Expert Oracle Exadata

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BOOKS FOR PROFESSIONALS BY PROFESSIONALS ® Osborne Johnson Põder RELATED Expert Oracle Exadata This book clearly explains Exadata, detailing how the system combines servers, storage and database software into a unified system for both transaction processing and data warehousing It will change the way you think about managing SQL performance and processing Authors Kerry Osborne, Randy Johnson and Tanel Põder share their real world experience gained through multiple Exadata implementations with you They provide a roadmap to laying out the Exadata platform to best support your existing systems With Expert Oracle Exadata, you’ll learn how to: • Configure Exadata from the ground up • Migrate large data sets efficiently • Connect Exadata to external systems • Configure high-availability features such as RAC and ASM • Support consolidation using the I/O Resource Manager • Apply tuning strategies based upon the unique features of Exadata Expert Oracle Exadata gives you the knowledge you need to take full advantage of this game-changing database appliance platform Shelve in Databases/Oracle User level: Intermediate–Advanced For your convenience Apress has placed some of the front matter material after the index Please use the Bookmarks and Contents at a Glance links to access them Contents at a Glance  About the Authors xvi  About the Technical Reviewer xvii  Acknowledgments xviii  Introduction xix  Chapter 1: What Is Exadata?  Chapter 2: Offloading / Smart Scan 23  Chapter 3: Hybrid Columnar Compression 65  Chapter 4: Storage Indexes .105  Chapter 5: Exadata Smart Flash Cache .125  Chapter 6: Exadata Parallel Operations 143  Chapter 7: Resource Management 175  Chapter 8: Configuring Exadata 237  Chapter 9: Recovering Exadata 275  Chapter 10: Exadata Wait Events 319  Chapter 11: Understanding Exadata Performance Metrics .345  Chapter 12: Monitoring Exadata Performance 379  Chapter 13: Migrating to Exadata .419  Chapter 14: Storage Layout 467  Chapter 15: Compute Node Layout .497  Chapter 16: Unlearning Some Things We Thought We Knew .511 iii  CONTENTS AT A GLANCE  Appendix A: CellCLI and dcli .535  Appendix B: Online Exadata Resources 545  Appendix C: Diagnostic Scripts 547  Index 551 iv Introduction Thank you for purchasing this book We worked hard on it for a long time Our hope is that you find it useful as you begin to work with Exadata We’ve tried to introduce the topics in a methodical manner and move from generalizations to specific technical details While some of the material paints a very broad picture of how Exadata works, some is very technical in nature, and you may find that having access to an Exadata system where you can try some of the techniques presented will make it easier to understand Note that we’ve used many undocumented parameters and features to demonstrate how various pieces of the software work Do not take this as a recommended approach for managing a production system Remember that we have had access to a system that we could tear apart with little worry about the consequences that resulted from our actions This gave us a huge advantage in our investigations into how Exadata works In addition to this privileged access, we were provided a great deal of support from people both inside and outside of Oracle for which we are extremely grateful The Intended Audience This book is intended for experienced Oracle people We not attempt to explain how Oracle works except as it relates to the Exadata platform This means that we have made some assumptions about the reader’s knowledge We not assume that you are an expert at performance tuning on Oracle, but we expect that you are proficient with SQL and have a good understanding of basic Oracle architecture How We Came to Write This Book In the spring of 2010, Enkitec bought an Exadata V2 Quarter Rack We put it in the tiny computer room at our office in Dallas We don’t have a raised floor or anything very fancy, but the room does have its own air conditioning system It was actually more difficult than you might think to get Oracle to let us purchase one They had many customers that wanted them, and they were understandably protective of their new baby We didn’t have a top-notch data center to put it in, and even the power requirements had to be dealt with before they would deliver one to us At any rate, shortly after we took delivery, through a series of conversations with Jonathan Gennick, Randy and I agreed to write this book for Apress There was not a whole lot of documentation available at that time, and so we found ourselves pestering anyone we could find who knew anything about it Kevin Closson and Dan Norris were both gracious enough to answer many of our questions at the Hotsos Symposium in the spring of 2010 Kevin contacted me some time later and offered to be the official technical reviewer So Randy and I struggled through the summer and early fall attempting to learn everything could I ran into Tanel at Oracle Open World in September, 2010, and we talked about a client using Exadata that he had done some migration work for One thing led to another, and eventually he agreed to join the team as a co-author At Open World, Oracle announced the availability of the new X2 models, so we had barely gotten started and we were already behind on the technology xix  INTRODUCTION In January of 2011, the X2 platform was beginning to show up at customer sites Enkitec again decided to invest in the technology, and we became the proud parents of an X2-2 quarter rack Actually, we decided to upgrade our existing V2 quarter rack to a half rack with X2 components This seemed like a good way to learn about doing upgrades and to see if there would be any problems mixing components from the two versions (there weren’t) This brings me to an important point A Moving Target Like most new software, Exadata has evolved rapidly since its introduction in late 2009 The changes have included significant new functionality In fact, one of the most difficult parts of this project has been keeping up with the changes Several chapters underwent multiple revisions because of changes in behavior introduced while we were writing the material The last version we have attempted to cover in this book is database version with bundle patch and cellsrv version Note that there have been many patches over the last two years and that there are many possible combinations of database version, patch level, and cellsrv versions So if you are observing some different behavior than we have documented, this is a potential cause Nevertheless, we welcome your feedback and will be happy to address any inconsistencies that you find In fact, this book has been available as part of Apress’s Alpha program, which allows readers to download early drafts of the material Participants in this program have provided quite a bit of feedback during the writing and editing process We are very thankful for that feedback and somewhat surprised at the detailed information many of you provided Thanks to the Unofficial Editors We have had a great deal of support from a number of people on this project Having our official technical reviewer actually writing bits that were destined to end up in the book was a little weird In such a case, who reviews the reviewer’s writing? Fortunately, Arup Nanda volunteered early in the project to be an unofficial editor So in addition to the authors reviewing each other’s stuff, and Kevin reviewing our chapters, Arup read and commented on everything, including Kevin’s comments In addition, many of the Oak Table Network members gave us feedback on various chapters throughout the process Most notably, Frits Hoogland and Peter Bach provided valuable input When the book was added to Apress’s Alpha Program, we gained a whole new set of reviewers Several people gave us feedback based on the early versions of chapters that were published in this format Thanks to all of you who asked us questions and helped us clarify our thoughts on specific issues In particular, Tyler Muth at Oracle took a very active interest in the project and provided us with very detailed feedback He was also instrumental in helping to connect us with other resources inside Oracle, such as Sue Lee, who provided a very detailed review of the Resource Management chapter Finally I’d like to thank the technical team at Enkitec There were many who helped us keep on track and helped pick up the slack while Randy and I were working on this project (instead of doing our real jobs) The list of people who helped is pretty long, so I won’t call everyone by name If you work at Enkitec and you have been involved with the Exadata work over the last couple of years, you have contributed to this book I would like to specifically thank Tim Fox, who generated a lot of the graphics for us in spite of the fact that he had numerous other irons in the fire, including his own book project We also owe Andy Colvin a very special thanks as a major contributor to the project He was instrumental in several capacities First, he was primarily responsible for maintaining our test environment, including upgrading and patching the platform so that we could test the newest features and changes as they became available Second, he helped us hold down the fort with our customers who xx  INTRODUCTION were implementing Exadata while Randy and I were busy writing Third, he was instrumental in helping us figure out how various features worked, particularly with regard to installation, configuration, and connections to external systems It would have been difficult to complete the project without him Who Wrote That? There are three authors of this book, four if you count Kevin It was really a collaborative effort among the four of us But in order to divide the work we each agreed to a number of chapters Initially Randy and I started the project and Tanel joined a little later (so he got a lighter load in terms of the assignments, but was a very valuable part of team, helping with research on areas that were not specifically assigned to him) So here’s how the assignments worked out: Kerry: Chapters 1–6, 10, 16 Randy: Chapters 7–9, 14–15, and about half of 13 Tanel: Chapters 11–12, and about half of 13 Kevin: Easily identifiable in the “Kevin Says” sections Online Resources We used a number of scripts in this book When they were short or we felt the scripts themselves were of interest, we included their contents in the text When they were long or just not very interesting, we sometimes left the contents of the scripts out of the text You can find the source code for all of the scripts we used in the book online at Appendix C also contains a listing of all the diagnostic scripts along with a brief description of their purpose A Note on “Kevin Says” Kevin Closson served as our primary technical reviewer for the book Kevin was the chief performance architect at Oracle for the SAGE project, which eventually turned into Exadata, so he is extremely knowledgeable not only about how it works, but also about how it should work and why His duties as technical reviewer were to review what we wrote and verify it for correctness The general workflow consisted of one of the authors submitting a first draft of a chapter and then Kevin would review it and mark it up with comments As we started working together, we realized that it might be a good idea to actually include some of Kevin’s comments in the book, which provides you with a somewhat unique look into the process Kevin has a unique way of saying a lot in very few words Over the course of the project I found myself going back to short comments or emails multiple times, and often found them more meaningful after I was more familiar with the topic So I would recommend that you the same Read his comments as you’re going through a chapter, but try to come back and reread his comments after finishing the chapter; I think you’ll find that you will get more out of them on the second pass How We Tested When we began the project, the current release of the database was So several of the chapters were initially tested with that version of the database and various patch levels on the storage cells When xxi  INTRODUCTION became available, we went back and retested Where there were significant differences we tried to point that out, but there are some sections that were not written until after was available So on those topics we may not have mentioned differences with behavior We used a combination of V2 and X2 hardware components for our testing There was basically no difference other than the X2 being faster Schemas and Tables You will see a couple of database tables used in several examples throughout the book Tanel used a table called T that looks like this: SYS@SANDBOX1> @table_stats Owner : TANEL Table : T Name Null? - -OWNER NAME TYPE LINE TEXT ROWNUM Type -VARCHAR2(30) VARCHAR2(30) VARCHAR2(12) NUMBER VARCHAR2(4000) NUMBER ========================================================================== Table Statistics ========================================================================== TABLE_NAME : T LAST_ANALYZED : 10-APR-2011 13:28:55 DEGREE : PARTITIONED : NO NUM_ROWS : 62985999 CHAIN_CNT : BLOCKS : 1085255 EMPTY_BLOCKS : AVG_SPACE : AVG_ROW_LEN : 104 MONITORING : YES SAMPLE_SIZE : 62985999 ========================================================================== Column Statistics ========================================================================== Name Analyzed NDV Density # Nulls # Buckets Sample ========================================================================== OWNER 04/10/2011 21 047619 62985999 NAME 04/10/2011 5417 000185 62985999 TYPE 04/10/2011 111111 62985999 LINE 04/10/2011 23548 000042 62985999 xxii  INTRODUCTION TEXT ROWNUM 04/10/2011 04/10/2011 303648 100 000003 010000 0 1 62985999 62985999 I used several variations on a table called SKEW The one I used most often is SKEW3, and it looked like this: SYS@SANDBOX1> @table_stats Owner : KSO Table : SKEW3 Name Null? - -PK_COL COL1 COL2 COL3 COL4 NULL_COL Type -NUMBER NUMBER VARCHAR2(30) DATE VARCHAR2(1) VARCHAR2(10) ============================================================================== Table Statistics ============================================================================== TABLE_NAME : SKEW3 LAST_ANALYZED : 10-JAN-2011 19:49:00 DEGREE : PARTITIONED : NO NUM_ROWS : 384000048 CHAIN_CNT : BLOCKS : 1958654 EMPTY_BLOCKS : AVG_SPACE : AVG_ROW_LEN : 33 MONITORING : YES SAMPLE_SIZE : 384000048 ============================================================================== Column Statistics ============================================================================== Name Analyzed NDV Density # Nulls # Buckets Sample ============================================================================== PK_COL 01/10/2011 31909888 000000 12 384000036 COL1 01/10/2011 902848 000001 384000044 COL2 01/10/2011 500000 12 384000036 COL3 01/10/2011 1000512 000001 12 384000036 COL4 01/10/2011 333333 12 384000036 NULL_COL 01/10/2011 1.000000 383999049 999 xxiii  INTRODUCTION This detailed information should not be necessary for understanding any of our examples, but if you have any questions about the tables, they are here for your reference Also be aware that we used other tables as well, but these are the ones we used most often Good Luck We have had a blast discovering how Exadata works I hope you enjoy your explorations as much as we have, and I hope this book provides a platform from which you can build your own body of knowledge I feel like we are just beginning to scratch the surface of the possibilities that have been opened up by Exadata Good luck with your investigations and please feel free to ask us questions and share your discoveries with us at xxiv n CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Expert Oracle Exadata Copyright © 2011 by Kerry Osborne, Randy Johnson, Tanel Põder All rights reserved No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher ISBN-13 (pbk): 978-1-4302-3392-3 ISBN-13 (electronic): 978-1-4302-3393-0 Trademarked names, logos, and images may appear in this book Rather than use a trademark symbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, logo, or image we use the names, logos, and images only in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights President and Publisher: Paul Manning Lead Editor: Jonathan Gennick Technical Reviewer: Kevin Closson Editorial Board: Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, Jonathan Hassell, Michelle Lowman, Matthew Moodie, Jeff Olson, Jeffrey Pepper, Frank Pohlmann, Douglas Pundick, Ben Renow-Clarke, Dominic Shakeshaft, Matt Wade, Tom Welsh Coordinating Editor: Adam Heath Copy Editor: James Compton Compositor: Bytheway Publishing Services Indexer: SPI Global Artist: SPI Global Cover Designer: Anna Ishchenko Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC., 233 Spring Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10013 Phone 1-800-SPRINGER, fax (201) 348-4505, e-mail, or visit For information on translations, please e-mail, or visit Apress and friends of ED books may be purchased in bulk for academic, corporate, or promotional use eBook versions and licenses are also available for most titles For more information, reference our Special Bulk Sales–eBook Licensing web page at The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this work, neither the author(s) nor Apress shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the information contained in this work ii Contents  About the Authors xvi  About the Technical Reviewer xvii  Acknowledgments xviii  Introduction xix  Chapter 1: What Is Exadata? An Overview of Exadata History of Exadata Alternative Views of What Exadata Is Data Warehouse Appliance OLTP Machine Consolidation Platform Configuration Options Exadata Database Machine X2-2 Exadata Database Machine X2-8 Hardware Components Operating Systems 10 Database Servers 11 Storage Servers 11 InfiniBand 11 Flash Cache 12 Disks 12 v  CONTENTS Bits and Pieces 12 Software Components .12 Database Server Software 12 Storage Server Software 16 Software Architecture 18 Summary 21  Chapter 2: Offloading / Smart Scan 23 Why Offloading Is Important 23 What Offloading Includes .27 Column Projection 27 Predicate Filtering 32 Storage Indexes 33 Simple Joins (Bloom Filters) 34 Function Offloading 37 Compression/Decompression 39 Encryption/Decryption 40 Virtual Columns 41 Data Mining Model Scoring 43 Non-Smart Scan Offloading 44 Smart Scan Prerequisites 45 Full Scans 45 Direct Path Reads 45 Exadata Storage 46 Smart Scan Disablers 49 Simply Unavailable 49 Reverting to Block Shipping 49 Skipping Some Offloading 50 vi  CONTENTS How to Verify That Smart Scan is Happening 50 10046 Trace 51 Performance Statistics (v$sessstat) 52 Offload Eligible Bytes 54 SQL Monitoring 58 Parameters 61 Summary 64  Chapter 3: Hybrid Columnar Compression 65 Oracle Storage Review 65 Oracle Compression Mechanisms 68 BASIC 68 OLTP 68 HCC 69 HCC Mechanics 72 HCC Performance 73 Load Performance 73 Query Performance 78 DML Performance 83 Expected Compression Ratios 91 Compression Advisor 91 Real World Examples 94 Restrictions/Challenges .100 Moving Data to a non-Exadata Platform 100 Disabling Serial Direct Path Reads 100 Locking Issues 101 Single Row Access 102 Common Usage Scenarios 102 vii  CONTENTS Summary .104  Chapter 4: Storage Indexes .105 Structure 105 Monitoring Storage Indexes 107 Database Statistics 107 Tracing 108 Monitoring Wrap Up 111 Controlling Storage Indexes 111 _kcfis_storageidx_disabled 111 _kcfis_storageidx_diag_mode 112 _cell_storidx_mode 112 Storage Software Parameters 112 Behavior .113 Performance 114 Special Optimization for Nulls 116 Physical Distribution of Values 117 Potential Issues .118 Incorrect Results 119 Moving Target 119 Partition Size 122 Incompatible Coding Techniques 122 Summary .124  Chapter 5: Exadata Smart Flash Cache .125 Hardware .125 Cache vs Flash Disk 127 Using Flash Memory as Cache 128 How ESFC is Created 132 viii  CONTENTS Controlling ESFC Usage 134 Monitoring .135 At the Storage Layer 135 At the Database Layer 139 Performance 140 Summary .141  Chapter 6: Exadata Parallel Operations 143 Parameters 143 Parallelization at the Storage Tier 145 Auto DOP 146 Operation and Configuration 146 I/O Calibration 149 Auto DOP Wrap Up 152 Parallel Statement Queuing 152 The Old Way 153 The New Way 153 Controlling Parallel Queuing 157 Parallel Statement Queuing Wrap Up 165 In-Memory Parallel Execution 165 Summary .175  Chapter 7: Resource Management 175 Database Resource Manager .176 Consumer Groups 178 Plan Directives 181 Resource Plan 183 Resource Manager Views 184 The Wait Event: resmgr: cpu quantum 185 ix  CONTENTS DBRM Example 185 Testing a Resource Plan 190 Instance Caging .198 Configuring and Testing Instance Caging 199 Over-Provisioning 204 I/O Resource Manager 204 How IORM Works 206 Methods for Managing I/O on Exadata 209 Bringing It All Together 215 IORM Monitoring and Metrics 219 Summary .235  Chapter 8: Configuring Exadata 237 Exadata Network Components 237 The Management Network 237 The Client Access Network 238 The Private Network 239 About the Configuration Process 240 Configuring Exadata .241 Step 1: The Configuration Worksheet 242 Step 2: The DBM Configurator 253 Step 3: Upload Parameter and Deployment Files 254 Step 4: CheckIP ( 258 Step 5: Firstboot 260 Step 6: Staging the Installation Media 262 Step 7: Running OneCommand 263 Upgrading Exadata .268 Creating a New RAC Cluster 268 Upgrading the Existing Cluster 270 x  CONTENTS Summary .273  Chapter 9: Recovering Exadata 275 Exadata Diagnostic Tools .275 Sun Diagnostics: 276 HealthCheck 278 CellCLI 279 Backing Up Exadata .284 Backing Up the Database Servers 284 Backing Up the Storage Cell 287 Backing Up the Database .293 Disk-Based Backups 293 Tape-Based Backups 293 Backup from Standby Database 294 Exadata Optimizations for RMAN 295 Recovering Exadata .296 Restoring the Database Server 296 Recovering the Storage Cell 299 Summary .318  Chapter 10: Exadata Wait Events 319 Events Specific to Exadata 319 The “cell” Events 320 Plan Steps That Trigger Events 321 Exadata Wait Events in the User I/O Class 323 cell smart table scan 323 cell smart index scan 326 cell single block physical read 328 cell multiblock physical read 330 xi  CONTENTS cell list of blocks physical read 331 cell smart file creation 332 cell statistics gather 333 Exadata Wait Events in the System I/O Class 333 cell smart incremental backup 334 cell smart restore from backup 335 Exadata Wait Events in the Other and Idle Classes .337 cell smart flash unkeep 337 Old Events 338 direct path read 338 enq: KO—fast object checkpoint 339 reliable message 340 Resource Manager Events .341 resmgr:cpu quantum 341 resmgr:pq queued 342 Summary .343  Chapter 11: Understanding Exadata Performance Metrics .345 Measuring Exadata’s Performance Metrics 345 Revisiting the Prerequisites for Exadata Smart Scans 346 Exadata Smart Scan Performance 346 Understanding Exadata Smart Scan Metrics and Performance Counters 350 Exadata Dynamic Performance Counters 350 When and How to Use Performance Counters 351 The Meaning and Explanation of Exadata Performance Counters 354 Exadata Performance Counter Reference 356 Understanding SQL Statement Performance 374 Summary .377 xii  CONTENTS  Chapter 12: Monitoring Exadata Performance 379 A Systematic Approach 379 Monitoring SQL Statement Response Time 380 Monitoring SQL Statements with Real-Time SQL Monitoring Reports 381 Monitoring SQL Statements using V$SQL and V$SQLSTATS 393 Monitoring the Storage Cell Layer 395 Accessing Cell Metrics in the Cell Layer Using CellCLI 395 Accessing Cell Metrics Using the Grid Control Exadata Storage Server Plug-In 396 Which Cell Metrics to Use? 405 Monitoring Exadata Storage Cell OS-level Metrics 406 Summary .418  Chapter 13: Migrating to Exadata .419 Migration Strategies 420 Logical Migration 421 Extract and Load 422 Copying Data over a Database Link 427 Replication-Based Migration 443 Logical Migration Wrap Up 451 Physical Migration 451 Backup and Restore .452 Full Backup and Restore 452 Incremental Backup 454 Transportable Tablespaces (and XTTS) 455 Physical Standby 458 ASM Rebalance 460 Post-Migration Tasks 463 Wrap Up Physical Migration Section 464 xiii  CONTENTS Summary .465  Chapter 14: Storage Layout 467 Exadata Disk Architecture .467 Failure Groups 469 Grid Disks 471 Storage Allocation 473 Creating Grid Disks 477 Creating Grid Disks 478 Grid Disk Sizing 479 Creating FlashDisk-Based Grid Disks 483 Storage Strategies 484 Configuration Options 485 Isolating Storage Cell Access 485 Cell Security 487 Cell Security Terminology 488 Cell Security Best Practices 489 Configuring ASM-Scoped Security 489 Configuring Database-Scoped Security 490 Removing Cell Security 493 Summary .495  Chapter 15: Compute Node Layout .497 Provisioning Considerations 497 Non-RAC Configuration 500 RAC Clusters 504 Typical Exadata Configuration .506 Exadata Clusters 507 Summary .509 xiv  CONTENTS  Chapter 16: Unlearning Some Things We Thought We Knew .511 A Tale of Two Systems 511 OLTP-Oriented Workloads 512 Exadata Smart Flash Cache (ESFC) 512 Scalability 513 Write-Intensive OLTP Workloads 513 DW-Oriented Workloads 514 Enabling Smart Scans 514 Things that Can Cripple Smart Scans 516 Other Things to Keep in Mind 526 Mixed Workloads 528 To Index or Not to Index? 529 The Optimizer Doesn’t Know 530 Using Resource Manager 533 Summary .534  Appendix A: CellCLI and dcli .535 CellCLI Command Syntax .535 Getting Familiar with CellCLI 536 Sending Commands from the Operating System 540 Configuring and Managing the Storage Cell 540 dcli Command Syntax 542 Summary .544  Appendix B: Online Exadata Resources 545 Exadata MOS Support Notes 545 Helpful Exadata MOS Support Notes .545 Exadata Bulletins and Blogs 546  Appendix C: Diagnostic Scripts 547  Index 551 xv About the Author  Kerry Osborne began working with Oracle (version 2) in 1982 He has worked as both a developer and a DBA For the past several years he has been focused on understanding Oracle internals and solving performance problems He is an OakTable member and an Oracle Ace Director Kerry is a frequent speaker at Oracle conferences He is also a co-founder of Enkitec, an Oracle-focused consulting company headquartered in Dallas, Texas He blogs at  Randy Johnson is a Principal Consultant at Enkitec, a consulting firm specializing in Oracle Randy has over 18 years of experience with Oracle beginning with Oracle in the early 90s Much of his career has combined Oracle DBA work with Unix administration duties Over the last five years he has focused almost exclusively on RAC and ASM He is also an authority on Oracle backup and recovery via RMAN, having written a popular utility for automating RMAN scripts called Dixie Randy occasionally blogs at  Tanel Põder is one of the leading Oracle performance specialists in the world, having helped solving complex problems for customers in over 20 countries on five continents He specializes in advanced performance tuning, end-to-end troubleshooting, and other complex (and therefore interesting) tasks such as migrating VLDBs with very low downtime Tanel has optimized the performance of Exadata installations starting from Exadata V1, and he plans to go even deeper with his current Exadata performance and troubleshooting research He is one of the first Oracle Certified Masters in the world, an Oracle ACE Director and a proud member of the OakTable Network Tanel regularly speaks at conferences worldwide and publishes his articles, scripts and tools in his blog at xvi About the Technical Reviewer  Kevin Closson is a Technology Director and Performance Architect in the Data Computing Division of EMC From 2007 through 2011, Kevin was a Performance Architect in Oracle Corporation’s Exadata development organization within the Server Technology Group His 25 year career focus has been system and software performance engineering and architecture, competitive benchmarking, support, and application development on high-end SMP and Clustered Unix and Linux platforms His work prior to Oracle at HP/PolyServe, Veritas, and IBM/Sequent was focused on scalability and availability enhancements of the Oracle server and platforms that support it His Oracle port-level work led to his U.S patents in SMP/NUMA locking and database caching methods (6389513, 6480918) Kevin maintains a very popular technology blog at xvii Acknowledgments As always, it’s the people closest to you that pay the price for your indiscretions So I’d like to take this opportunity to thank my family for putting up with me while I struggled through this project It was far more work than I ever expected, but what really surprised me was that there was a sense of impending doom hanging over me every day for almost a year I joked that everything was measured in paragraphs I could go out to dinner with my wife, or I could write another two paragraphs (Actually, I couldn’t write them that fast, but you know what I mean.) So again, I’d like to thank my wife Jill and my kids for putting up with the distant stares and the self imposed rain cloud hanging over all of our heads Kerry Osborne I want to say thank you to my kids, Brandon and Charis, who endured the many long nights and weekends I spent at the kitchen table writing this book They are such an inspiration to me My daughter Charis, a truly gifted writer, is so creative and bold My son Brandon, the brilliant scientist and strategic thinker of the family, never gives up Watching them grow into young adults has taught me the value of creativity and perseverance, especially when the task seems insurmountable I love you, kids To my parents, family, and friends, I’d like to say thank you for all your encouragement and support You were always there for me when I needed you I won’t try to name everyone here, but you know who you are And finally, I’d like to say a special thanks to Kerry for inviting me on this journey with him A few years ago, if you’d told me I was going to write a book someday, I’d have laughed out loud But Kerry has a talent for nudging me out of my comfort zone In addition to being a mentor, over the years he has become a trusted friend Randy Johnson This is the first book I've co-authored, so this acknowledgment is going to be a thank-you note to anyone who has ever helped me with my career and supported my passion for solving problems with data, algorithms, and computers If you have ever taught me, helped me, or given me advice— thank you! I'd like to give a special thanks to my parents, who strongly supported my interest in technology, electronics, and computers when I was a kid Additionally, a big thanks to my wife Janika, who, despite not being a computer geek, understands that it's perfectly normal to sometimes stare at a computer screen for 24 hours in a row Tanel Pöder xviii
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