A study on linguistic features of english advertising slogans of fashion

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY LÊ THỊ CÚC A STUDY ON LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH ADVERTISING SLOGANS OF FASHION (NGHIÊN CỨU ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGÔN NGỮ CỦA KHẨU HIỆU QUẢNG CÁO THỜI TRANG TRONG TIẾNG ANH) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 60220201 Hanoi, 2015 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY LÊ THỊ CÚC A STUDY ON LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH ADVERTISING SLOGANS OF FASHION (NGHIÊN CỨU ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGÔN NGỮ CỦA KHẨU HIỆU QUẢNG CÁO THỜI TRANG TRONG TIẾNG ANH) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 60220201 Supervisor: Assoc Prof Dr Vo Dai Quang Hanoi, 2015 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled A STUDY ON LINGUITIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH ADVERTISING SLOGANS OF FASHION submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2015 Le Thi Cuc Approved by SUPERVISOR Assoc Prof, Dr Vo Dai Quang Date: December, 1st, 2015 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This thesis could not have been completed without the help and support from a number of people First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Assoc Pro Dr Vo Dai Quang, my supervisor, who has patiently and constantly supported me through the stages of the study, and whose stimulating ideas, expertise, and suggestions have inspired me greatly through my growth as an academic researcher A special word of thanks goes to my friends and many others, without whose support and encouragement it would never have been possible for me to have this thesis accomplished Last but not least, I am greatly indebted to my family, especially to my husband for the sacrifice they have devoted to the fulfillment of this academic work ii ABSTRACT This thesis deals with fashion advertising slogans in English, especially with phonological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic features of them It is aim to help copywriters to have a better understanding of language of fashion slogans The data of the study were collected from mass media such as TV, posters, or websites of fashion companies, newspaper and magazines in English They were then described and analyzed on phonological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic aspects under qualitative and quantitative approaches The work also made some suggestions of how to write good slogans in English The findings of the study show the phonological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic features of fashion slogans in English Hopefully, this research is useful to those who are teaching and learning English as well as the copywriters iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS S : Subject V : Verb O : Objective iv LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1: The frequency of phonological features in English advertising slogans of fashion 35 Table 2: The frequency of lexical features in English advertising slogans of fashion 43 Table 3: The frequency of syntactic features in English advertising slogans of fashion 52 Table 4: The frequency of pragmatic features in English advertising slogans of fashion Error! Bookmark not defined Figure 1: The distribution of typical phonological features of English advertising slogans of fashion 36 Figure 2: The distribution of lexical features of English advertising slogans of fashion 44 Figure 3: The distribution of syntactic features in English advertising slogan of fashion 53 Figure 4: The distribution of pragmatic features of English advertising slogans of fashion 58 v TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Objectives of the study 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Structural organization of the study Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Review of Previous Researches 2.1.1 Previous studies overseas 2.1.2 Previous studies in Vietnam 2.2 Review of Theoretical background 2.2.1 Advertising and Advertising Slogan 2.2.2 Phonology…………………………………………………………16 2.2.3 Lexicon 18 2.2.4 Syntax 21 2.2.5 Pragmatics 24 2.3 Summary………………………………………………………………31 Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 28 3.1 Research-governing orientations 28 vi 3.1.1 Research questions 28 3.1.2 Research setting 28 3.1.3 Research approaches 29 3.1.4 Principles for intended data collection and data analysis 29 3.2 Research method 29 3.2.1 Major methods and supporting methods 29 3.2.2 Data collection techniques 31 3.2.3 Data analysis techniques 31 3.3 Summary 31 Chapter 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 33 4.1 Phonological and lexical features of English advertising slogans of fashion 33 4.1.1 Phonological features 33 4.1.2 Lexical features 36 4.2 Syntactic and pragmatic features of English advertising slogans of fashion 44 4.2.1 Syntactic features 44 4.2.2 Pragmatic features 53 4.3 Implications 58 4.4 Summary 58 Chapter 5: CONCLUSION 60 5.1 Recapitulation 60 5.2 Concluding remarks 60 5.3 Limitations of the study 61 5.4 Suggestions for further studies 62 REFERENCES 63 APPENDICES 66 vii Chapter INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study Today, with the rapid development of economy around the world, business competition becomes very fierce There is an enormous number of companies in the world Each businesses has its own products or services and how can these companies demonstrate their products or services to the customers? The companies are required to try many ways to exhibit their products or services One of the effective ways to introduce them to the community is advertising The company makes acquaintance goods through all mass media such as television, radio, traditional and modern market, newspaper, internet and magazine Advertising is so familiar to modern readers that it may seem need to ask what an advertisement is Generally, advertising is a written or oral of company using creative and powerful contribution to persuade people in goods Advertisements are identified as the texts that their best to get people’s notice to make people turn towards them The purposes of advertisements are to attract, inform, motivate and appeal curiosity of the public to buy and use the products or services And a slogan is one of the most important communication tools in marketing which triggers the feelings and shows the product or service and company’s claim The language of slogan represents the particular product Slogans can be considered the heart of advertisements wherever they appear Slogans are the most important and condensed messages advertisers would like to send to their customers Sharp and intelligent slogans can help Mario Bruni The World Finest Shoes (Slogan of Mario Bruni) These slogans imply that the companies always try their best to bring customers the highest quality shoes They aim at becoming the finest manufacturer in their industry 4.2.2.2 Showing a Commitment or a Promise of the company to the customers Maybe a company does not business with unique product or service that is different from existing products or services on the market so the company must have a different slogan to increase competition In this case, a good slogan is not the one that reflects not only the nature of the product but also the company’s commitment or promise to better service from the enterprise to customers Commitment or promise about improving the quality of products or service will help differentiate the company from other brands For example: GoldToe Enlighten your feet (Slogan of GoldToe) Love your feet (Slogan of Feelmax) GoldToe and Feelfax give promises of bring customers the feeling of being indulged People who use their products are always of confortable The slogans are short but very impressive 4.2.2.3 Showing the Image of the company A slogan is formed by words not by images but a good slogan can create an image of the company in consumers’ mind When listening or hearing a slogan, the readers or listeners can visualize the product or service of the company For example, the slogans of Feelmax and Peter Kaiser bring a true referring to the readers: 54 Love your feet (Slogan of Feelmax) Jewelry for your legs (Slogan of Peter Kaiser) The images of the companies are expressed by the words “feet” and “legs” When listening to these words, people will be aware of the company’s products- footwear 4.2.2.4 Displaying the company’s Invaluable Asset For some companies, when their slogans were mentioned, the hearers would think of these companies at once For example, when people hear “Just it”, they think of Nike To have this effect, the companies have spent enormous energy for a long time So slogan can be considered the company’s invaluable asset It has a certain position in the costumers’ hearts The companies have to try hard to maintain their slogans Below are some very successful slogans: I am what I am Impossible is nothing Slogan of Adidas) Be good Be bad Be yourself (Slogan of Calvin Klein) Just it (Slogan of Nike) 4.2.2.5 Impressing customers As we know, slogan is one of the tools in advertising and it will remain in the readers’ minds easily so designers have tried to create slogans that can impress the customers at the at time In fact, with just a few short words, it reflects the specific characteristics of each company product or service and is imprinted in the minds of the customers’ first idea of the product or service 55 For instance, the slogan of Earth Shoes: Earth Different, like you Earth Shoes is one of the most famous footwear brands for women in the world Earth shoes is the choice of a number of fashionably dressed women Every women has a burning desire to be stylish and fashionable They hate being the same as the others “Different” arouses people’s egonism Via the slogans, the shoes maker gives their customers and potential customers the impression of being unique 4.2.2.6 Showing the Spirit of Brand Name The brand name and the product or service of the company can be realized quickly and easily via its slogan And slogan is the most condensed part of an advertisement of the company Some slogans show the spirit of the brand name For instance, the slogan of Levi Strauss: Levis Original jeans Original people We know that people always want to be special The slogan aims at this human psychology and show the spirit of Levi Strauss “Levis jean is always original If you want to be original, wear Levis jean!” The frequency of English advertising slogans of fashion with pragmatic features is shown in the table below: Features Occurrence (/70) Proportion Showing company’s marketing strategy 15 21% Showing the image of a company 11% Showing a commitment or a promise of the 19 28% 7% company to customers Displaying the company’s invaluable asset 56 Impressing customers 12 17% Showing the spirit of brand name 11 16% Table 4: The frequency of English advertising slogans of fashion with pragmatic features The table has shown that in English advertising of fashion, slogans are mainly used to show a commitment or a promise of the company to the customers with the highest frequency- 28% Then 21% of studied slogans use it as a way of showing company’s marketing strategy Impressing customers and showing the spirit of brand name account for 17% and 16% respectively 11% of studied slogans is to show the image of the company There are only 7% of slogans which use slogans to display the company’s invaluable asset 20 18 16 14 12 10 Showing company's marketing strategy showing the company's image showing a commitment or promise Displaying company's invaluable asset Impressing customers Showing the spirit of brand name 57 Figure 4: The distribution of English advertising slogans of fashion with pragmatic features 4.3 Implications For Advertisers and Companies The main purpose of advertisers and companies when they advertise is to attract customers to purchase their products or use their services as many as possible This study is carried out, hopefully to provide some knowledge of phonology, lexicon, syntax and pragmatics which I thought are very beneficial for advertisers and companies in writing effective slogans Using standard words and structures in slogans aims to arouse and persuade customers to buy what is advertised because they are sweet to the ear, and pleasing both the eyes and mind This thesis can help advertisers and companies pay more and more attention to the use of phonology, lexicon, syntax and pragmatics in design slogans For learners of English The results of the study may be necessary The analysis will help them have a view on phonology, lexicon, syntax as well as pragmatics of fashion slogans Moreover, it can give learners the way of understanding a slogan and the strategies or technique in writing a slogan in English As a result, their experience will certainly facilitate their English language learning so that they will be able to learn more effectively and successfully 4.4 Summary From the beginning of its existence, advertising was used to introduce and promote goods, events, and even people The objectives of advertising are not limited to boosting sales of the specific company Nowadays, advertising is applied in a much border context A good advertisement should attract the consumers and establish an interpersonal relationship between producer or advertiser and the consumers, then evoke them to take action of purchasing 58 In order to get these purposes, the copywriter must make several crucial decisions: first, what register to use, second, what vocabulary to employ, and third, how to use the language in a creative manner At phonological level, advertisers play with the sounds within the utterance to create euphony to make the slogan more noticeable and memorable The rhetorical devices which are employed are alliteration, rhyme, epistrophe and anaphora In this chapter, the linguistic features of English advertising slogans of fashion at phonological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic level are investigated At phonological level, the rhetorical devices employed are alliteration, rhyme, epistrophe and anaphora The study also find out the use of nouns, verbs, adjectives and pronouns in designing a fashion advertising slogan The distribution of English advertising slogans of fashion with syntactic features such as noun phrase, verb phrase, comparative and superlative structures, imperatives, elliptical sentences, interrogatives, affirmatives are also investigated The thesis also point out some common pragmatic features used in English advertising slogan of fashion 59 Chapter CONCLUSION 5.1 Recapitulation Advertising is something that we are all exposed to It is also something that is likely to affect most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives Thousands of new products and services are introduced everyday through advertising by various media, including newspapers, magazines, television, radio, Internet, and so on It is reasonable to say that we live in a world of advertising And slogans can be considered the heart of advertisements wherever they appear Slogans are the most important and condensed messages advertisers would like to send to their customers Good slogans can help advertisers leave unforgettable impressions on their potential customers’ minds However, creating a successful slogan is never an easy task The use of just a few words in a slogan proves to be harder than it appears It requires a meticulous linguistic insight of lexicology, syntax as well as and pragmatics We can say that language used in slogans is different from common language Simple and attractive are two general features of slogans In summary, no matter which structure and what words are used in a slogan, all of them serve the purpose of attracting the audience, conveying information to them, urging them to purchase the product or to use the service That is what a slogan for, and that is also the function advertising language performs 5.2 Concluding remarks In this study, a number of seventy fashion advertising slogans in English have been investigated to find out the mostly-shared characteristics in slogans of English languages The investigation has helped us to draw some conclusions 60 In lexical features, verbs are used the most to persuade customers to use their services or products The use of nouns as brand names comes after the use of verbs They help to make the consumers remember the products or services and deliver the information very well And some verbs such as love, enlighten, make, share… and some adjectives such as successful, original, beautiful, fine… are often used These short words can hit the goals in the shortest time In syntactic aspect, affirmative sentences or noun phrases are often used because they are easy for consumers to remember Some of the short sentences are elliptical sentences Elliptical sentences are used to spare advertising cost and at the same time improve advertising effectiveness In pragmatic aspect, fashion advertising slogans in English have used with the goals: persuade customers to buy or use companies’ products or services, attract the potential consumers… The findings of the study have given the foundation for the suggestion on how to write slogans in the most effective way I hope this thesis is useful for the advertisers who want to increase the effectiveness of their interactions with the customers and it could be necessary for lexical and syntactic studying Especially, it will not only help learners get better understanding of advertising language but also provide them with some necessary strategies and techniques in writing slogans 5.3 Limitations of the study Lexicon and syntax are complicated aspects in writing slogans However, this thesis only studies some common used ones in company slogans With the limited data for the analysis, there are certainly some other uses of lexicon or syntax of slogans 61 5.4 Suggestions for further studies This study has attempted to investigate the linguistic features in slogan language However, due to the limitations of knowledge and time, this study only investigated a few fashion slogans, which makes the results less generalized Therefore, suggestions for further research may include: • A larger population of data could be employed so that a more general and more exact view could be obtained • The cultural respect, which can make a great effect on the images and the words employed in advertising slogans, can be investigated • It is interesting to investigate into similarities and differences of pun in English and Vietnamese slogans 62 REFERENCES Bovee, Courtland L & Arens, William F (1992) Contemporary Advertising, 4th ed Homewood, IL: Irwin Bovee, Coutland L & Thill, John V (2000) Business communication today, 6th ed, Upper Saddle River, N.J Prentice Hall Churchill Gilbert A & Peter J Paul (1998) Marketing: Creating Value for Customers, Irwin Professional Publishing Cook Guy (2001) The discourse of advertising 2nd edition Routledge Cuddon, J A, Rafey Habib and Matthew Birchwood A dictionary of literary terms and literary theory, John Wiley & Sons, 2013 Delahunty, Gerald P & Garvey James J (1994), Language, Grammar and Communication, McGraw-Hill, Inc Dyer, Gillian (1982), Advertising as Communication, Routledge Fiske John (1990) Introduction to Communication Studies, Routledge Fromkin, V.; Rodman, R.; Collins, P & Blair, D (1990), An Introduction to Language, Australia Catalooguing- Publication 10 Geis, Michael L (1982) The Language of Television Advertising New York and London: Academic Press 11 Goddard, Angela (1998) The language of Advertising London 12 Grice, H.P (1975) "Logic and Conversation," Syntax and Semantics, vol.3, Academic Press 13 Halliday, M.A.K., & Hasan, R (1985) Language, context, and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective Oxford University Press 14 Hornby, A.S (2010), Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, OUP 15 Hybels, Saundra & Weaver, Richard L II (1992) Communicating Effectively, New York : McGraw-Hill 63 16 Keiko Tanaka (1994) Advertising language: A pragmatic approach to advertisements in Britain and Japan Routledge 17 Kramsch, C (19980 Language and Culture Oxford University Press 18 Lac N.H (1999), An Outline of Morphology, NXB TP Hồ Chí Minh 19 Leech, Geoffrey N (1966), English in Advertising: Linguistic Study of Advertising in Great Britain, Longman, London 20 Levinson, Stephen C (1983) Pragmatics, Cambridge University Press 21 Mai Xuan Huy.(2001) “Các đặc điểm ngôn ngữ quảng cáo ánh sáng lý thuyết giao tiếp Luận án Tiến sĩ ngữ văn 22 Mey, Jacob L (2001) Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd edition, WileyBlackwell 23 Miller, J (2000) An Introduction to English Syntax Edinburgh University Press 24 O’Grady, W & Dobrovolsky (1993), Contemporary Linguistics, 2nd Edition, St Martin’s Press, Inc 25 Quirk, R & Greenbaum, S (1987), A University Grammar of English, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow 26 Shannon, Claude E (1948) "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", Bell System Technical Journal 27 Smith, R.N (1982) A Functional View of the Linguistics of Advertising, Linguistics and the Professions – Vol 8.New Jersey: Ablex Publishing 28 Vestergaard Torben & Schroder Kim (1985) The Language of Advertising Basil Blackwell 29 Warriner, John E (1982) English Grammar and Composition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 30 Yule, George (1996) Pragmatics, Oxford Introductions to Language Study, Oxford University Press 64 Websites http://brandongaille.com/65-catchy-fashion-slogans-and-good-taglines/ http://www.namedevelopment.com/list-of-taglines.html http://www.textart.ru/advertising/slogans/apparel/slogans.html 65 APPENDICES 70 GOOD ADVERTISING SLOGANS OF FASHION COMPANIES No Company Slogan Adidas I am what I am Adidas Impossible is nothing Allen-Edmonds Allen-Edmonds For all walks of life Bata Bata The world at your feet Blackglama What become a legend most? Blue Cult Blue Cult Uncompromising Bridgedable Bridgedale Enduring comfort Calvin Klein Nothing comes between me and my Calvin Calvin Klein Be good Be bad Be yourself 10 Cardinale Cardinale Give value to your feet 11 Clarks For all the places you’ll go 12 Clarks Be your own label 13 Clarks Clarks Shoes designed for living 14 Clarks Clarks Shoes to live in 15 Arche Arche Color dream shoes 16 Diesel Diesel For successful living 17 Diesel Global warming ready 18 Diesel The luxury of dirt 19 DKNY The official uniform of New York 20 Dockers It's hard to be nice if you don't feel comfortable 21 Earth Shoes Earth Different Like you 22 Ecco Ecco Shoes for life 23 Ecco Shoes designed to move you 66 No Company Slogan 24 El Naturalista El Naturalista Walking through life 25 Ex Officio Ex Officio Clothes for a big planet 26 Ex Officio Ex Officio Expect more from your clothes 27 Falke Falke For tomorrow’s people 28 Falke Falke Soul texture 29 Falke Form follows you 30 Fox River Fox River Clever engineering you can feel 31 Feelmax Love your feet 32 GoldToe GoldToe Enlighten your feet 33 Gas Gas Keep it simple 34 Gas Gas It’s true 35 Gas Fashion is nothing without people 36 Holeproof They fall up not down 37 H.I.S Jeans HIS Denim Made for pleasure 38 Jantzen All girls are gorgeous in Jantzen 39 Landau Landau The look of a professional 40 Lawman Lawman Leaves everyone speechless 41 Lee Lee The jeans that built America 42 Levi Strauss A style for every story 43 Levi Strauss Levis Original jeans Original people 44 Levi Strauss Our models can beat up their models 45 Levi Strauss Quality never goes out of style 46 Mario Bruni Mario Bruni The World Finest Shoes 47 Mark’s Smart clothing Everyday living 48 Meindl Performance with comfort 67 No Company Slogan 49 Meltin’ Pot Meltin’ Pot Share life 50 Meltin’ Pot Stop wishing Start living 51 Meltin’ Pot Meltin’ Pot Get real 52 Meltin’ Pot Jeans your skin 53 Merrell Merrell Let's get outside 54 Mudd Mudd Better when it’s on you 55 Mudd Our name is Mudd 56 Mustang Mustang Jeans never die They just fade away 57 Mustang True style never dies 58 Nike Just it 59 Nurse Mates Live your life Love your job 60 Oscar de la Renta Isn’t it time you got an Oscar? 61 Paula Lishman Paula Lishman Timeless, elegant, sustainable 62 Peter Kaiser Jewelry for your legs 63 Polo Jeans G.I.V.E Get Involved Volunteer Exceed 64 Taryn Rose Taryn Rose Luxury intelligence technology 65 Think Shoes Think! Healthy Shoes Naturally Beautiful 66 Timberland Make it better 67 Timberland Timberland Don’t wear it Use it 68 Tweans Tweans Fashion that fits my style! 69 Van Dal Almost a part of you 70 Zivas Zivas The finest footwear for the active life style 68 [...]... pragmatic features of English advertising slogans of fashion - Propose some implications for learning English via the linguistic features of advertising slogans of fashion in English 1.4 Scope of the study The study is mainly focused on some phonological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic features of English advertising slogans of fashion Sound, image and other features of slogans are out of scope of. .. example, a female writer can construct a male narrator, or an adult writer can construct a child narrator Narratees are, on the other hand, people who appear to be addressed In fact, in advertising communication, a narratee is not a certain person, but at least a target group, or the whole public 10 The communicative situation of advertising is a type of communication called mass communication The participants... marketing action, an advertiser has to pay for its advertisement (3) Advertising Information Advertising information is the principal contents an advertisement wants to disseminate Advertising is a series of planning actions, so the information of advertising should be aimed at the certain target market and consumers, and should avoid aimlessness The dissemination of information should be accurate, definite,... strong felling It is followed by an exclamation point Examples: What a sight the sunset is! They are off! Sarah won the portable radio! 2.2.5 Pragmatics 2.2.5.1 Notion of Pragmatics This research uses pragmatic approach to analyze the language use in fashion advertisement The focus of pragmatic analysis is on the meaning of speaker’s utterances rather than on the meaning of words or sentences There are... features between some English and Vietnamese advertising slogans 2.2 Review of Theoretical background 2.2.1 Advertising and Advertising Slogan 2.2.1.1 Advertising as a kind of Communication a Communication Communication plays a vital role in human life In his work, Fiske (1990:51) defines communication as social interaction through messages It can be inferred that communication appears in social contexts... typical linguistic features of English advertising slogan of fashion Thus they could use English effectively to design advertising slogans 1.3 Objectives of the study From the aim above, the study is focused on some specific aspects of the language The objectives of this study is to: - Describing phonological and lexical features of English advertising slogans of fashion 2 - Point out syntactic and pragmatic... that are grammaticallized, or encoded in the structure of a language (Levinson, 1983:9) In other words, pragmatics is the study of those aspects of the relationship between language and context that are relevant to the writing of grammars It concentrates on those aspects of meaning that cannot be predicted by linguistic knowledge alone Based on Yule (1996:3) pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning... language features of advertisements Some of these are “Selling America: Puns, language and advertising by Michel Monnot (1982), “Pictorial Metaphor in Advertising by Char Forceville (1998) There are also some contrastive studies which compare the advertising language in English and that in other languages, for example Advertising language: A pragmatic approach to advertisement in Britain and Japan” by... recognizable and moderate in length (4) Advertising Media Media are the means of the dissemination of advertising, including newspaper, magazine, broadcast, TV program, billboard and mail The newspaper, magazine, broadcast and TV are called the four main media of advertising Moreover, any kind of objects or tools can be a medium for the advertisement, such as airplane, train, bus, building, neon light,... (Features of advertising language in the light of communicative theory), and Ton Nu My Nhat (2005) A contrastive discourse analysis of travel advertisements based on the theory of Functional Grammar” 5 Besides, there are many articles on the matter of advertising language which are collected by Nguyen Kien Truong (2004) in a book called “Quảng cáo và ngôn ngữ quảng cáo: (Advertising and the language
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