A study on linguistic features of some varieties of english in asia

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY LÊ QUỲNH MAI A STUDY ON LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF SOME VARIETIES OF ENGLISH IN ASIA NGHIÊN CỨU ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGÔN NGỮ MỘT SỐ BIẾN THỂ TIẾNG ANH Ở CÁC NƯỚC CHÂU Á M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 60220201 Hanoi, 2015 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY LÊ QUỲNH MAI A STUDY ON LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF SOME VARIETIES OF ENGLISH IN ASIA NGHIÊN CỨU ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGÔN NGỮ MỘT SỐ BIẾN THỂ TIẾNG ANH Ở CÁC NƯỚC CHÂU Á M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 60220201 Supervisor: Assoc Prof Dr Phan Văn Quế Hanoi, 2015 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled A STUDY ON LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF SOME VARIETIES OF ENGLISH IN ASIA submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2015 Lê Quỳnh Mai Approved by SUPERVISOR Assoc Prof Dr Phan Văn Quế Date: ………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Assoc Prof Dr Phan Văn Quế for the useful comments, remarks and engagement through the learning process of this master thesis Furthermore, I would like to thank him for introducing me to the topic as well as for the support on the way Also, my sincere thanks go to the lecturers of Hanoi Open University, lecturers of the Faculty of Post Graduate Studies of Hanoi Open University, my colleagues and friends who help the study to be fulfilled and willingly share their precious time during the process of conducting this thesis Last but not least, I would like to thank my family for their continuous support and encouragement throughout entire process, both by keeping me harmonious and helping me putting pieces together I will be grateful forever for their support ii ABSTRACT Globalization has helped the spread and further entrenchment of Standard British and American English in many obvious ways English at present maintains a significant role as a second or foreign language in the region of Asia as well as globally In a discussion of this topic, it is important to explore a brief history of the expansion of English and its origins in Asia It is also essential to provide a background of Asian English and its unique linguistic characteristics as well as its use in different contexts of Asia This paper provides a description on the most notable linguistic features of some varieties of English in Asia That is: Indian English, Malaysian English, and Singaporean English For this to be possible, English as a second language has to be discussed, and the development and characteristics of English varieties in Asia generally and features of vocabulary in some varieties of Asian English in particular will thus be discussed The crucial element in this study is the various implications of the role of English in Asia on English language practices These implications lead to suggesting some possible suggestions for effective approaches to communicating English effectively in some Asian countries iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AmE: American English AmE: British English InE: Indian English MaE: Malaysia English SgE: Singapore English StE: Standard English ESL: English as a Second Language: learning English in an English speaking country EFL: English as a Foreign Language: learning English in a non-English speaking country WE: World of English iv LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Figure 1.1.1 - 10 most spoken languages in the world Figure 2.2.1 - Three concentric Circles of English- Kachru (1997) 13 Figure 4.2.2 - The three levels of the lectal continuum (Baskaran) 26 Figure 4.1.1 – India map 36 Figure 4.2.1 – Malaysia map 39 Figure 4.3.1 – Singapore map 42 v TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi Chapter INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Objectives of the study 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Structural organization of the study Chapter LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Review of Previous study 2.2 Review of theoretical background 11 2.3 Summary 28 Chapter METHODOLOGY 29 3.1 Research-governing orientations 29 3.2 Research methods 32 3.3 Summary 35 Chapter FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 36 vi 4.1 Features of vocabulary in Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English 36 4.2 The differences between vocabulary in some varieties of English in Asian and Standard English 43 4.3 Implications in using some varieties of Asian English 56 4.4 Summary 58 Chapter CONCLUSION 60 5.1 Recapitulation 60 5.2 Concluding remarks 60 5.3 Limitations of the study 61 5.4 Suggestions for a further research 61 REFERENCES 63 BILIOGRAPHY 66 APPENDICES 70 Appendix Status of English, historical background and number of speakers in Asian countries 70 Appendix List of Indian English vocabulary compared to Standard English 72 Appendix List of Malaysian English vocabulary compared to Standard English 79 Appendix List of Singaporean English vocabulary compared to Standard English 82 vii Chapter INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study The English language has spread many parts of the world The increase in the number of those learning it and using it has been the most noticeable example of its expansion in this century It has become the most important international language and is the most commonly taught second or foreign language in the world Recent facts from the Internet show that there are about 780 million users of English of whom about 380 million are native speakers, about 300 million are second language speakers, and about 100 million are foreign language speakers Figure 1.1.1 - 10 most spoken languages in the world InE Cooling glass Colony Creche Cricket (a game) Curriculum-vitae or Biodata Current Current account Deposit account Diary District or Taluk Doctor Dustbin Earth wire Flat Ex-serviceman Football Hoarding Hotel Gang Garage Garbage Garden Give test Goods Goods wagon Gramophone Grill Guest house Gum Goggles IBM-Compatible Inflammable Jug Kiosk Lawyer Lift Ltd Main city area Mate Mess Mixee Multi-storey Nice Operation theatre Perks Photograph StE Sunglasses Neighborhood Daycare Cricket (an insect) Resume Electricity Checking account Savings account Journal County Doctor or Physician Trash can Ground wire Apartment ("flats" mean shoes without high heels) Veteran Soccer Billboard Restaurant Mob Garage, Shop, Service station Trash Yard Take test Freight Freight car, Container Phonograph, Turntable, Record player Broil Motel Glue Sunglasses IBM-Clone Flammable Pitcher Booth Lawyer or Attorney Elevator Inc Downtown (most of the time), Uptown Friend ("mate" is used only for spouse) Dorm cafeteria Mixer High-rise, Skyscraper Nice, Cool Operating room Perks, Fringe benefits, Benefits, Employment benefits Picture 74 InE Picture Plot of land Policeman Porter Nappies Notepad Ordinary share Pack of cards Paisa Past performance Pin code, postal code Point, Power point Postbox Pram Perambulator Promenade Race course Queue Restaurant bill Rs 20 Note Rubber Snap Solicitor Solid Spectacles Suitcase Switchboard Tap Talkies Tea towel Timber Tin (of food) To dispatch To fix Toilet Torch To repair Trade union Transistor Two-in-One Washing clothes Shopping Bill Carrier bag Chemist Cotton (reel of) StE Movie Lot Policeman, Cop, Police officer Doorman Diapers Notepad, Scratchpad Common stock Deck of cards Penny, One cent Track record ZIP code Outlet, Electrical outlet Mailbox (for home/apartment)/ Postbox (for rented box located in post office) Stroller Boardwalk Race track, The track Line Restaurant check $20 Bill Eraser ("rubber" is the slang for condom!) Picture Lawyer, Attorney Substantial Glasses Suitcase, Baggage, Bag Power strip ("switchboard" is for a telephone operator) Faucet Movie theater Dish towel Timber, Lumber Can To ship To install Restroom Flashlight To fix Labor union Radio Boom box Doing laundry Check Shopping bag Drugstore, Pharmacy Thread 75 InE Cotton wool Dispensary Drawing pins Expensive stores Hair slide Jumble sale Line of open shops, shopping center Material (by yard) Provision store Provision store man Shop Shop assistant Shopping center Vegetable store Telephone Charge call Directory Personal call Put the phone down Mobile Phone Reverse the charges STD code STD/PCO Telephone call To ring up To telephone Trunk call Theater Dress circle Houseful Gallery Stalls Upper Circle Transportation Accelerate the car Air hostess Bonnet Boot, dicky Car accelerator Car parking Caravan Coach Cycle Diesel Footpath Flyover StE Absorbent cotton Drugstore, Pharmacy Thumb tacks Upscale stores Barrette Garage sale, Yard sale Strip mall ("strip club" has a totally different meaning) Fabric Grocery store Grocer Shop, Store Salesclerk Mall Grocery store Collect call Phone book Person-to-person Hang up, Disconnect Cell Phone Collect call Area code Public phone, Pay phone Phone call, Call To call/to give Buzz Long distance call Mezzanine Full house Balcony Orchestra First balcony Step on the gas Flight attendant Hood Trunk Gas pedal Parking lot Trailer or RV (recreational vehicle) Bus Bike Fuel Sidewalk Overpass 76 InE Gear stick Highway Lorry Motorcycle Motor ways Mudguard/wing Number plate Overbridge Pavement Petrol Petrol pump Punctured tire Railtrack Return ticket Silencer Signal Single ticket Take a lift Taxi Traffic signal Tram Underbridge Underground Windscreen Zebra Crossing Technology Net Site Mail StE Stick shift Freeway, Expressway, Interstate Truck Motor bike Freeways Motor bike License plate Overpass Sidewalk Gas Gas station Flat tire Railroad Round trip Muffler (a "silencer" is used to quiet the sound of a gun) Signal, Traffic light One-way ticket Get a ride Taxi, Cab Traffic light Streetcar Underpass Subway Windshield Crosswalk Post @ in email address = 'at the rate' Idioms A place to park A place to drive Anti clockwise Black money Bunk school Convince someone Dismissed (from job) Mail @ in email address = 'at' Fainted Get down (from a bus) Give the car some race How is everything? How are you? Internet Web site Email Driveway Parkway Counter-clockwise Tax free, Undeclared income Skip class Talk someone into Fired (from job, for fault of employee) Laid off (from job, for no fault of employee) Passed out Get off (of a bus) Speed up the car How is it going? How are you doing? 77 InE I am angry at you Indian Intimate Issue a book (from the library) Join duty Let's make a move Let's push off Mess up Passed out Push the accelerator Ring up (someone) Sleep in the afternoon Standing from a constituency Straight-away The line is engaged To appear in (give) a test To be out of station Too good To post (a letter) To submit Very Close Relations Washing up machine Wash up Wash your hands What is time? StE I am mad at you Indian - Native American/ East Indian - Person from India Inform Check out a book (from the library) Report for work Let's go Let's go Screw up Graduated Step on the gas Call up (someone) Nap Running for an election Right away It's busy / I got a busy tone To take a test To be out of town Cool To mail (a letter) To turn in Intimate relations Dishwasher Do the dishes Wash up Do you have the time? 78 Appendix List of Malaysian English vocabulary compared to Standard English MaE Handphone (often abbreviated to HP) Brinjal KIV (keep in view) Outstation StE Mobile phone or Cell phone Aubergine/Eggplant Kept on file, held for further consideration Means both 'out of town' and/or 'overseas/abroad' Where got? Various Meanings MC (medical certificate) Often used in Sick note this context, e.g 'He is on MC today' Love Letter No equivalent To receive a 'Love Letter' could mean to receive a letter of reprimand or some official notifications (usually negative and ironic in meaning) E.g I received a 'Love Letter' from the bank about my account Can Yes/Alright/Able Cannot No/No, I can't/Unable One hundred over, one thousand over etc Over one hundred, over one thousand etc No equivalent Meh/Ke An optional suffix usually used to donate a question mark to yes, as in "yeah meh?" or "ye ke?" i.e "Are you sure?", with the former being more commonly used amongst those of Chinese descent and the latter by Malays No equivalent Mar Mostly used as a suffix Derived from Chinese, where "ma" is grammatically correct For instance, (mandarin) "ni zhi dao ma?" would literally mean "Did you know?", except that there is an extra word behind: ma Another example, a person would say "I didn't know mar"; which somewhat has the same meaning as "I didn't know la" but is softer than "la" When the person says "I didn't know mar", it indirectly states that the person is being apologetic about not knowing something No equivalent Ar An optional suffix usually used to donate a question mark, as in "Sure ar?" or "Are you sure ar?, i.e "Are you sure?" No equivalent Lah/La/Lor A popular suffix to phrases and sentences Originates from both Malay and Chinese where its usage is grammatically correct, 79 for instance, (Cantonese) "M hou gam yeung la" would literally mean "Don't be like that", except that there is an extra word at the end, "la" Another example: "cannot, lah", i.e."Sorry that's not possible." and "Rest some more-lah.", i.e "Please rest for a while longer," It is important to note that the tone of which the prefx s spoken greatly affects the context of the statement Example, saying "Okay -lah" while squinting one eye and hesitating the -lah, would be to give a mediocre opinion about something (as in "The food was okaylah") Meanwhile, to say a short increasing pitched -lah as in "Okay -lah we'll all go to Ipoh later", would be to agree about something "Lah" is also generally used to soften an otherwise angry/stern tone, such as: "Stop it lah" as opposed to just an abrupt "Stop it!", or "Don't be like that la" as opposed to "Don't be like that" It is usually perceived as less insulting when a "lah" is added in sentences such as those, and typically means that the person uttering the sentence is not angry, unless of course, it is said in a harsh tone Gostan: To reverse, especially in the context of driving motor vehicles A contraction of the term "go astern" (Mostly used in states of Penang and Kelantan) Share Market @ an indicator that the name following is a nickname or alias, usually used by Chinese, e.g for Tan Siew Khoon @ Jimmy, his nickname/alias is Jimmy However, with the increased use of e-mail in recent years, especially in urban and demographically younger areas, the primary meaning of the symbol is now the same as in British/American English last time previously (often used instead of "used to", for example: "Last time I was a manager" when the meaning is "I used to be a manager") Photostat a photocopier; also used as a verb meaning "to photocopy" Slang To reverse, to go backwards Stock Market short for 'at' on the previous occurrence a historical copying machine using a camera and photographic paper, which was superseded by the photocopier informal spoken language, often unique to 80 accent, e.g "I cannot understand your slang", when the real meaning is "I cannot understand your accent" An alphabet a letter of the alphabet, e.g "The word 'table' has five alphabets." / "The Number is 1, The Alphabet is A" Bungalow A mansion for the rich and/or famous; or a fully detached house, regardless of the number of floors it has Some housing developers also use terms such as "semidetached bungalow" To follow to go with, accompany e.g to go with John in his car a particular country or social group A set of letters used in a language A small house or cottage usually having a single storey and sometimes an additional attic story that is free standing, i.e not conjoined with another unit To go directly after e.g "John is driving; follow him", means go in your own car, behind John's car 81 Appendix List of Singaporean English vocabulary compared to Standard English SgE ‘ah beh’ a lettuce absentee vote aerofoil aeroplane allen key aluminium anise anticlockwise aunt agony autumn bachelor party backsplash baking tray beetroot bill biscuit black market blind Bonnet (of a car) boot (of a car) bottom drawer bridging loan brinjal / eggplant call collect candy apple candyfloss / cotton candy canvas car (on a train) car park carryall catapult checkers / lum (game) cinema civil defence cling wrap clothes peg cocktail party concrete block corn StE court card/ face card a lettuce/ a head of lettuce postal vote/ absentee ballot aerofoil/ airfoil aeroplane/ airplane Allen key/ Allen wrench aluminium/ Aluminum aniseed/ anise anticlockwise/ counterclockwise agony aunt/ advice columnist autumn / fall stag night/ bachelor party splashback/ backsplash baking tray/ cookie sheet beetroot/ beet(s) Bill/ check biscuit/ cookie; cracker black economy/ underground economy Blind/ (window) shade Bonnet/ hood boot /trunk bottom drawer/ hope chest bridging loan/ bridge loan aubergine/ eggplant reverse the charges/ call collect toffee apple/ candy apple candyfloss/ cotton candy dust sheet/ drop cloth wagon/ car car park/ parking lot holdall/ carryall Catapult/ slingshot draughts/ checkers cinema/ movie theater; the movies fire brigade/ service/ fire company/ department cling film/ plastic wrap peg/ clothespin drinks party/ cocktail party breeze block/ cinder block maize/ corn 82 SgE cornflour cot cotton bud cotton wool countertop coveralls crocodile clip cross-ply crotchet (music) current account curtains dabao dark chocolate demister (in a car) dialling tone diamante diaper discrimination dish cloth divider doghouse double cream drink-driving driver’s licence dual carriageway dustbin earth (electrical) electricals emergency room engaged (of a phone) expressway extra pay fender (of a car) financial first floor fish finger flatbed truck flea market flexitime flyover football / soccer fries fringe (hair) full board (in hotels) full stop (punctuation) garden StE cornflour/ cornstarch cot/ crib cotton bud/ cotton swab cotton wool/ absorbent cotton worktop/ countertop boiler suit/ coveralls crocodile clip/ alligator clip cross-ply/ bias-ply crotchet / quarter note current account/ checking account curtains/ drapes takeaway (food)/ takeout; to go plain chocolate/ dark chocolate demister/ defroster dialling tone / dial tone diamante / rhinestone nappy/ diaper positive discrimination/ reverse discrimination tea towel/ dish towel crash barrier/ guardrail kennel/ doghouse double cream / heavy cream drink-driving/ drunk driving driving licence/ driver’s license dual carriageway/ divided highway dustbin/ garbage can earth/ ground consumer durables/ durable goods casualty/ emergency room engaged / busy motorway/ expressway; highway danger money/ hazard pay wing/ fender financial year/ fiscal year ground floor/ first floor fish finger/ fish stick low loader/ flatbed truck jumble sale/ rummage sale flexitime/ flextime flyover/ overpass football/ soccer chips/ French fries fringe/ bangs full board / American plan full stop/ period garden/ yard; lawn 83 SgE gardener gear government school green fingers grill (noun) grill (verb) gun hair clip hand phone hatstand HDB HDB apartment HDB estate HDB estate hen night hire purchase / installment plan hoarding hob / stove holiday homely hose (garden) hot flush hurry lah! ice cream icing sugar in hospital independent school indicator (on a car) industrial park inseam jelly beans ladybird lawyer layer cake lettuce / Romaine leverage (finance) licence plate license plate lift lock lollipop lorry loudhailer / megaphone lucky dip maths minim (music) StE groundsman/ groundskeeper gear lever/ gearshift state school/ public school green fingers/ green thumb grill/ broiler grill / broil twelve-bore/ twelve-gauge hairslide/ barrette mobile phone/ cell phone hatstand/ hatrack block of flats/ apartment building flat/ apartment council estate/ (housing) project housing estate/ housing development hen night/ bachelorette party hire purchase/ installment plan hoarding/ billboard hob/ stovetop holiday/ vacation homely/ homey hosepipe/ hose hot flush/ hot flash slowcoach/ slowpoke ice lolly/ Popsicle (trademark) icing sugar/ confectioners’ sugar in hospital/ in the hospital public school/ private school indicator / turn signal trading estate/ industrial park inside leg/ inseam jelly babies/ jelly beans ladybird/ ladybug solicitor/ lawyer sandwich cake/ layer cake cos (lettuce)/ Romaine gearing/ leverage number plate/ license plate registration plate/ license plate lift/ elevator Yale lock/ cylinder lock lolly/ Popsicle (trademark) lorry/ truck loudhailer/ bullhorn lucky dip/ grab bag maths/ math minim/ half note 84 SgE minivan mission school monkey tricks Mr Tan MRT muffler (on a car) mum / mummy newscaster odometer open-pit mining ordinary share oven glove / mitt pacifier (for a baby) pants paracetamol parting (in hair) paved road pavement pay pedestrian crossing pelmet / valance petrol pharmacy physiotherapy pinafore dress plain flour polo neck / turtleneck postal code postbox / mailbox potato chip potato chips power grid power point pram / stroller pram / stroller primary school private soldier public holiday public transport punching bag punwale pushup quantity surveyor quaver (music) queue race car railway StE luggage van/ baggage car faith school/ parochial school monkey tricks/ monkeyshines Joe Public/ John Q Public underground/ subway silencer/ muffler mum/ mummy/ mom/ mommy newsreader/ newscaster milometer/ odometer opencast mining/ open-pit mining ordinary share/ common stock oven glove/ oven mitt dummy / pacifier trousers/ pants paracetamol/ acetaminophen parting/ part metalled road/ paved road pavement/ sidewalk pay packet/ pay envelope pedestrian crossing/ crosswalk pelmet/ valance petrol/ gas; gasoline chemist/ drugstore physiotherapy/ physical therapy pinafore dress/ jumper plain flour/ all-purpose flour polo neck/ turtleneck postcode/ zip code postbox/ mailbox potato crisp/ potato chip crisps/ crisps; potato chips pylon/ utility pole power point/ electrical outlet pram/ baby carriage; stroller pushchair/ stroller junior school/ elementary school private soldier/ GI bank holiday/ legal holiday public transport/ public transportation punchbag/ punching bag needlecord/ pinwale press-up/ pushup quantity surveyor/ estimator quaver/ eighth note queue/ line racing car/ race car railway/ railroad 85 SgE rainbow topping (for ice cream) real estate agent registered mail replay retread (tyre) reversing lights right-angle triangle ring road road divider road marshal robe / bathrobe room only roundabout (at a fair) roundabout (in road) rowing boat rubber / eraser rump roast sailing boat saloon (car) sandpit sanitary napkin scalper scotch tape seal second floor self-raising flour semibreve (music) Semitone (music) share option shopping trolley shoulder showflat sidewalk singlet skeleton in the closet skim milk skipping rope skirting sled sleeper sleeping partner slurpee snakes and ladders snap StE hundreds and thousands/ sprinkles estate agent/ real estate agent, realtor (trademark) recorded delivery/ certified mail accommodation/ accommodations remould/ retread reversing lights/ back-up lights right-angled triangle/ right triangle ring road/ beltway central reservation/ median strip lollipop lady (or man)/ crossing guard dressing gown/ robe; bathrobe room only/ European plan roundabout/ carousel roundabout / traffic circle rowing boat/ rowboat rubber/ eraser silverside/ rump roast sailing boat/ sailboat saloon/ sedan sandpit/ sandbox sanitary towel/ sanitary napkin ticket tout/ scalper sellotape/ scotch tape common seal/ harbor seal first floor/ second floor self-raising flour/ self-rising flour semibreve/ whole note semitone/ half step share option/ stock option shopping trolley/ shopping cart verge (of a road)/ shoulder show house/ home/ model home footway/ sidewalk vest/ undershirt skeleton in the cupboard/ skeleton in the closet skimmed milk/ skim milk skipping rope/ jump rope skirting board/ baseboard sledge/ sled sleeper/ railroad tie sleeping partner/ silent partner water ice/ Italian ice snakes and ladders/ chutes and ladders press stud/ snap 86 SgE snow pea sofa cover solitaire soya bean sponge bath sports shoes spring onion starter / appetizer starter cable station wagon stockings storm in a teacup stove surtitle suspenders sweater sweet switchblade tap taxi / cab taxi stand tennis terrace house thermos flask thumbtack tick tic-tac-toe tidbit timber toilet Tom, Dick or Harry torch / flashlight touch wood tourist tow truck towel / rag trade union trailer train train crossing tram trolley tube top turnip turpentine uneven bars unlike StE mangetout/ snow pea loose cover/ slipcover patience/ solitaire soya/ soya bean/ soy/ soybean blanket bath/ sponge bath trainers/ sneakers spring onion/ green onion starter/ appetizer jump lead/ jumper cable estate car/ station wagon tights/ pantyhose storm in a teacup/ tempest in a teapot cooker / stove surtitle/ supertitle braces/ suspenders jumper/ sweater sweet(s)/ candy flick knife/ switchblade tap/ faucet taxi/ cab taxi rank/ taxi stand real tennis/ court tennis terrace house/ row house vacuum flask/ thermos bottle drawing pin/ thumbtack tick/ check mark noughts and crosses/ tic-tac-toe titbit/ tidbit timber/ lumber loo (toilet)/ john Joe Bloggs/ Joe Blow torch/ flashlight touch wood/ knock on wood holidaymaker/ vacationer breakdown van / tow truck flannel/ washcloth trade union/ labor union articulated lorry/ tractor-trailer goods train/ freight train level crossing/ grade crossing tram/ streetcar; cable car trolley/ shopping cart boob tube/ tube top swede/ rutabaga white spirit/ mineral spirits asymmetric bars/ uneven bars unalike/ unlike 87 SgE unlisted utility knife vest vet wading pool waist pouch walking frame wall-to-wall carpeting wardrobe / cupboard wax paper white coffee / Kopi wholemeal bread windbraker windscreen wine cabinet wine shop zebra crossing Zee (letter Z) zip zucchini StE ex-directory/ unlisted Stanley knife/ utility knife waistcoat/ vest veterinary surgeon/ veterinarian paddling pool/ wading pool bumbag/ fanny pack walking frame/ walker fitted carpet/ wall-to-wall carpeting wardrobe/ closet greaseproof paper/ wax paper/ waxed paper white coffee/ coffee with cream wholemeal bread/ wholewheat bread windcheater/ windbreaker windscreen/ windshield drinks cupboard/ liquor cabinet off-licence/ liquor store; package store zebra crossing/ crosswalk zed/ zee zip/ zipper courgette/ zucchini 88 [...]... English on Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English Hence, as I conduct my study I will also gain more information about Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English and learn more about India, Malaysia and Singapore culture in general So, I hope that my study on Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English is able to show some features of the vocabulary in these... peole have an overview and avoid confusing when facing it The purpose of this present study is to find out what are the linguistic features of some major varieties of English in Asia The varieties in Asia that my study focus on is getting an idea of what vocabularies are in Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English which are somehow characteristic to this particular variety In addition,... Practical significance With the purpose of making a study on the linguistic features of some major varieties of English in Asia, the study will be able to provide Vietnamese people who work in Asian countries the features of some major varieties of English in Asia in terms of vocabulary This study may help them in facing with English varieties in Asia and may be a contribution to the understanding and... the study, including data collection and data analysis techniques Chapter 4 is Findings and Discussion which consists of three parts in which describes linguistic features of English in some Asian countries This chapter focuses on presentation of features of vocabulary in Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English; pointing out differences between the vocabulary in Indian English, Malaysian... mentioned-above, the following objectives are put forwards (1) Describing the features of vocabulary of Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English; (2) Pointing out differences between the vocabulary of Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English and Standard English; (3) Suggesting some possible implications of Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English in terms of. .. most official widely used languages all over the subcontinent of India Hindi English is the most commonly spoken language in India But usually Indians mingle English with Indian languages Stylistic influence of Indian local languages is a particular feature of Indian literature in English Indian English speakers often mix Hindi and other languages with English Similarly Indians say “Today morning” (aaj... (1) Linguistic features of English in India Indian English is one of the oldest regional varieties of the English language India has the largest number of second-language speakers of English Crystal (2004) claims that, combining native and non-native speakers, India has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world Actually 4% of Indian use English Thus India ranks... countries and therefore contribute to the knowledge of Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English and perhaps also to English varieties in Asia in general Also, I hope that the results of my study may contribute to the study of Indian English, Malaysian English and Singaporean English in terms of their vocabulary As pointed out above, not much research has been conducted in this aspect of Indian... importance in the fields of economy, industry, education, as well as in India’s political and social life Consequently, the English language became the official language of India English has a special status in India Apart from having a place in 22 the public institutions of the country, in parliament, the law courts, broadcasting, the press and the education system English has spread in our daily life English. .. the linguistic repertoire and that it has acquired an important status in the language of such multilingual nations Also in functional terms the “new Englishes” have extended their functional range in a variety of social, educational, administrative, and literary domains in India, Malaysia and Singapore would be examples of countries with 'new Englishes’ The definitions of terms given above all define
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