A study of conditional sentences in the novel jane eyre by charlotte bronte and their vietnamese equivalents

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY HÀ THỊ PHƯƠNG THÚY A STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN THE NOVEL “JANE EYRE” BY CHARLOTTE BRONTE AND THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS (NGHIÊN CỨU CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TRONG TÁC PHẨM VĂN HỌC “JANE EYRE” CỦA NHÀ VĂN CHARLOTTE VÀ TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TIẾNG VIỆT) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 60220201 Hanoi, 2015 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY HÀ THỊ PHƯƠNG THÚY A STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN THE NOVEL “JANE EYRE” BY CHARLOTTE BRONTE AND THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS (NGHIÊN CỨU CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TRONG TÁC PHẨM VĂN HỌC “JANE EYRE” CỦA NHÀ VĂN CHARLOTTE VÀ TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TIẾNG VIỆT) M.A THESIS Field: English Language Code: 60220201 Supervisor: Dr Dang Ngoc Huong Hanoi, 2015 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled A study of conditional sentences in the novel “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte and their Vietnamese equivalents submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2015 Ha Thi Phuong Thuy Approved by SUPERVISOR Dr Dang Ngoc Huong Date:…………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A piece of work of this magnitude is never the effort of only an individual Surely, this dissertation could not be either begun or completed without the help, inspiration and moral support of many people I would like to thank them all here This work owes its existence to my supervisor Dr Dang Ngoc Huong who opened my eyes to the complexity of conditionals From him I have learned more than I could have ever done the work alone He read through my work and gave advice and made comments that provided justification for my work His guidance and positive criticism helped to give shape to this work I am grateful to him My thanks also go to all lecturers of the Faculty of Graduated Studies, Hanoi Open University who taught me valuable lessons I would like to thank my beloved family members who inspired, encouraged and fully supported me Without their love and dedication, this academic work would not be translated into reality Last but not least, I would like to gratefully acknowledge support and encouragement of my classmates and friends who willingly helped me to accomplish this thesis in many aspects         ii ABSTRACT This thesis discusses about the English conditional sentences in the novel” Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte The research is conducted to examine the structures and usage of conditional sentences in English, find out all kinds of conditional sentences being employed in this novel and its Vietnamese equivalents, then discuss as well as suggest some implications related to translating English conditional sentences to Vietnamese teachers and learners The research is the mixed of qualitative and quantitative approaches The source of data is the novel “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte The main data are conditional sentences in the novel To support the main data, the research is supported by other data taken from internet and grammar books about conditional sentences In order to attain the purpose, the data is analyzed through descriptive and contrastive methods We have studied the basic types and most common forms of 291 conditional sentences in the novel, which prove to have a complex constitution, a wide variety of forms, exceptions and functions Semantically, the most frequent type is the second one which serve the fact that this novel in its state refers to a double faced essence - the reality and fiction There are 148 sentences identified 51 per cent of past modal verbs could, should, might, would according to the requested domain of sentences Pragmatically, conditional sentences are also used to express threatening, advising, warning, criticizing, requesting, suggesting and regretting There are some implications have been listed to help Vietnamese teachers and learners of English overcome the difficulties in using and translating English conditional sentences     iii LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES  Chart 2.1: Classification of Mood 13 Chart 2.2: Classification of Tense 16 Chart 4.1: Classification of zero conditional sentences 40 Chart 4.2: The frequency of basic types of conditional sentences in the novel52 Chart 4.3: The appearance of modal verbs can, could, shall, may in conditional sentences 55 Chart 4.4: The appearance of modal verbs must, should, might in conditional sentences 55 Table 2.1: The Zero conditional with the same tense in both clauses 18 Table 2.2: The First conditional sentences (also called type 1) 19 Table 2.3: The Second conditional sentences (also called type 2) 19 Table 2.4: The Third conditional sentences (also called type 3) 20 Table 2.5: Types of English Conditional Sentences and their basic syntactic features 22 Table 2.6: Types of Mixed English Conditional Sentences 22 Table 4.1: The summary of the ways of translating English conditional sentences based on pragmatic functions 61     iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Certificate of originality i Acknowledgements ii Abstract iii List of tables and figures iv Definition of key technical terms v Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the research 1.2 Aims of the research 1.3 Objectives of the research 1.4 Scope of the research 1.5 Significance of the research 1.6 Structural organization of the thesis Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Review of previous studies 2.1.1 Previous researches overseas……………………….………….…8 2.1.2 Previous researches in Vietnam………………………………….9 2.2 Review of theoretical background 10 2.2.1 Mood 10 2.2.2 Tense 13 2.2.3 The English conditional sentences 16 2.3 Summary of the chapter 30       CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 29 3.1 Research-governing orientations 29 3.1.1 Research questions 29 3.1.2 Research setting 29 3.1.3 Research approaches 30 3.1.4 Principles for intended data collection and data analysis 31 3.2 Research methods 31 3.2.1 Major methods vs supporting methods 31 3.2.2 Data collection techniques 32 3.2.3 Data analysis techniques 33 3.3 Summary of the chapter 34 CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 36 4.1 The forms of conditional sentences in the novel and its Vietnamese equivalents 37 4.1.1 The basic types of conditional sentences in the novel and its Vietnamese equivalents 38 The zero conditional sentences 38 The first conditional sentences 40 The second conditional sentences 43 The third conditional sentences 48 The mixed conditional sentences 50 4.1.2 The features of modal verbs in conditional sentences used in the novel ……… 52       4.2 The pragmatic functions of conditional sentences in the novel and its Vietnamese equivalent………………………………………………… 56 4.3 Implications for translating conditional sentences in the novel 62 4.3.1 Some mistakes that learners often have in using English conditional sentences in the novel.…………………………………62 4.3.2 The ways to help learners overcome difficulties in translating English conditional sentences in the novel….………………… ……62 4.4 Summary of the chapter 65 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION 67 5.1 Recapitulation 67 5.2 Concluding remarks 67 5.3 Limitations of the current research 68 5.4 Recommendations for further research 69 REFERENCES 70 APPENDICES 74       CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION    1 Rationale   English is deemed to be the only language that truly links the whole world together Without English, the whole world may not be as united as it is today It is widely used in every field of life such as science, technology, foreign trade, tourism, business, education and so on In Vietnam, there is now a great demand to learn English for the process of integrating into regional and international economic and diplomatic development Moreover, English enables us to communicate with people from different countries and understand more about their traditions and cultures However, it is not easy to learn English as the second language for Vietnamese because there are a lot of differences between the two languages and grammar is the typical problem for this   In terms of English grammar, from the author’s point of view, conditional sentences are considered one of the most difficult issues for nonnative speakers of English English conditional structure plays an important part in English Grammar and mastering it contributes greatly to the students’ English performance English conditionals require coordination of verb forms in both the “ if” and the result clauses and the fact that verb forms often not retain their normal temporal meaning makes it even more complex Although the various conditional forms might seem quite abstract at first, they are actually some of the most useful structures in English and are commonly included in daily conversations.        61 I would be quite if he liked, and as to talking rationally, I flattered myself I was doing that now 62 Giá thử lúc từ (page 241) giã đời, không bị đau đớn 62 If I could go out of life now, without too sharp a pang, it would be well for me (page 264) dằn vặt thực sung sướng.(p.453) 63 Nếu em nói nhiều nước mắt em trào suối.(p.454) 63 The flood-gates of tears are opened, and they would rush out if 64 Tôi sợ Aden không yu spoke much (page 264) người bảo mẫu dạy dỗ, 64 I feared Adele never would have a người biết phải governess to stay if she knew with chung với kẻ what inmate she was housed nào…(p.455) (page 265) 65 Nếu nhìn khóc mà ông khó chịu hay.(p.458) 65 If the flood annoyed him, so much 66 Nếu em chung sống với ông the better (page 267) ông mong muốn, em 66 If I lived with you as you desire, I phải tình nhân ông thôi, should then be your mistress: to nói khác quỷ biện…là say otherwise is sophistical (page giả dối.(p.460) 268) 67 Nếu có quên quên giáo huấn 67 That if I were so far to forget tiếp htu từ thuở nhỏ mà myself and the teaching that had theo vết chân người ever been instilled into me, as- gái khốn khổ kia, cớ 109       under any pretext-with any gì, dù lý nào, justification-through any cám dỗ nào, có temptation-to the ngày ông coi họ, với successor of these poor girls, he cảm tưởng môi nhọ hình would one day regard me with the ảnh họ kí ức ông bây same feeling which now in his giờ.(p.472) become mind desecrated their memory 68 Sợ tự đụng đến (page 275) hoa phai tàn chăng, 68 If I handled the flower freely its duyên tươi thắm dịu dàng bloom would fade - the sweet rời bỏ charm of freshness would leave it (p.475) (page 277) 69 Hơn nữa, muốn xem em có ý tìm không, tránh 69 I wished to see whether you would em.(p.475) seek me if I shunned you (page 70 Nhưng thuận tiện cho 277) 70 If at my individual convenience I might break them, what would be their worth? (page 280) mà phải bỏ chúng chẳng hóa chúng giá trị ư? (p.480) 71 Ta cần cặp hai ngón tay lại nghiền nát nàng, 71 I could bend her with my finger nghiền xé nàng, xé vụn and thumb: and what good would nàng it if I bent, if I uptore, if I gì.(p.480) crushed her? (page 280) chẳng ích 72 Tự ý người, người nhẹ cánh bay tới đậu ngực ta 72 Of yourself you could come with người muốn.(p.481) 110       soft flight and nestle against my heart, if you would: seized against you will, you will elude the grasp 73 Nếu cô đến cô like an essence (page 281) nói tiếng họ nói 73 If either o' ye went there, ye could chứ?(p.503) tell what they said, I guess? (page 74 Nếu chó lạc 294) chủ, lang thang, biết cô 74 If I was a masterless and stray không nỡ đuổi ra, dog, I know that I would not turn không cho sưởi lửa me from your hearth tonight: as it đêm nay.(p.510) is, I really have no fear (page 75 Nếu anh để luồng gió hay 298) hạt mưa ngăn cản anh làm 75 And if I let a gust of wind or a nhiệm vụ dễ dàng đó, sprinkling of rain turn me aside chuẩn bị cho tương lai anh from dự định cho these easy tasks, what preparation would such sloth be nào?(p.530) for the future I propose to myself 76 Trước trình bày, xin cô (page 310) nhớ lại nói 76 Before I explain, recall, if you giúp đỡ cô please, my notice, clearly given, người mù giúp đỡ người què that if helped you, it must be as thôi.(p.534) the blind man would help the 77 Chú ta không khắc khổ, lạnh lame (page 312) 77 He is not stern and distant to his friends; and if he could speak, he would not be silent (page 32) hạt với bạn bè, biết nói hẳn chẳng lặng thinh đâu.(p.550) 78 Nếu cô ta xuất đấy, má 111       ông thường đỏ bừng lên 78 If she appeared at it, his cheek nét mặt cẩm thạch would glow, and his marble- ông, cứng cỏi, seeming features, though they thay đổi cách không tả refused to relax (page 325) nổi.(p.554) 79 Nếu hiến cô trái tim tôi, tin cô nhận.(p.555) 79 If I offered my heart, I believe you 80 Cô nói tiểu sử trước đây, biết would accept it (page 325) 80 She was sure my previous history, if known, would make a delightful romance (page 326) viết thành tiểu thuyết hay.(p.556) 81 Và bây giờ, ông cho cháu nhà ấy, 81 That even now he considered the họ muốn kết hôn với representative of that house might, người thuộc tầng lớp cao if he liked, make an alliance with sang nhất.(p.558) the best.(page 327) 82 Tôi nảy ý muốn giúp ông việc tốt, 82 I conceived an inclination to được.(p.559) him some good, if I could (page 83 Cứ thấy, giá ông lấy “nguyên bản” nhân 328) 83 As far as I can see, it would be wiser and more judicious if you thể khôn ngoan hợp lý were to take to yourself the 84 Tôi phải nói, ông muốn cự cự.(p.570) original at once (page 329) 85 Có lẽ cô giải thích đầy đủ 112       84 He might rebuff me if he liked (page 335) chút hiểu rõ hơn.(p.583) 85 Perhaps, if you explained yourself 86 Nếu bị bắt gặp anh a little more fully, I should nhìn chỗ khác…(p.598) comprehend better (page 342) 86 If caught, it would be instantly 87 Khi gặp ngày tiết trời xấu, withdrawn; yet ever and anon mưa to, gió lớn, tuyết rơi, (page 351) cô em khuyên nhà, 87 If the day was unfavourable, if chẳng anh coi trọng there was snow, or rain, or high lời khuyên ấy, trái lại wind, , and his sisters urged me luôn khuyến khích not to go, he would invariably làm nhiệm vụ, thời tiết make light of their solicitude, and nào.(p.598) encourage me to accomplish the 88 Nếu cô em gái thực, task without regard to the elements (page 351) lại khác, đem cô không tìm vợ.(p.611) 88 If you were my real sister it 89 Tôi ngồi với người would be different (page 359) bình đẳng với tôi, người tranh luận, 89 I was with an equal-one with whom I might argue-one whom, if người kháng cự lại, cần.(p.613) I saw good, I might resist (page 90 Nếu cần phải nói thực, 360) sao?(p.617) 91 Ví thử vợ anh, người 90 If the reality were required, what should we do? (page 362) đàn ông tốt bụng, tâm hồn vắt nước suối sâu 113       91 If I were his wife, this good man, bóng râm ấy, giết pure as the deep sunless source, chóng could soon kill me (page 364) nào.(p.620) vánh hư 92 Anh nói không lấy anh(p.622) 93 Nếu lấy anh, anh giết 92 You said you could not unless I married you (page 365) 93 If I were to marry you, you would kill me (page 365) 94 If I showed the feeling, he would make me sensible that it was a chết tôi.(p.622) 94 Nếu tỏ tình yêu anh làm cho hiểu chuyện thừa, anh chẳng thiết, mà không thích hợp với tôi.(p.628) superfluity, unrequired by him, 95 Nếu nghe theo lòng unbecoming in me.(page 368) kiêu hãnh người, chẳng nhắc lại chuyện hôn 95 If I listened to human pride, I should say no more to you of marriage with me (page 370) nhân với cô làm nữa.(p.630631) 96 Nếu lần nhượng chắn có ngày phải ân hận không giữ 96 If I yielded now, I should not the less be made to repent, some day, tính ngang bướng cố hữu tôi.(p.632) of my former rebellion (page 371) 97 Và chạy lại…thì sao?(p.639) 98 Giá thử trước kia, cố làm cho 114       97 If I did - what then? (page 375) em nghĩ tới.(p.658) 99 Nếu chuyện ngừng lại lát 98 If I were what I once was, I would ông lại lo lắng, sờ vào try to make you care (page 386) người tôi, gọi “Jen”.(p.660) 99 If a moment's silence broke the 100 Nếu nói câu chuyện conversation, he would turn tất nhiên gây restless, touch me, then say,' Jean" tâm trí ông ấn tượng sâu (page 387) sắc mà tâm trí ông 100 If I told anything, my tale would đau đớn đây, rầu rĩ be such as much necessarily a rồi, không nên để huyền bí profound impression on the mind phủ thêm bóng tối âm u of my hearer… (page 397) D The third conditional sentences in the novel English conditional sentences Vietnamese equivalents That if Mr Reed had been alive he Nếu ông Rit sống, would have treated me kindly; ông (page 11) tôi.(p.35) đối xử tốt với If she had been in great pain one Nếu đau yếu mà kêu would have excused it, but she nhẽ, đằng cốt only wanted to bring us all làm để bắt phải here.(page 12) lại (p.36) And if Bessie had but been kind Nếu Betxi có tử tế gần gũi tôi, and companionable, I should have thích ngồi riêng 115       deemed it a treat to spend the với chị buổi tối evenings quietly with her, instead lặng lẽ qua of the buổi tối bà Rit nhìn với formidable eye of Mrs Reed, in a mắt cay nghiệt buồng đầy room full of ladies and gentlemen ông bà lịch sự.(p.52) passing them under (page 22) And Eliza would have sold the Có lẽ Eliza bán tóc hair off her head if she could have đầu thấy có lợi.(p.54) made a handsome profit thereby (page 23) Probably, If i had lately left a Có lẽ vừa rời bỏ gia good home and kind parents, this đình ấm cúng cha mẹ thân would have been the hour when I yêu, phút should most keenly (page 46) chua xót nhất, nhớ tiếc buổi chia ly (p.89) If even this strange had smiled and Nếu người lạ mặt thấy been good-humoured to me when lại mỉm cười tươi tỉnh với tôi, I addressed him; if he had put off ông ta cảm ơn vui vẻ từ my offer of assistance gaily and chối giúp đỡ tôi, có lẽ with thanks, I should have gone việc mà bỏ cảm thấy on my way and not felt any chẳng cần phải quay lại hỏi thêm vocation to renew enquiries: but làm gì, đằng vẻ cau có, thô the frown, the roughness of the lỗ ông ta lại làm thấy dễ traveler, set me at my ease: I chịu.(p.177) retained my station when he waved to me to go, and 116       announced (page 99) I should, if I had deliberated, have replied to this question by Nếu có thời gian suy nghĩ, có something conventionally vague lẽ trả lời câu nói and polite (page 114) ước lệ xã giao lễ phép, đằng bất thần nên buột I f she had managed the victory at mồm không kịp suy nghĩ.(p.203) once, and he had yielded and Nếu cô ta chiến thắng sincerely laid his heart at her feet, tình yêu ông Rochexto, I should covered my face, turned ông chân thành đặt trái tim to the wall, and (figuratively) have chân cô, che died to them mặt đi, quay vào tường, (theo nghĩa bóng) đành người If Miss Ingram had been a good chết họ and noble woman, endowed with Giả sử cô Ingram người force, fervor, kindness, hence, I đàn bà tôt, cao quý, bẩm sinh có should have had one vital struggle nghị lực, nhiệt tình, hòa nhã, with two tigers (page 163) thông minh, có lẽ phải lao vào chiến đấu sống với hai hổ dữ-ghen 10 If shot by surer hand, have tuông thất vọng…(p.283-284) quivered keen in his proud heart- 10 Nếu vào tay người bắn giỏi have called love into his astern mũi tên eye, and softness into his sardonic cắm sâu vào trái tim kiêu face, or, better still, without ngạo ông, gọi weapon a silent conquest might tình yêu trog nhìn nghiêm 117       have been won (page 163) khắc dịu dàng nét mặt mỉa mai, tốt là, không dùng khí giới mà lặng lẽ thôi, chinh 11 I should have been a careless phục ông.(p.284) shepherd if I had left a lamb- my 11 Nếu để cừu non-con pet lamb- so near a wolf's den, cừu non yêu quý tôi-ngay unguarded: you were safe (page cạnh hang sói, mà không đề 190) phòng cả, chẳng hóa chăn cừu lơ đãng 12 I should have been glad to love sao?(p.328) you if you would have let me 12 Hồi bé, nhiều lần cháu (page 211) 13 And if God had gifted me with muốn yêu quý mợ mợ cho phép.(p.362) some beauty and much wealth, I 13 Nếu trời phú cho có đôi chút should have it as hard for you to nhan sắc, lại có tiền nữa, leave me, as it is now for me to hẳn làm cho ông khó leave you (page 223) mà xa được, 14 And if I had loved him less I khó xa ông.(p.382) should have thought his accent 14 Và lúc không yêu ông and look of exultation savage nghĩ (page 225) giọng nói nhìn hứng khởi ông có vẻ 15 If she had held it open a little man rợ…(p.386) longer, I believe I should have 15 Giá bà ta để ngỏ cửa lâu begged a piece of bread; for I was chút nữa, hỏi 118       now brought low (page 289) xin mẩu bánh, nhân cách xuống 16 Not that St John harbored spirit of rồi.(p.495) unchristian vindictiveness - not 16 Chẳng phải Xanh Jon nuôi that he would have injured a hair dưỡng tinh thần thù oán trái of my head, if it had been fully in với đạo Cơ Đốc, chẳng his power to so (page 363) phải anh muốn động chạm đến sợi tóc tôi, anh 17 If Saul could have had you for his có khả làm thế.(p.619) David, the evil spirit would have 17 Nếu Xôn mà có em thay been exorcised without the aid of cho Davit, cần the harp (page 388) đến thụ cầm đuổi 18 If any listener had heard me, he tà ma.(p.662) would have thought me mad 18 Nếu lúc có nghe thấy tôi, (page 398) hẳn phải cho điên.(p.675) E The mixed conditional sentences in the novel English conditional sentences Vietnamese equivalents For if you don't repent, something Vì cô không ăn năn hối lỗi, bad might be permitted to come ma quỷ chui từ ống khói down the chimney and fetch you xuống bắt cô đem đấy.(p.30) away (page 8) She was pretty too, if my Nếu kí ức hình recollections of her face and person dung lại nét mặt dáng người are correct (page 23) chị không sai Betxi người xinh đẹp.(p.53) 119       If Ms Reed was there, I would have Nếu bà Rít cho gọi demanded.(p.24) (p.56) If it had not satisfied hunger: the Nếu không làm thỏa mãn long restrain of the day was đói làm cho người slackened; the schoolroom felt tỉnh táo lên, câu thúc gò bó warmer than in the morning (page suốt ngày nới rộng, không 45) khí buồng học ấm cúng buổi sáng.(p.88) If you could not avoid it: it is weak Nếu chị không tránh điều and silly you cannot bear what it is bổn phận chị phải chịu your fate to be required to bear đựng thôi.(p.90) (page 47) If he had but been able to look to a Giả sử nhà vua nhìn xa distance, and see how what they chút thấy rõ khuynh call the spirit of the age was hướng mà người ta gọi tending (page 48) tinh thần thời đại.(p.92) She had promised to teach me Cô hứa hai tháng tới vẫ drawing, and to let me learn giữ mức vậy, cô dạy French, if I continued to make vẽ cho học tiếng Pháp similar improvement two months nữa.(p.108) longer (page 58) If others don't love me I would Nếu không người rather die than live (page 59) yêu mến, muốn chết hơn.(p.110) And if we were dying in pain and Nếu chết đau shame, if scorn smote us on all đớn nhục nhằn, bị 120       sides, and hatred crushed us, angels khinh bỉ vùi dập bốn bề, see our tortures, recognise our bị ghét bỏ dày xéo, vị innocence ( if innocent we be: as I thiên thần nhìn thấu know you are of this charge which hành hạ chứng giám cho Mr Brocklehurst has weakly and vô tội (nếu thực pompously repeated at secondhand vô tội, biết from Mrs Reed; for I read a sincere chị bị ông Brockon-hoc đổ oan nature in your ardent eyes and on cho cách thổi phồng lên your clear font) (page 59) cách cỏi nhắc lại lời bà Rit, nhìn thấy rõ chất chân thực ánh mắt sáng ngời vầng trán thản chị.(p.110) 10 It was a very severe one, if you 10 Đó một mùa rét khắc nghiệt, hẳn cô nhớ, recollect, and when it did not snow, it rained and blew (page trời tuyết lại có 83-84) mưa gió.(p.152) 11 If I enquired in return whether you 11 Có lẽ ông cho người thô lỗ, hỏi lại ông are a philanthropist? (page 115) rằng: ông có phải người bác không?(p.205) 12 If she could but have been proved 12 Nếu giống ông, có lẽ ông chăm sóc đến hơn.(p.226) to resemble him, he would have more of her (page 127) 13 If he were to go straight from the 13 Nếu ông Rochexto mạch từ lâu đài Li tới Luân 121       Leas to London, and thence to the Đôn, lại từ sang lục địa Continent, and not show his face năm sau quay again at Thornfield for a year to lâu đại Thornofin, chẳng lấy come; he had not unfrequently làm ngạc nhiên.(p.249) quitted it in a manner quite as abrupt and unexpected (page 141) 14 Giá cô biết hoàn cảnh cô đặc 14 If you knew it, you are peculiarly situated (page 173) biệt sao!(p.299) 15 Dù cho có biết đến hai 15 It does not signify if I knew mươi lối twenty ways; for he has seen me thôi, ông Rochexto thấy (page 215) rồi.(p.369) 16 Quả thực có chút 16 If I had ever so small an riêng, dù ít, dễ independency; I never can bear chịu, chẳng có being dressed like a doll (page thể chịu cảnh ông 236) Rochexto may mặc cho búp bê.(p.407) 17 Giả thử người có 17 If the man who had but one little cừu non, coi thân thiết ewe lamb that was dear to him as a gái mình, cho ăn miếng daughter, that ate of his bread and bánh mình, cho uống drank of his cup, and lay in his vào cốc mình, cho nằm bosom, had by some mistake lòng mình, mà slaughtered it at the shambles, he lầm lẫn đó, lại đập chết would not have rued his bloody lò sát sinh, người hối tiếc 122       blunder more than I now rue mine lỗi lầm đẫm máu (page 263) được.(p.452) 18 Tuy nhiên ông trí thật ông người lạnh 18 If he were insane, however, his lùng tính.(p.570) was a very cool and collected 19 Vì ông Rochexto không insanity (page 334) 19 Mr Rochester is not there; and if he were, what is, what can that ever be to me? (page 358) đây, mà điều có ý nghĩa ta nữa.(p.609) 20 Không, chết có lẽ lại hơn.(p.647) 20 Perhaps it would have been better 21 Nếu đời em, có if there had (page 379) làm việc tốt, có 21 If ever I did a good deed in my life em có ý nghĩ - if ever I thought a good thought - tốt, có em cầu if ever I prayed a sincere and nguyện cách thành khẩn, blameless prayer - if ever I wished mà đáng trách, có a righteous, - I am rewarded now em biết ước mơ (page 394) đắn, em thưởng công.(p.672) 123       [...]...For the above reasons, the main aim of this paper is to examine the structures and usage of conditional sentences in English and Vietnamese in the novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte The author will find out all kinds of conditional sentences being employed in this novel and its Vietnamese equivalents and then discuss as well as suggest some implications related to translating English conditional sentences. .. "Jane Eyre" and their Vietnamese equivalents ?  What are the pragmatic functions of conditional sentences used in the novel and their Vietnamese equivalents?  What are the implications for translating English conditional sentences in the novel? 3.1.2 Research setting This research is conducted to provide a deeper understanding of conditional sentences and the application of conditional sentences in the. .. grammatical books, then examining the usage of them in different communication circumstances in the novel Jane Eyre Besides, the paper will also find out the frequency of conditional sentences in the novel "Jane Eyre" to hypothesize the presence of these conditional sentences and its Vietnamese equivalents Last but not least, the paper suggests some implications for translating English conditional sentences. .. equivalents 3.1.3 Research approaches To gain the purpose of the research, the researcher analyzed the novel through the mixed of qualitative and quantitative approaches As it has been stated before, this research was to discover distinctive features of conditional sentences as well as the frequency of conditional sentences in the novel Jane Eyre and its Vietnamese equivalents in term of 30       ... functions of conditional sentences used in the novel and its Vietnamese equivalents - And lastly, suggesting some implications for translating English conditional sentences used in the novel   1 4 Scope of the research  Due to the limited amount of time, reference source and capability, the author mainly focuses only on “If” conditional sentences in the novel Jane 5       Eyre by Charlotte Bronte The study. .. private consciousness' and the literary ancestor of writers like Joyce and Proust The novel contains elements of social criticism, with a strong sense of morality at its core, but is nonetheless a novel many consider ahead of its time given the individualistic character of Jane and the novel' s exploration of classism, sexuality, religion, and protofeminism The author Tran Kim Anh translated Jane Eyre ... tense and English conditional sentences.   Chapter III: Methodology   Explains what methods are employed for data collection and analysis, looks at the selection of subjects and the procedures of data collection and analysis.  6       Chapter IV: Findings and discussions   Finds out the basic types and most common forms of conditional sentences that appeare in the novel as well as their pragmatic functions,... regretting, and softening are discussed.  In short, there have been various studies on conditional sentences in general from an article, a scientific research to a graduation paper or a book However, all the authors only focus on the types and meanings, there’s hardly any research into conditional sentences in a novel For this reason, our research is an endeavor to examine the problem of conditional sentences. .. adulthood, and her love for Mr Rochester, the byronic master of fictitious Thornfield Hall In its internalisation of the action the focus is on the gradual unfolding of Jane' s moral and spiritual sensibility, and all the events are coloured by a heightened intensity that was previously the domain of poetry Jane Eyre revolutionised the art of fiction Charlotte Brontë has been called the 'first historian of the. .. in the novel entitled Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte since there are only a few instances where research has been conducted on the conditional sentences in the novel by qualitative and quantitative approach Charlotte Brontë (21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Bronte sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English
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