages, but your boss seems unconvinced, and doesn’t understand why landing pages are important In a one-page paper, explain why landing pages can be an important part of a marketing campaign and what you would to convince your boss to change his mind Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 451 APPENDIX A Analyzing Site Traffic Analytics programs like Google Analytics are wonderful tools for seeing how traffic flows through and around a Web site However, numbers provide only part of the story Marketers need to analyze the traffic rates for given time periods, taking into account their current marketing initiatives, past performance, and other variables The following is an actual report provided by an agency to its client (real name changed to XYZ Corporation for this publication), analyzing the client’s Web traffic The report first collects and parses the numbers from Google Analytics that matter most for this particular report Then, based on this data, the report presents an assessment of what is going well with the site, where the problems lie, and what steps the agency recommends taking to improve future site performance XYZ Corporation: Web Traffic Analysis—March 2008 Analytics Analysis The Good News TRAFFIC TRENDING IS STRONG Traffic remains relatively steady from day to day, with an upward trend Through March 2008, daily traffic (not including weekends or Fridays, when traffic is lowest) averaged about 1,750 visits per day—up from the 1,400 visits per day averaged in November 2007, the last time an analysis was presented This upward trending has remained consistent throughout each month, signifying increased interest and increased brand recognition over time Reasons may include an expanded advertising effort, e-mail Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part APPENDIX A ANALYTICS DASHBOARD TRAFFIC OVERVIEW 3,000 3,000 1,500 1,500 453 March 3, 2008 March 10, 2008 March 17, 2008 March 24, 2008 GEOGRAPHY OVERVIEW VS FEBRUARY, 2008 RESULT MEASUREMENT INC/DEC 41,222 9.70% 113,731 10.52% 21,248 24.95% PAGES PER VISIT 2.76 0.75% AVERAGE TIME ON SITE 1:32 1.73% PERCENTAGE OF NEW VISITS 45.16% 15.89% BOUNCE RATE 58.62% –3.59% TOTAL VISITS TOTAL PAGE VIEWS TOTAL UNIQUE VISITORS LOC CONTENT OVERVIEW # PAGE VIEWS INDEX INC/DEC TIME 37568 27% 1:11 LOCATIONS 6773 6.38% 2:01 DEFAULT 4992 2.72% :40 CONTACT 3660 –10.07% 1:00 OVERVIEW 3640 4.45% :53 USA NJ OR PA NC IL RESULT INC/DEC 25,996 4,143 4,021 3,737 2,552 2,128 6.61% 41.45% –15.72% –0.03% 42.09% –13.11 BRAZIL 5,112 6.06% U.K 2,929 4.64% FRANCE 951 0.32% GERMANY 826 1.85% INDIA 810 171.81% MANUFACTURING 2,694 2.16% :32 PACKAGING 2,376 9.54% :48 NEWSPUBLICATIONS/NEWS 2,111 –4.22% :31 ITALY 554 8.63% DEVELOPMENT 1,704 4.48% :49 P.R 360 133.77% 10 DRUG 1,367 4.67% :30 SOURCES 15 STERILEPRODUCTS 1,153 237.13% 1:14 18 ORALDOSEFORMS 782 231.36% :55 DIRECT 19 MANUFACT/SOFTGEL 686 40.86% :52 GGL/ORG 8,631 –0.43% 20 VITAMINSMINERALS 663 13.92% :40 CAT.COM 3,885 106.87% 33 DRUG/ORAL/SOFTGEL 379 21.86% 1:07 GGL/CPC 1,705 N/A YAHOO 1,247 3.40% CAT.NET 35 PRINTEDCOMPONENTS 344 135.62% :45 LOYALTY OVERVIEW ONE VISIT: 18,603 45.13% 0-10 SECS: 25,807 62.60% SOURCE VISITS INC/DEC 18,887 –3.14% 1,226 119.71% SRCH.COM 671 –15.70% CB.COM 412 –16.77% Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part APPENDIX A blast campaigns (although these need to be further standardized, scheduled, and campaign-based), and most notably, the installation of the Google AdWord campaign in the U.S on February 13, and expanded globally on March 13 454 While further improvement is needed in some areas, such as time spent by visitors on the site, key measurements across the board have increased versus February results Most notably is the increase in unique visitors to 21,248—up 25% from February and over 60% from November 2007 The Google AdWord program, and its expansion to global coverage, is the biggest contributor to this improvement: 13,914 unique visitors came to the XYZ Corporation site between March 13 and March 31, compared to 8,325 between March and March 12—a 67% increase (it should be noted that these figures are adjusted to account for the additional six days between the 13th and the 31st) Repeat visitor trending remains strong with 55% of all visitors coming back more than once, although this also represents an area for improvement Two areas that are particularly encouraging are the pages being visited and the new geographic mix Although the top ten most highly visited pages increased or decreased in relative moderation (with the exception of the Careers page, which is down nearly 70% from 1,976 pageviews in February to only 616 in March), a very positive story is presented in the upward trending of some of key content pages Packaging had the biggest increase of the top ten pages, with a 10% increase in traffic, while Sterile Products rocketed up a full 237%, Oral Dose Forms jumped 231%, Manufacturing/Softgel gained nearly 41%, Vitamins/Minerals was up nearly 14%, Drug/Oral/Softgel up almost 22%, and Printed Components gained over 135% These remarkable gains coincide with the Google AdWords click-thru results, analyzed later in this report Geographically, Ohio was almost a non-issue in March, accounting for just 409 visits—down from 1,854 visits in February and nearly 5,000 in November This is an indication that the reported traffic is increasingly more pure, and not muddied by visits from the ABC Corporation servers, as well as a hint that viewers are clearly seeing the separation between ABC Corporation and XYZ Corporation Further, while Brazil continues to account for over 5,000 visits per month, and the U.K., France, and Germany continue to take the top spots in terms of visitors, India has jumped up nearly 172% since February to take the number six spot (up from its November ranking of 11) It is likely to knock Germany out of the top five in coming months Puerto Rico has also shown impressive percentage gains, with an increase of nearly 134% in March Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part APPENDIX A Areas of Concern METRI C AD J U S TM E N TS Although not as bad as in the first report (November 2007), there are still some adjustments that need to be made to the 41,222 reported visits in order to get a clearer picture: • Brazil again ranked second in terms of the most visitors at 5,112 As we determined at our last analytics meeting, these are coming from XYZ Corporation facilities in Brazil • and accounted for another 5,000 visitors • Visits from QRS Corporation, ABC Corporation, CareerBuilder, and other such sources continue to skew the results somewhat After accounting for these factors, the number of visits drops to just over 31,000—an almost 25% drop from the 41,222 figure reported by Google Analytics, but almost double November’s post-adjustment visitor figure of 16,241 T IME, L O S S , A N D V I S I B I L I TY Although the traffic rates continue to increase, and the efforts being taken to drive traffic to the site are showing positive results, the biggest concern continues to be site usage and retention While the bounce rate has gone down percentage wise from November and February, it has gone down only marginally, and remains high at 58.62% This means that the majority of visitors that come to the site leave immediately, without viewing any other page (a small positive note about this—we can assume that the majority of visits from Brazil and and net are part of the group that never sees more than one page per visit) Time spent on the site inched upward, but only by a few seconds, and remains uncomfortably low at only 1:32 seconds per visit This is underscored by the fact that an overwhelming number of visitors (25,807, or 62.6%) stay on for less than 10 seconds per visit Looking at individual pages, similarly low amounts of time make it questionable that visitors could read all of the content, or get as much out of each page as they should Similarly, nearly half of all visitors that came to the XYZCorporation com site in March only came once (a quick look at the cumulative numbers from November to March 31 shows that this number improves when expanded over a longer period of time, but not by much), and almost 40% (67,104) of all viewers over the five-month period have never returned more than once PPV (pages per visit) also continues to crawl upward, although slowly, and not by enough At 2.77 pages per visit, visitors simply aren’t getting the total amount of content that they should be Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 455 APPENDIX A Of those 2.77 pages, it was less likely in March that the Contact Us page was among them, as that page fell by nearly 11% from February, and in fact remains flat with the number of visits to that page in November, when true visits were about half of what they were in March 456 Recommendations Online Efforts to Increase Traffic GOOGLE ADWORDS: REDUCE REACH Because we are already at maximum budget capacity, there is little room to add new campaigns or keywords without diluting the results we are already achieving To free up funds and allocate them elsewhere, we would recommend reducing the geographic reach This can be accomplished one of two ways: • Eliminate the use of AdWords in smaller countries, or countries where XYZ Corporation has less interest Although these not account for very much, if enough smaller countries are eliminated, it would make an impact • Eliminate some of the larger countries that are more likely to be exposed to XYZ Corporation in other ways, such as e-mail blasts, tradeshows, and print ads The U.S., France, Germany, and the U.K all increased in viewership of the XYZ Corporation Web site in March, but the percentage increases in these regions was smaller, and it is highly likely that growth in these countries would continue without Google AdWords support Reducing the reach in certain areas where reach is not needed will help us to maximize click-thru rates in other areas and add more keywords and campaigns GOOGLE ADWORDS: ADD SHORT-TERM CAMPAIGNS As of now, the Google AdWords campaign is maximized in terms of monthly budget, yet still remains granular (in the sense that we have chosen fairly detailed keywords, rather than general words, which would be more expensive) Because of this granular approach, we’ve been able to maintain a high traffic rate, while keeping the average cost-perclick well below $1.00 Therefore, we would not recommend opening keywords up to more general audiences at this time We would, however, advocate implementing short-term keyword campaigns that coincide with other marketing efforts, and drive traffic to campaign-specific landing pages These efforts could include trade shows such as Interphex and Vitafoods, as well as upcoming Insights and Innovation webinars INCREASE ADVERTISING IN KEY ONLINE PUBLICATIONS Three online publications combined to account for about 400 unique visitors in the month of March Although their contribution to Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part APPENDIX A site traffic is relatively small, there may be opportunities to better exploit the marketing potential of these publications Category sponsorship, increased online advertising, direct mail, and e-mail blast partnerships should be explored to better attract their visitors Improving the Site SITE CHANGES AND ADDITIONS Since our last meeting, one major change that we recommended is about to be launched—the reorganization of the Home page We anticipate that this change, which includes space for three marketing blurbs above the fold, and better visibility to the News section below the fold, will help lead visitors to specific areas throughout the site, and augment overall marketing efforts Other changes, however, should also be considered In our previous meeting, we discussed the following potential changes: • Search Term Glossary: Having the Search feature on the site is a helpful way to improve site navigation From the tracking results, in many instances, people might not know exactly what terms they need to use to find what they are looking for This can be resolved by offering a glossary of search terms link below the search bar, to give users the keyword support they need • Headline Color Change: On the interior of the site, the headlines in light blue can be long and difficult to read We would recommend making each headline shorter and in either a darker blue or black for better readability • Interior Quicklinks Navigation: Because there is so much content on the site, we suggest including a “quicklinks” navigation tool to help lead users in the direction we think they should go, to provide an easier means of finding important information relative to their visit • Rethinking Sub Navigation: Although the sub navigation is technically interesting, it poses a few problems It can be difficult to determine the hierarchy, and as the navigation bar expands downward, some of the lower links potentially get lost below the fold In addition, by being placed along the left side of the page, we lose valuable real estate By rethinking the sub navigation with a possible move to a horizontal drop down menu, we can gain space across the page and clearly define the hierarchy of information • Better Page Titling: This would be strictly to help in the review of traffic and site analytics As of now, every page title is the title of the category For example, the title of the XYZ Corporation drug delivery page is “XYZ Corporation - Drug Delivery.” Every page Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 457 APPENDIX A within that category shares that same title, so Softgel technology is also titled “XYZ Corporation - Drug Delivery.” If each page had an individual title, that would aid in the review of site analytics 458 • Creation of a Media Center: Because XYZ Corporation has already compiled a good amount of video, the creation of an online media center would help improve visitor retention and better explain key messages • Change the Start-Up Page in Brazil: As part of the effort to get a clearer picture of the analytics, we should consider asking employees in Brazil to no longer use as their start-up page Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Index Note: Page numbers referencing figures are italicized and followed by an “f ” Page numbers referencing tables are italicized and followed by a “t” A, 350, 186, 190–192 Access application, 349 account managers, 37–38 ActionScript, 353–356 Adobe Flash application, 340–341 file format See flv file format player, 150, 153, 156 Adobe GoLive, 343 Adobe Photoshop, 339–340 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), advertising dating sites, 106 defined, 397 e-commerce, 316 Facebook, 94–96 family and lifestyle sites, 109 media, 373–376 message, 371–372 myYearbook site, 92 overview, 364, 365f, 366–371 product placement, 25 versus public relations, 383–384 shopping networking sites, 107 standardization, 25 theme, 372–373 time frame, 373 video viewer preferences, 171 Advertising Checking Bureau, 420–422 age, Internet use by, 20t, 22, 85, 129–130, 159, 304, 305t Ajax, 353, 42, 78 Alta Vista,, 7f, 14f, 48, 247, 248f–249f, 319–320, 322 anonymity, 16 AOL, 8f, 14f, 77, 79f, 416 Apple iTunes, 13f–14f Apple site, 11f, 284f applets, Java, 352, 356 applications, see names of specific applications ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), artistic fonts, 237 ASCO Power University, 168–170 asf file format, 154t–155t, 206–209 AuctionWeb, 7f audience, capturing and retaining, 61–62, 166, 263, 405–407, 410–422, 432 authors, blog, 140 avatars, 200–201, 210 avi file format, 154t–155t B B2B (business to business) sites, 43–47, 67, 414 B2C (business to consumer) sites, 47–50, 67 B2E (business to employee) sites, 53, 68 Banker blog, 134, 135f banking, online, bankruptcy, 4, 9f banner advertising, 7f, 316, 368 Barack Obama’s online store, 328f, 98–100 BBC News, Bebo, 89t behavioral changes, 16 benign disinhibition, 16 Best Dates Now blog, 123–125 billboard advertising, 369 bitmaps, 290, 292, 340, 357 BJ’s site, 318 Black Friday, 48 blog communities, 8f blog editors, 120, 142 blog search engines, 126 Blogger, 344–347 blogging, 7f, 77–78, 86, 122–129, 133–141, 190, 415 blogosphere, 122, 142 blogrolls, 121, 142 Blue Nile site, 418 bookmarking, social, 76, 110–112 bookstores, online, 7f boot-strapping, 261, 292 bounce rate, 389, 397, 441 brand aware consumers, 221 building, 324–325, 370, 379–380, 432–433 conscious consumers, 221 growth stage, 372t guides, 239, 240f–241f, 252 indifferent consumers, 221 infancy stage, 372t Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part INDEX 460 brand (continued) loyalty, 219–227, 252, 304, 410 management, 238, 252 maturity stage, 372t personality, 252 preferred consumers, 221 profiles, 96 promise, 243–244, 252, 109 brands in blogs, 133, 136, 138–139 colors, 235–238 consistency, 238–245 defined, 27 definitions of, 374 distinguishing from company, 218–219 elements of, 227–245 fonts, 235–238 heightened consumer interaction, 251 image, 232–238 increased markets, 248–249 individual message delivery, 247–248 logos, 232–234 loyalty to, 220–227 negative impacts on, 19 overview, 217–218 personality, 229–230 promise, 228–229 reinforcement of message, 250–251 role of Web, 245–251 stages of, 372t taglines, 234–235 trust in, 304, 320–321 unique selling proposition, 231–232 breadcrumbs, 285–286, 292 Breakenridge, Deirdre, 383–386 broad visibility, 82 broadband connections, 157, 158f Brookstone site, 12f browsers See Web browsers budgets, 224 Burger King, 14f, 396 burn rates, 4, 27 business blogs, 126 business models, 56–57 business networking sites, 100–106 business plans, 261, 292 business to business (B2B) sites, 43–47, 67, 414 business to consumer (B2C) sites, 47–50, 67 business to employee (B2E) sites, 53, 68, BusinessWeek, 2, 195f C C2C (consumer to consumer) sites, 50–53, 68 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), 351–352, 354 cash payments, 302 casting, 173 Catalent site, 288f–289f CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), 6f Chaos radio show, 83–84 character blogs, 134, 137 chat rooms, AOL, 77 check-out process, 319–328 Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) Counsel, 406 churn rate, 406, 424 Citibank, 242 claiming process, loyalty program, 422, 78 classroom style videos, 162 click-thru rate, 389, 398, 432, 435–436 CMO (Chief Marketing Officer) Counsel, 406 Coca-Cola concert stage, Second Life, 204f codec, 154, 175 comments, video-sharing site, 161 commercial informational sites, 61 commercials, 25, 367 communication, 87–88, 245 comparison shopping, 301 compatibility, Flash video, 155 competition, 42, 106 compression, video, 174 comScore, 48, 93 concept creation, 172 conceptual marketing, 366, 398 connection speeds, consumer interaction, heightened, 251 consumer products goods (CPG) firms, 408–409 consumer to consumer (C2C) sites, 50–53, 68 consumer visibility, 370–371 container formats, 154, 175 content development, 170, 291 content provision, 328–329 contests, 393, 417–418 Continental OnePass frequent flier program, 419, 420f control, advertising, 370 convenience, online shopping, 301 conversion, video, 151, 156, 174 copy, 308, 309f copywriters, 39 cost efficiency, 82 cost-per-impression method, 25, 27 couponing, 408 CPG (consumer products goods) firms, 408–409, 50, 51f, 78 creative directors, 37 Crocker, Chris, 162 CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), 351–352, 354 custom player controls, 155–156 “cyber life” personas, 16 Cyber Monday, 48 cyber newsrooms, 380–383, 398 cyber psychology, 17 D dashboards, 344, 345f–347f, 438 dating, online, 2, 106–107 days to purchase measurement, 406 Deal or No Deal site, 134, 135f site, 110, 111f delivery, FLV file, 155 delivery wait time, 302 demographics bloggers, 129–130 complexity of, 269–270 defined, 27 defining target market, 262–263 Internet use, 20–23 online shoppers, 304, 305t social media usage, 85 video viewers, 157–161 Denny’s, 63f designing Web sites audience retention techniques, 412–413 breadcrumbs, 285–286 content development, 291 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part INDEX graphic design, 290 navigation, 278–282 page layout, 286–289 search engines, 282–283 site maps, 284 tag clouds, 284–285 Deutsch NY, 374–376 developing Web sites See designing Web sites DHTML (Dynamic HTML), 352, 357, 110 digitizing, 174 direct mail, 387, 423 direct marketing, 364–366, 386–392, 398 direct sales, 307–312 disinhibition effect, 16 Disney, 218–219 display advertising, 107, 111, 368 distributed Web portals, 42, 68 domain names, dot-coms, 4, 27 DoubleClick, 320, 419 Dow Jones Industrial Average, Dreamweaver, 341–343 drop-down menus, 282f Dynamic HTML (DHTML), 352, 357 E eBay, 7, 50 e-commerce advertising, 316 B2B sites, 44 B2C sites, 47–50 content provision, 328–329 defined, 68, 332 direct sales, 307–312 feedback, 329–331 indirect sales, 313 mashups, 200 overview, 299–306 paid memberships and subscriptions, 314–315 retail sales growth, 12f shopping cart, 319–323 social media functionality, 76 store layout, 317–318 update frequency, 414 economy, effect of Web on, editing, video, 174 educational level, Internet use by, 20t, 305t educational videos, 162 effectiveness of advertising, 370, elements, brand, 227f e-mail, 76–77 e-mail blast campaigns, 387–389, 390f–392f, 423, 432, 435–437 eMarketer, 157 emotional connections to brands, 220–222 emotional intelligence quotient (EQ), 376 encyclopedias, online, 9f, 15, 184–186, 188–189 entertainment sites, 61–67 EQ (emotional intelligence quotient), 376 ERC Dataplus, 45–47, 42, 43f ethnicity, Internet use by, 20t, 305t, 5, 9f European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 6f Everquest, 8f Excel, 349 experience, product, 302 F Facebook, 14f, 87, 88f, 89t, 92, 94–96 false transparency, 137, 142 fame, 162 family sites, 109, 54–59 FedEx, 232–234 feedback, 329–331 file size, 151, 155, 290 Firefox browser, 14f Flash application, 340–341 Flash (.flv) file format, 38, 61, 155–156 Flash Player 6, Macromedia, 13f Flash Player, Adobe, 150, 153, 156 flickr, 285f flogs, 128, 137, 142, flv (Flash) file format, 38, 61, 155–156 focus groups, 264, 292 folds, 287, 292 fonts, 236–238 formats, graphic, 38 Forrester Research, 48 FOX News site, 81f Fox On Demand site, 163f FrontPage, 343 frustration, video viewer, 172t Full Metal Jackie, 83–84 full-screen capabilities, 156 G gaming, online, 8f, 61–62, 63f, 64–67, 201 Geico Cavemen site, 166, 167f gender, Internet use by, 20t, 21–22 general social networking sites, 87–97, 112 geography, and Internet use, 20t geotargeting, 328–329, 332 GIFs, 290, 340, 356 gift cards, 421 Gillette NASCAR racing site, 197, 198f global e-commerce usage, 299 Global Positioning System (GPS), 24, 27 goals, 365–366, 431–437 GoLive, 343 Google, 8f, 14f, 40, 41f, 164 Google AdWords, 58, 368, 369f Google Analytics, 437–445 GPS (Global Positioning System), 24, 27 graphic design, 290 graphic designers, 9, 38–39 graphics, video, 174 Grocery Manufacturers of America, 219–220 gross revenue goals, 432 Guardian, The, 13f Guericke, Konstantin, 100–106 H heavy social networkers, 93 heavy viewers, 159 Hershey Company, 222–227, 407–410 Hewlett Packard, 62f historical order record, 302 hobby sites, 98–100 Home pages, 40, 41f, 287, 318 honesty, blogger, 137 Hotmail, 7f how-to videos, 162 HTML (HyperText Markup Language), 2, 6f, 350–351, 353–354, 357 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 461 INDEX 462 I M iContact site, 390f–392f image quality, 155 Inc., 23 incentives, consumer, 395, 418 income, and Internet use, 20t, 305t–306t indirect sales, 313 information distribution, 431–432 informational sites, 59–61 in-house site development, 271–272 Initial Public Offerings See IPOs instant messaging, 76 instructional videos, HP, 62f interactivity, online, 408–409 International Herald Tribune, 24 “Internet 50”, 75 Internet Advertising Bureau, 25 Internet Explorer browser, 3, 7f IPOs (Initial Public Offerings), 5, 27, 75 iTunes, 13f–14f M&M company, 225–226 Macromedia Flash Player 6, 13f mail, direct, 387, 423 margins, 306, 332 market share, 88–89 marketers, Web site, 39 marketing campaigns, 271, 374–376, 398 marketing goals, 431–432 marketing strategies, 48–49, 65, 79, 192–193, 263, 292, 314 mashups, 76, 112, 197–200, 210 Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), 201 Mathews, Julie, 407–410 McDonald’s site, 10f media blogs, 126, 131–132 media players, 153–154, 175 media sites, 414 memberships, 314–315 men, Internet use by, 20t, 21–22, 159, 305t message board, 22, 27 microblogs, 126, 142 Microsoft Access, 349 Microsoft Excel, 349 Microsoft Internet Explorer browser, 3, 7f Microsoft, 198, 199f–200f Microsoft SharePoint Designer, 343 Microsoft shopping cart system, 24 Microsoft Windows Media Player (WMP), 153 Miller company, 223 MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer Online RolePlaying Games), 201 moderate viewers, 159–160 Mosaic browser, 6f Motorability Island, 206–209 Mountain Dew, 226 mov file format, 154t–155t Mozilla Firefox browser, 14f mp4 file format, 154t–155t mpg file format, 154t–155t multilingual search engines, 7f music, online, 8f, 13f–14f MyPod Studios, 170 J Java, 352, 356–357 JavaScript, 352 jaxtr, 100–106, 314, 315f journalism, 131, 132t, 163–164 JPGs, 290 Jupiter Research, 171, 395 JVC cyber news room, 381, 382f JWT, 18, 24 K, 107, 108f, Krispy Krème, 244–245 L LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) tool set, 354 landing pages, 436, 447 leads goals, 432 lifestyle sites, 109 light viewers, 160 LinkedIn, 100–106 links, 278, 292 listserv, 77, 112 location scouting, 173 logos, 232–235, 252 lossy compression method, 155, 175 loyalty programs, 418–422 MySpace, 13f, 83–84, 89t, 92, 96, 97f, 164 MySpace TV, 164–165 MySQL, 348, 88–97 N Napster, 8f narrow visibility, 82 NASDAQ, 4f, 8f national events, 131 navigation, site, 278–282, 292, 413 NBC site, 10f needs assessment, 261–262 Nesquik video contest, 393, 394f Netscape browser, 2–3, 6f, 194 network television, 12–13, 25 New York Post site, 11f, 59f news media, 6f, 11f, 126, 131–132, 200 news releases, 377, 378f, 398 Newsdesk, 196 newsgroups, 77, 112 newspapers, online, 6f niche market social networking sites, 112 niche portals, 42, 68 Nike, 222–223 Nordstrom site, 412f numbers-based goals, 432–437 O Obama Girl, 162 One Red Paperclip site, 51–53 OnePass frequent flier program, 419, 420f Open Diary blog community, 8f open rate, 398–399 open source, 354 opt-in lists, 388, 398 Oracle, 349 outside companies, working with, 272–277 owners, site, 36 P page layout, 286–289, 318–320 paid blogs, 128, 142 “pain points”, 44, 250–251 payment methods, 321 PayPal, 321 pay-per-click method, 25, 27, 368 Pazazz Printing, 63f Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part INDEX Pepsi Cola, 10f, 217–218, 266–267 personal blogs, 123 Personal Home Page (PHP), 352–353 personalization, 87, 247, 301 personnel, site, 36–39, Pew Internet & American Life Project, 268–271 Pez site, 327f PFS Marketwyse, 121f, 383–386 Photoshop, 339–340 PHP (Personal Home Page), 352–353 pictures, product, 309, 310f–312f Pirates of the Caribbean, 201 planning Web sites, 260–271 platform compatibility, 151 player controls, 155–156, 175, 106, 107f podcasts, 9f, 385 points-based programs, 418–419, 420f polls, 416 PopCap Games, 64–67 Popfly, 198, 199f–200f portals, 40–43, 68 PR (public relations), 22, 27, 81, 364, 365f, 377–386 PR 2.0, 22, 383–386 pre-purchase online research, 313, 363–364 pre-purchase summation page, 321–322 press releases, 377, 378f pricing issues, 301, 306–307 print advertising, 25, 367, 373 product experience, 302 product placement, 25, 27 productivity, employee, 242 profile personalization, 87 programmers, 38, 47, 105, 193, 271, 407–408 programming languages, 57, 349–356 programs, see names of specific programs Progress Partners, 232 progressive downloads, 151, 152t–153t, 175 promotional efforts, 246 promotions, 364, 365f, 393–395, 398 psychographics, 263, 292 public relations (PR), 22, 27, 81, 364, 365f, 377–386 pulse, market, 82 purchases, online, 300 purchasing reasons, 307–308 Pure Performance, 354–356 Q quality, video, 151, 171–172 QuickTime Player, 153 R race, Internet use by, 20t, 305t radio commercials, 367 radio HK, radio stations, online, 7f, 83–84 ratings, user, 329–330 reach, 27 Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, 76, 112, 193–197, 210 RealPlayer, 153 re-broadcast, 163 receipts, 323 “refer-a-friend” program, 395 regional audiences, 432 registration, visitor, 433 relationships, online, 18 reloadable debit cards, 420–421 research, pre-purchase online, 313, 363–364 research methods, 264 return on investment (ROI), 433–434, 447 returning visitors, 431 reviews, online, 78, 301, 325, 329–331 RGB color model, 290 rm file format, 154t–155t ROI (return on investment), 433–434, 447 Rotten Tomatoes site, 60f RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds, 76, 112, 193–197, 210 S sales tax, 302 salespeople, 301, 303 scheduled events, Motorability Island, 209 schematics, 279, 280f, 292 scrapping, 129, 142 script writing, 173 search engines, 7f–8f, 40, 68, 126, 127f, 282–283 Sears, Second Life, 204f Second Life, 13f, 201–209, 271 security enhancements, selection, online shopping, 301–302 self-made communities, 82 SharePoint, 343 shipping charges, 302, 321 shooting, video, 174 Shop Rite, 24 shopping, online, 48, 107–108, 301–303 See also e-commerce shopping cart systems, 24, 319–325, 42 site loyalty, 410–411 site maps, 292 site schematics, 37, 68 site tracking, 431–437 See also Google Analytics site traffic, marketing campaign for, 431 site updates, 413–415, 98 SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), 6f social bookmarking, 76, 110–112 social connection sites, 55 social media defined, 27 importance of, 23 interactivity, 409 networks, 13f optimization, 112 overview, 16, 54 releases, 384 role in marketing efforts, 376 sites, 54 social media marketing, 79–84, 112 social networking defined, 27, 112 Facebook, 14f generalist, 87–97 marketing impact of, 15–19 MySpace, 13f niche markets, 98–109 overview, 53–59 tools, 66 spam, in blogs, 129, 138 specialized advertising, 370 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 463 INDEX 464 “spiff ” program, 421 splogs, 128–129, 142 Sproles, Kevin, 323–328 SQL Server, 348 stages, brand, 372t Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 6f Starbucks, 226 start-up screen, Flash player, 156 static pages, 276, 292 stock market, 3–4, 7f, 75 store layout, 317–318 story boards, 173, 175 streaming technology, 14f, 151, 152t–153t, 175 streaming video, 369, 385 street journalism, 163–164 style guides, 239, 240f–241f, 252 sub-brands, 219 subscriptions, 314–315, 14f, 396 SurveyMonkey site, 264, 265f surveys, 264, 417 swf file format, 154t–155t T tag clouds, 284–285, 292 Tagged, 89t taglines, 234–235, 253 tags, 110, 113 target audience, 262–271 target market, 262, 292 Target site, 286f, 316, 330 TECH, The, 6f technology, improvements in, Technorati, 122, 127f teens, 85, 89–93 telemarketing, 386–387 television, 12–13, 25, 367 testing, site, 38 theme, advertising, 372–373 threads, 22, 27 360-degree marketing program, 408–409 thumbnails, 309, 310f–312f, 332 tiers, 279–281, 292 time frame, advertising, 373 Time Magazine, 205 Time Warner, 8, 8f timeline, of Web, 6f–9f, 13f–14f timeline-based interface, Flash, 340 “Top 10”, 40 toxic disinhibition, 16 tracking e-mail blasts, 389, 392f traditional marketing, 19, 23 traffic, site, 431 Train site, 80f transparency, 137 Travelocity, 388f trends, market, 136 trust, 82, 271, 304, 320–321 Twitter site, 126, 128f U Under Armour, 223 unemployment rate, unique selling proposition (USP), 231–232 United Spinal Association (USA), 206–208 unsociability of online shopping, 303 updating blogs, 133, 138 uploading video, 174 USA (United Spinal Association), 206–208 USA Today, 75 user-generated marketing, 102–103 USP (unique selling proposition), 231–232 V vector graphics, 290, 340, 357 vendors, outside agency, 273–275 venture capitalists, 3, 23, 36 video, Web-based, 25, 82, 150– 156, 160t, 161–174, 312 video blogs (vlogs), 75, 113, 126 video contests, 393 video players, 13f video-sharing sites, 14f, 61–62, 63f, 231–232 viral marketing, 14, 14f, 105, 365, 395–398 viral messaging, 82–84 virtual worlds, 76, 113, 200–210, 271 visibility, 82 visitor registration, 433 visitor retention, 263, 292 visits to purchase measurement, 406 vlogs (video blogs), 75, 113, 126, 323–328, 326f–328f voting, 416 W Wal-Mart site, 283f Washington Mutual, 242–244 “watches”, 196–197 Web history of, 2–14 usage trends, 20–23 Web Boom, 2–3 Web browsers, 2–3, 6f–7f, 14f, 194 Web portals, 40–43, 68 Web servers, 6f Web sites See also designing Web sites changes in, 10f–12f goals, 432–433 number of, 3, 8f, 14f types of, 40–67 Web tools, 23f webcams, 6f Webinars, 433–437, 447 Weblogs, 77 See also blogs WebMD site, 60f Webvan, 5, 9, 9f What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) editors, 341–343, 357 widgets, 344, 357 Wikipedia, 9f, 15, 184–186, 188–189 wikis, 75, 113, 183–193, 210 WikiWikiWeb site, 184, 188 Windows Media Player (WMP), 153 wish lists, 422 wmv file format, 154t–155t women, Internet use by, 20t, 21–22, 159, 305t Woodall, Ibrey, 385 WordPress, 344–347 world events, 131 WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) editors, 341–343, 357 Y Yahoo!, 6f, 11f, 40, 41f YouTube, 14f, 61–62, 164, 194, 231–232 Z Zogby International, 131–132 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part [...]... University of California at Berkely determined that: • An average of 800 MB of recorded information is produced per person each year (that’s for the entire world—all 6.3 billion of us) • The Web contains about 170 terabytes of information—17 times the size of the Library of Congress print collections • About 5 billion messages are sent via instant messaging—each day Figure 1-11 Timeline of the Web... role marketing plays in the building of a successful Web site As traditional marketing and business growth becomes more integrated with the Web, and the Web becomes a more central part of every marketing strategy, the need for programmers and marketers to improve communication between them becomes increasingly important Of all the Web languages you already know, this book will teach you one more: Marketing. .. already know You should also have a good familiarity with the Web, and some of the more popular Web sites, such as Google, MySpace, and YouTube Organization and Coverage Principles of Internet Marketing: New Tools and Methods for Web Developers provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the best practices for Internet marketing and successful Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved... Chapter 12 covers the importance of keeping users on the site for longer periods of time and enticing them to come back for future visits Finally, Chapter 13 completes the story by taking a close look at the importance of measuring ROI (return on investment)—what variables need to measured and how best to go about determining success Features Principles of Internet Marketing: New Tools and Methods... WEB BOOM HITS THE STOCK MARKET Netscape, one of many Web companies to go public, records the third largest IPO share value ever on the NASDAQ exchange AUGUST 24 INTERNET EXPLORER RELEASED Microsoft launches Internet Explorer as part of Windows 95, igniting the so-called “browser wars.” This signals the end of the Netscape era and ushers in a new series of headaches for site programmers SEPTEMBER 4... duplicated, in whole or in part xi Preface xii Principles of Internet Marketing: New Tools and Methods for Web Developers will help you understand the “why” behind the “how” of Web site development This book will help you see sites not from the developer’s perspective, but rather from the marketer’s point of view It will teach you about the importance of the brand and how that relates to Web site development,... ultimately may affect how we mold our marketing messages Dr John Suler is a leading voice in the growing study of “cyber psychology”—the study of how individuals and groups behave on the Internet He has authored numerous online books, including The Psychology of Cyberspace, and provides some insight into how, if at all, the Internet is changing human behavior and socialization Jason: Do you find that people... affordable, and companies of all sizes rushed to install new equipment, establish servers, and launch their own Web sites for marketing purposes In the mid-1990s, BBC News measured the number of Web sites in existence as fewer than 19,0004—a pittance by 2008’s standard of nearly 176,000,000 (as measured by Internet research company Netcraft).5 Still, that was enough to raise the eyebrows of investors worldwide... officially a part of the social networking revolution Of course, the Web didn’t invent social networking A social network can exist in the physical world in a variety of situations Wikipedia (which itself is a social network) defines a social network, as of June 2008, as: a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency,... or in part CHAPTER 1 An Overview of the Web In this chapter you will learn about: The rise of the Web from obscurity to commercial revolution The evolution of the Web after the Web bubble burst Social networking on the Web and its effect on social relationships and marketing Important trends and demographic differences in Internet usage Predictions for the future of the Web and how these developments
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