Thiết kế nền móng công trình ,Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình Thiết kế nền móng công trình FOUNDATION DESIGN THEORY AND PRACTICE Foundation Design: Theory and Practice N S V Kameswara Rao © 2011 John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd ISBN: 978-0-470-82534-1 FOUNDATION DESIGN THEORY AND PRACTICE N S V Kameswara Rao Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia This edition first published 2011 Ó 2011 John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd Registered office John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Clementi Loop, # 02-01, Singapore 129809 For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as expressly permitted by law, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate photocopy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center Requests for permission should be addressed to the Publisher, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809, tel: 65-64632400, fax: 65-64646912, email: enquiry@wiley.com Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners The Publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kameswara Rao, N S V Foundation design : theory and practice / N.S.V Kameswara Rao p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-470-82534-1 (hardback) Foundations I Title TA775.K337 2010 624.1’5–dc22 2010029407 Print ISBN: 978-0-470-82534-1 ePDF ISBN: 978-0-470-82535-8 oBook ISBN: 978-0-470-82536-5 ePub ISBN: 978-0-470-82815-1 Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Thomson Digital, Noida, India To Divinity all pervading Contents Preface xix Acknowledgments xxi Introduction 1.1 Foundations, Soils and Superstructures 1.2 Classification of Foundations 1.2.1 Shallow Foundation 1.2.2 Deep Foundations 1.3 Selection of Type of Foundation 1.4 General Guidelines for Design 1.5 Modeling, Parameters, Analysis and Design Criteria 1.6 Soil Maps Engineering Properties of Soil 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Basic Soil Relations 2.2.1 Grain Size Distribution 2.2.2 Plasticity and the Atterberg’s Limits 2.3 Soil Classification 2.4 Permeability 2.4.1 Quick Sand Condition and Critical Hydraulic Gradient 2.5 Over Consolidation Ratio 2.6 Relative Density 2.7 Terzaghi’s Effective Stress Principle 2.8 Compaction of Soils 2.9 Consolidation and Compressibility 2.9.1 Compressibility Characteristics and Settlement of Soils 2.9.2 Time Rate of Consolidation 2.10 Shear Strength of Soils 2.10.1 Direct Shear Test 2.10.2 Vane Shear Test 2.10.3 Triaxial Shear Test 2.10.4 Unconfined Compression Test 1 3 4 9 11 13 15 15 16 16 18 19 20 21 22 24 26 27 27 29 30 Contents viii 2.10.5 Correlations 2.10.6 Sensitivity and Thixotropy 2.11 Soil Exploration and Sampling 2.11.1 Purposes of Soil Exploration 2.12 Site Investigation — Boring, Sampling and Testing 2.12.1 Minimum Depth of Bore Holes 2.13 Split Spoon Sampler and Standard Penetration Test 2.14 Cone Penetration Test 2.15 Field Vane Shear Test 2.16 Other In Situ Tests 2.17 Summary 2.18 Examples Exercise Problems 31 32 32 32 33 33 35 39 43 43 43 43 48 Bearing Capacity, Settlement, Stresses and Lateral Pressures in Soils 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 General and Local Shear Failure of Soils 3.1.2 Punching Shear Failure 3.1.3 Failure Due to Large Settlements 3.1.4 Allowable or Design Soil Pressure 3.2 Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 3.2.1 Prandtl’s Theory for Shallow Foundations 3.2.2 Terzaghi’s Theory for Shallow Foundations 3.2.3 Modified Bearing Capacity Factors for Smooth Base 3.2.4 Factors of Safety 3.2.5 General Bearing Capacity Solutions 3.2.6 Effect of Ground Water Table 3.2.7 Other Factors 3.3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations 3.3.1 Types of Deep Foundations 3.3.2 Bearing Capacity 3.4 Correlation of UBC and ASP with SPT Values and CPT Values 3.4.1 SPT Values 3.4.2 Correlation to N Values 3.4.3 CPT Values 3.5 UBC and Probable Settlements Using Field Plate Load Test 3.5.1 Spring Constant from Total Deformation 3.5.2 Settlement 3.5.3 Ultimate Bearing Capacity 3.6 Elastic Stress and Displacement Distribution in Soils 3.7 Settlement Analysis 3.7.1 Immediate Settlement 3.7.2 Settlement Due to Consolidation 3.7.3 Settlement Due to Secondary Consolidation 49 49 49 49 50 50 51 51 52 54 55 55 55 56 57 57 58 59 59 60 61 62 62 63 64 65 72 73 73 74 Contents 3.8 Lateral Earth Pressure 3.8.1 Fundamental Relationships Between Lateral Pressure and Backfill Movement 3.8.2 Rankine’s Theory 3.8.3 Coulomb’s Theory of Earth Pressure 3.9 Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest 3.10 Other Theories of Lateral Pressure 3.11 Examples 3.11.1 Examples in Bearing Capacity (Sections 3.2 to 3.5) 3.11.2 Examples in Stress Distribution in Soils (Section 3.6) 3.11.3 Examples in Settlement Analysis (Section 3.7) 3.11.4 Examples in Lateral Pressures (Sections 3.8 to 3.10) Exercise Problems Rational Design of Shallow Foundations 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Shallow Foundations 4.3 Conventional Design and Rational Design 4.4 Procedures for the Design of Footings 4.4.1 Depth of Footings 4.4.2 Proportioning the Size of the Footing 4.4.3 Stress on Lower Strata 4.4.4 Settlement of Footings 4.4.5 Design Considerations for Eccentric Loading 4.4.6 Inclined Loads 4.4.7 Footings on Slopes 4.4.8 Uplift of Footings 4.5 Conventional Structural Design of Footings 4.6 Foundations in Difficult Soil Formations 4.6.1 Sites with Possible Soil Erosion 4.6.2 Foundations with Susceptibility of Corrosion 4.6.3 Sites with Water Fluctuation or Near Large-Scale Mining Operations 4.6.4 Foundations in Loose Sand 4.6.5 Foundations on Loess or Other Collapsible Soils 4.6.6 Foundations on Clays or Silts 4.6.7 Foundations on Expansive Soils 4.6.8 Foundations on Garbage Land Fills or Sanitary Landfills 4.7 Modeling Soil Structure Interactions for Rational Design of Foundations 4.7.1 Elastic Foundations 4.7.2 Soil–Structure Interaction Equations 4.7.3 Brief Review of the Foundation Models 4.7.4 Winkler’s Model 4.8 Evaluation of Spring Constant in Winkler’s Soil Model 4.8.1 Coefficient of Elastic Uniform Compression – Plate Load Test ix 74 74 76 80 86 86 87 87 92 99 104 114 119 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 128 131 134 135 136 137 137 137 138 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 146 151 151 151 Contents x 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4 4.8.5 4.9 4.10 Size of Contact Area Winkler’s Soil Medium with or without Tension Sensitivity of Responses on ks Modulus of Subgrade Reaction for Different Plate Sizes and Shapes 4.8.6 Poisson’s Ratio of the Soil Medium 4.8.7 Evaluation of Young’s Modulus 4.8.8 ks for Foundations Subjected to Dynamic Loads Soil–Structure Interaction Equations Summary Analysis of Footings on Elastic Foundations 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Literature Review 5.2.1 Analytical Solutions 5.2.2 Numerical Methods and Finite Difference Method 5.2.3 Finite Element Method 5.3 Analysis of BEF 5.3.1 General Solution 5.4 Infinite Beams on Elastic Foundations 5.4.1 Semi-Infinite Beams on Elastic Foundations Subjected to P at x ¼ 5.5 Finite Beams on Elastic Foundations 5.5.1 MIP for General Loads and Beam Configurations 5.5.2 Effect of External Loads – General Solution of the Nonhomogeneous Equation 5.5.3 Method of Superposition with MIP 5.5.4 General Comments on Exact Solutions of BEF 5.5.5 Approximate Categorization of BEF for Simplification and Idealization of Analysis 5.6 Plates on Elastic Foundations 5.6.1 Analysis of Rectangular PEF 5.6.2 Bending of Rectangular PEF 5.6.3 Circular PEF 5.7 Summary Exercise Problems Appendix 5.A Matrix of Influence Functions (Method of Initial Parameters) Numerical and Finite Difference Methods 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Trial Solutions with Undetermined Parameters 6.2.1 Stationary Functional Method 6.2.2 General Comments 6.2.3 Trial Solutions with Undetermined Functions 6.2.4 Observations 156 157 157 157 160 160 160 162 163 165 165 165 165 166 166 167 168 170 172 173 176 179 186 186 186 187 187 187 193 196 196 201 203 203 203 205 205 208 208 Contents 6.3 xi Finite Difference Method 6.3.1 Finite Difference Operators 6.3.2 Application to Engineering Problems 6.3.3 Errors in FD 6.3.4 Improvizations of FDM – Iterative Methods, Relaxation, h2 Extrapolation and so on 6.4 FDM Applications to General BEF Problems 6.4.1 Representation of Derivatives Using Central Differences 6.4.2 Representation of Applied Loads 6.4.3 Equivalent Nodal Loads 6.4.4 Subgrade Reaction and Contact Pressures 6.4.5 FD Analysis for BEF Problems 6.5 Boundary Conditions 6.5.1 Free Ends 6.5.2 Simply Supported Ends 6.5.3 Fixed Ends 6.6 Calculation of Bending Moments 6.6.1 Boundary Nodes 6.6.2 Internal Nodes 6.7 Shear Forces 6.7.1 Boundary Nodes 6.7.2 Internal Nodes 6.8 Vertical Reactions 6.8.1 Supports at Boundary Nodes 6.8.2 Internal Supports 6.9 Simplification for Prismatic Beams 6.9.1 FDO for Prismatic BEF 6.9.2 Free Ends 6.9.3 Simply Supported Ends 6.9.4 Fixed Ends 6.9.5 Solutions of Simultaneous Equations 6.10 FDM for Rectangular Plates on Elastic Foundations 6.10.1 PEF with Free Edges 6.11 FDM for Circular and Annular Plates on Elastic Foundations 6.12 BEF Software Package 6.13 Summary Exercise Problems 209 210 212 215 215 216 216 217 218 222 223 226 227 229 230 232 232 233 234 234 236 237 237 240 240 240 242 242 243 243 248 249 256 256 256 257 Finite Element Method 7.1 General Philosophy 7.2 Finite Element Procedure 7.2.1 Finite Element Deformation Patterns 7.2.2 Transformation of Coordinates 7.3 Formulation of Finite Element Characteristics (Stiffness Analysis) 7.4 Beam Elements 7.4.1 Incorporating Soil Reaction for BEF Analysis 261 261 263 264 265 266 270 273 Contents xii 7.5 Plate Elements for Bending Theory 7.5.1 Introduction 7.5.2 Displacement Formulation of the Plate Problem 7.5.3 Continuity of Requirement for Shape Function 7.5.4 Nonconforming Shape Functions 7.5.5 Stiffness and Load Matrices 7.5.6 Stiffness Matrix for Isotropic Plates 7.5.7 Incorporating Soil Reaction for PEF Analysis 7.5.8 Circular, Ring Shaped and Plates of General Shapes 7.5.9 Finite Grid Method and Boundary Element Method 7.5.10 General Comments on FEM 7.6 Summary 7.7 Examples 7.7.1 FEM Analysis of BEF 7.7.2 FEM Analysis of PEF 7.7.3 General FEM Examples of Soil Structure Interaction Exercise Problems Appendix 7.A Stiffness and Stress Matrices for Plate Elements 7.A.1 Stiffness Matrix 7.A.2 Stress Matrix 7.A.3 Load Matrix 274 274 275 278 278 280 281 281 283 283 284 284 284 284 287 292 295 296 296 297 299 Parameters and Criteria for Foundation Design 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Design Considerations 8.3 Codes, Practices and Standards 8.4 Design Soil Pressure 8.5 Gross and Net Values of the Safe Bearing Capacity and Allowable Soil Pressure 8.6 Presumptive Bearing Capacity 8.6.1 Design Loads and Factors of Safety 8.7 Settlements and Differential Settlements 8.7.1 Total Settlement 8.7.2 Differential Settlement 8.8 Cracks Due to Uneven Settlement 8.9 Suggestions to Reduce Large Differential Settlements 301 301 301 302 302 303 303 304 304 305 306 307 308 Deep Foundations – Piles, Drilled Piers, Caissons and Pile-Raft Systems 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Piles 9.2.1 Timber Piles/Plain Timber Piles 9.2.2 Concrete Piles 9.2.3 Composite Piles 9.2.4 Steel Piles 9.3 Functions of Piles 9.4 Design of Pile Foundations 309 309 310 311 312 314 314 314 314 Structural Design of Foundations 617 The reinforcement details, designed according to these three codes are shown in Figure 12.D.4 From Table 12.D.18, it can be clearly seen that according to Indian Standard and ACI codes, the net upward pressure (118 and 119 kN/m2), moment (370.05 and 373 kN/m2), tension reinforcement required (1871.71 and 1827.84 mm2) and shear force (317.18 and 319.87 kN for one way, 1100 and 1109 kN for two ways) are comparable However, according Eurocode all these values are slightly smaller than the values obtained using IS and ACI codes This is due to the lower values of partial load factors used in Eurocode Whereas for effective depth, the values computed from Indian Standard and Eurocodes are similar (205 and 199 mm), but from ACI codes the value obtained is much smaller (157 mm) However, this value usually will be as per the critical shear force on footing Therefore, for ACI code, the effective depth is usually governed by the critical shear force requirement From Table 12.D.18, it can also be seen that the shear strength of concrete due to one way shear according to Indian Standard and Eurocode (0.25 and 0.284 N/mm2) are similar but the value according to ACI code (0.76 N/mm2) is much higher For development length of reinforcement required, Indian Standard and Eurocode provided similar values (470 and 390 mm) These values are much smaller if compared to those obtained from ACI code (693 mm) Since the development lengths provide from the footing is much higher than these values, it may not influence the design References ACI (1995) ACI 318 M-95 Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete, American Concrete Institute, USA AREA (1958) Manual of Recommended Practice, Chicago Construction and Maintenance Section, Engineering Division, Association of American Rail Roads Barkan, D.D (1962) Dynamics of Bases and Foundations, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, USA Becker, A.A (1992) The Boundary Element Method in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, USA Blake, M (1964) New vibration standards for maintenance Hydrocarbon Processing and Petroleum Refiner, 43, (1),111–114 Bowles, J.E (1996) Foundation Analysis and Design, 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Bjerrum, L (1957) A contribution to the settlement analysis of foundations on clay Geotechnique, VII, 4, London, 168 Southwell, R.V (1946) Relaxation Methods in Theoretical Physics, Oxford University Press, London Sridhar, P (1999) RADD-SF: Integrated Software Package for Rational Analysis, Design and Drafting of Shallow Foundations, M.Tech Thesis, Dept of Civil Engineering, IIT, Kanpur, India Srinivasulu, P and Vaidyanathan, C.V (1976) Handbook of Machine Foundations, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, India Taylor, D.W (1964) Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics, Asia Publishing House, New Delhi, India Teng, W.C (1964) Foundation Design, Prentice-Hill, New Delhi, India Terzaghi, K (1943) Theoretical Soil Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA Terzaghi, K (1955) Evaluation of coefficient of sub grade reaction Geotechnique, 5(4), 297–326 Terzaghi, K and Peck, R.B (1967) Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA Thomson, W.T (1965) Vibration Theory and Applications, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA Timoshenko, S and Goodier, J.N (1951) Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA Timoshenko, S and Woinowsky-Krieger, S (1959) Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc., New York, USA Tomlinson, M.J (1977) Pile Design and Construction Practice, Viewpoint Publications, London, UK Tomlinson, M.J (2001) Foundation Design and Construction, Prentice-Hall, Singapore UB Code – The Uniform Building Code, Structural Design Requirements, 1997 Vesic, A.S (1961) Bending of beams resting on isotropic elastic solid Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE 87, EM 2, 35–53 Vlasov, V.Z and Leontev, U.N (1966) Beams, Plates and Shells on Elastic Foundations, (Translated from Russian), NASA TT F-357 Wieghardt, K (1922) Uber den balken auf nachgiebiger unterlage Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 2, 165–184 Winkler, E (1867) Die Lehre von der elasticitaet und festigkeit, Prag Dominicus, Berlin, p 182 Wolf, J.P (1988) Soil Structure Interaction in Time Domain, Prentice-Hall Inc., Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ, USA Woods, R.D (1976) Foundation Dynamics Applied Mechanics Reviews, 29, 1253–1258 Zienkiewicz, O.C (1971) The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., London, UK Zienkiewicz, O.C and Taylor, R.L (1989) The Finite Element Method, McGraw-Hill, London, UK Zimmermann, H (1888) Die Berechnung des Eisenbahnober-baues, Berlin, Germany Author Index Abel, J.F., 270, 283 Ahmad, S., 409 Balaam, N.P., 371 Banerjee, P.K., 166, 370, 409 Barkan, D.D., 398, 402–403, 453, 469–470 Baron, M.L., 210, 215, 256 Becker, A.A., 283 Bjerrum, L., 371 Boussinesq, J., 66, 68, 72, 95–97, 125–126, 167 Bowles, J.E., 4, 23, 25, 33, 43, 54, 58, 62, 64, 66, 71–72, 76, 80, 85–86, 122, 137, 139–140, 157, 186, 203, 256, 270, 273–274, 282–283, 303–304, 306, 316, 321–322, 329, 331, 352, 387, 489 Brady, B.H.G., Brinch Hansen, J., 358, 361, 365–366 Broms, B.B., 358 Brown, E.T., 9, 166 Budhu, M., Butterfield, R., 166, 370 Canale, S.C., 270 Carter, J.P., 366 Cemica, J.N., Chapra, R.P., 270 Chickanagappa, L.S., 6–7, 9, 58–61, 64, 303–304, 306, 316, 322, 324–325, 329–332, 335, 354 Clancy, P., 337–338 Coduto, D.P., Converse, F.J., 402 Cook, N., Coulomb, C.A., 51, 74, 76, 80–85, 87, 421, 430 Coyle, H.M., 370 Crandall, S.H., 140, 170, 187, 190, 193, 203–205, 208–210, 214–215, 217, 243, 252–253, 270 Crockett, J.N.A., 402 Culmann, K., 81 D’Appolonia, E., 373 Dahl, N.C., 170, 187, 217 Das, B.M., 9, 12, 20–21, 25, 27, 29, 31–34, 36–38, 40–41, 54–55, 74, 76, 80, 135, 292, 306, 316, 321, 324, 328–329, 331 Davis, E.H., 370, 373 Desai, C.S., 270, 283, 371 Duncan, J.M., 359 Ellison, R.D., 371 Evans, L.T., 359 Gazetas, G., 450 Goodier, J.N., 66 Goodman, R.E., Gorbunov–Posadov, M.I., 147, 165 Hall, J.R., 394, 396, 398, 400–406, 409, 417–418, 450, 453, 470 Hammond, R.E.R., 402 Hanson, W.E., 85 Harr, M.E., 66, 69–71, 86, 125–127 Hertz, H., 165, 187, 194 Hetenyi, M., 147–148, 165, 168, 172–173, 175, 186, 325, 359, 361–362, 364 Hooper, J.A., 337 Hvorslev, M.J., 35, 39 Foundation Design: Theory and Practice N S V Kameswara Rao © 2011 John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd ISBN: 978-0-470-82534-1 626 Author Index Isenhower, W.M., Iyengar, K.T.S.R., 147, 173, 175, 186, 325 Iyer, A.N., 354, 357, 371, 373 Poulos, H.G., 336–337, 353, 367, 370, 373 Prakash, S., Punmia, B.C., 472, 490, 494, 505, 515, 517 Jaeger, J., Jain, A.K., 472, 474–475, 490, 494, 505, 515, 517, 601 Janbu, N., 132–133, 371 Jones, G., 152, 156–157, 166, 170, 186, 203, 209, 232–234, 237, 239, 256, 515 Quinlan, P.M., 409 Kantorovich, L.V., 187, 190 Kausel, E., 409 Kirchhoff, G., 189 Kjaernsli, B., 371 Kreyszig, E., 170, 243, 252 Kuhlemeyer, R.L., 409 Kulhawy, F.H., 366 Kurian, N.P., 119, 122 Lambe, T.W., 1, 7, 11, 26–27, 30 Lardener, T.J., 170, 217 Lee, P.C.Y., 371 Leonards, G.A., 395 Leontev, U.N., 66, 140, 144, 150–151, 157, 166, 170, 176, 178–181, 187, 190, 192–193, 361 Lorenz, H., 402 Luco, J.E., 409, 450 Lysmer, J., 403–406, 409, 418, 450 Major, A., 453, 458, 460 Malter, H., 166 Meyerhof, G.G., 55–56, 58–61, 131–135, 318, 324, 331–332 Mindlin, R.D., 370, 373 Mita, A., 409, 450 Nagaraj, C.N., 402 Navier, C., 167, 187–188, 190, 193, 196 Newcomb, W.K., 402 Newmark, N.M., 67–69, 71, 98, 126, 328, 489 Newton, I., 420, 447–448 Novak, M., 406, 409, 414, 450 Ooi, P.S.K., 359 Pasternak, P.L., 148–149, 151, 494 Pauw, A., 398, 402 Peck, R.B., 9, 23, 26, 38, 51, 60, 85, 387 Pitchumani, R.D., 373 Ramiah, B.K., 6–7, 9, 58–61, 64, 303–304, 306, 316, 322, 324–325, 329–332, 335, 354 Ramu, S., 147, 173, 175, 186, 325 Randolph, M.F., 337–338, 366–367, 370, 373 Rankine, 471 Rao, N.S.V.K., 43, 62, 122, 140–141, 146–151, 157, 159–160, 166, 170, 176, 179, 181, 187, 192–193, 361, 394, 396, 398, 400–407, 409, 412–420, 428, 446, 449–450, 453–454, 469–470 Rao, R.V., 409 Rao, S.S., 273, 275, 278, 283, 401–402, 415, 420, 446, 449 Rausch, E., 454 Rayleigh, L., 402, 423 Reese, L.C., 9, 359, 370 Reissner, E., 141, 146–149, 165, 187 Richart , F.E., 394, 396, 400, 402–406, 409, 412, 417–418, 450, 453, 470 Rijhsinghani, A., 166, 252–253 Salgado, R., Salvadori, M.G., 210, 215, 256 Salvadurai, A.P.S., 155 Scott, R.F., 127, 210–211, 256 Seed, H.B., 370 Seely, F.B., 165, 173–174, 186, 248 Sharma, H.D., Simpson, T., 211 Skempton, A.W., 37–38, 306, 331, 369, 373 Smith, J.O., 166, 173–174, 186, 200, 248 Southwell, R.V., 210–211, 215, 256 Sridhar, P., 166–167, 186–187, 203, 285, 292 Srinivasulu, P., 394, 453 Sung, T.Y., 409 Taylor, D.W., 9, 11–14, 16, 20, 23–27, 32–33, 51, 66–67, 71–74, 76, 80–81, 85, 135, 139, 156, 210, 265, 270, 283, 387 Teng, W.C., 33, 71–72, 74, 79, 81, 85, 122, 125–126, 129, 139, 166, 203, 209, 215, 253, 316, 325, 329, 331, 375, 378, 387, 489 Author Index Terzaghi, K., 9, 19–20, 23–26, 51–55, 58, 60, 62, 73–74, 127, 132, 153, 155–156, 303, 318, 327, 338, 387 Thomson, W.T., 401, 420, 446, 449 Thornburn, T.H., 85 Timoshenko, S., 66, 140, 144–145, 147, 166, 187, 189–194, 250, 256, 277–278, 505 Tomlinson, M.J., 4, 9, 33, 35, 58, 122, 320, 330, 336, 358–359, 371 Tschebotarioff, G.P., 402 Vaidyanathan, V.C., 394, 453 Vesic, A.S., 157, 362, 514–515 Vijayvergia, U.N., 321 Vlasov, V.Z., 65, 140, 144, 150–151, 157, 166, 170, 176–179, 181, 187, 190–193, 361, 494 627 Wang, S.T., Ward, E.R., 402 Westman, R.A., 409 Whitman, R.V., 1, 26, 30, 38 Wieghardt, K., 149, 151 Winkler, E., 146–149, 151–152, 157, 162, 165–168, 187, 361–362, 472, 494, 514–515 Woinowsky-Krieger, S., 144–145, 147, 166, 187, 189–190, 192, 194, 250, 256, 505 Wolf, J.P., 409, 450 Woods, R.D., 167, 394, 396, 398, 400–406, 409, 412, 417–418, 450, 453, 470 Wroth, C.P., 370, 373 Zienkiewicz, O.C., 167, 261, 265, 267, 270, 275, 278–279, 281, 283 Zimmermann, H., 147, 165 Subject Index ACI code, 486, 589–617 active pressures, 76–77, 80–81, 84, 106, 108, 112 adhesion pile, 370 alignment, 355, 387–388 allowable pile capacity, 321–322 allowable soil pressure, 50, 59, 302–303 amplitudes, 395–396, 405–406, 408, 410, 413, 418–420, 423, 426, 428–431, 433, 436, 438–439, 443, 447, 454–457, 465, 469 analog models, 404, 406, 409–410 analog parameters, 406–407, 410, 413, 418, 451 analysis by Lysmer and Richart, 403 analysis of foundation, 471, 494 analytical solutions, 165 annular plates, 256 annular slab, 490–491, 505, 511 apparent mass of soil, 402 Atterberg’s limits, 11–15 Barkan’s approach, 402 base excitation, 443–445 batter piles, 351, 377, 381, 388 beam elements, 270, 272–273, 283 beams, 203, 206, 209, 216–219, 221, 223–236, 240–247 beams on elastic foundations (BEF), 141, 150–151, 157, 162, 166–167, 170–173, 175–176, 182, 514, 528, 533, 543, 556, 569 beams on elastic foundations approach, 361, 375 bearing capacity, 49–64, 72, 309–311, 314–318, 327, 329–334 bearing piles in bedrock, 368 hard clay, 369 sand and gravel, 368 bending moment, 216, 225, 227, 232–236, 243, 248–249, 253, 472, 475, 477, 479–480, 483–490, 494, 500, 506, 509, 512 bending theory, 270, 274–275 bolts and fixtures, 460 bond and development length, 499, 602–603 bond stress, 499–500, 602–603 bore holes, 33–34 boring, 32–35 boundary conditions, 169–171, 176–177, 181–196, 200 boundary element method, 283 boundary nodes, 214, 227, 230, 232, 234–235, 237–239, 249 Boussinesq’s solution, 66, 68, 95 bridge abutments, Brinch Hansen’s methods, 365 British Standard (BS), 589–617 characteristic load methods, 359, 361 circular and annular footings, 490 circular and annular rafts, 515 circular and ring shaped plates, 283 circular plates, 256 circular plates on elastic foundations, 187, 193–194, 196 circular slab, 479, 491, 505 clear cover, 500–504, 603–604 coarse-grained soil, 17 codes, 302–306, 589–617 Foundation Design: Theory and Practice N S V Kameswara Rao © 2011 John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd ISBN: 978-0-470-82534-1 630 coefficient of elastic uniform compression, 151–152, 158, 160–161 cohesionless soil, 59–60, 76, 80, 82–83, 85 cohesive soil, 62, 79–80, 83–84 collocation method, 204 combined footings, 483–484, 490, 492, 515, 535, 543 compaction, 18, 20–21, 32 comparative features, 589–617 composite pile, 314 compressibility, 9, 14, 21–23, 41 concentrated loads, 218, 247, 250 concrete, 472–476, 482–483, 491–492, 589–617 concrete detail, 590 concrete piles, 312, 315, 319 active case, 77, 80, 82–83, 85 cast in-situ piles, 312 concrete seal, 334–335 cone penetration test (CPT), 39 consistency, 14, 37 consolidation, 16, 18, 21–25, 41 construction details, 387, 469 construction guidelines and details, 491 construction problems, 332 contact pressure, 119–123, 129–130, 136, 139–142, 146, 161, 222, 244–246, 248, 253 continuous (wall) footings, 483, 530 conventional design, 121–122, 140, 487, 489 conventional statical approach, 358 correlations, 23, 31, 37–43, 316, 324, 332, 334, 337 correlations with SPT and CPT, 59 Coulomb’s theory, 74, 76, 80–85 passive case, 82–85 precast piles, 312 cover, 500–504, 603–605 cracks, 305, 307–308, 475, 482, 501, 606 critical hydraulic gradient, 16 critically damped, 427–428, 435 cyclic plate load test, 160–163 damping, 421–422, 425, 428–463 damping constant, 402, 404, 408 deep foundations, 3–5, 309, 317–318, 329–330, 334 deflection, 474–475, 484 deformation patterns, 264, 266 depth of footing, 122–124 Subject Index design, 301–304, 306, 308 design considerations, 301 design criteria, 6–7, 393–395 design guidelines, 4, 379 design of pile caps, 375–376 design of pile foundation, 314, 354, 379, 381 design parameters, design pressure, 49, 51, 59 design soil pressure, 302–303 design tables, 498 development length, 474–477, 499–500, 504, 602–604 dewatering, 491 differential settlements, 303–306, 308 discrete systems, 401–402, 410, 419, 421 displacement distribution, 65 displacements, 209, 216, 227, 229–230, 233, 237, 248 drilled piers, 328–332, 334 dynamic environment, 393 dynamic loads, 395, 405, 410, 416, 419, 453–456 dynamic loads and moments, 410, 416, 456 dynamics, 393–398, 400–401, 403–406, 409–410, 414, 416, 419, 421, 429–430, 433, 437, 450–451 earth retaining structures, 4–5 eccentric loads, 119, 121–122, 128, 136 edge conditions, 505–506 efficiency factor, 353, 367 efficiency of pile groups, 352 elastic foundations, 165–167, 170–173, 176, 179–180, 182, 187, 193–196, 203, 206, 209, 214–217, 223, 225, 240, 242, 248–249, 253, 256 elastic modulus of concrete, 594 steel, 594 elastic stress, 51, 65–66 elastic theory, 66, 73, 370, 375 empirical method, 65 energy method, 424 equation of motion, 408, 415, 421–422, 425, 430, 432, 434, 436, 441, 443, 446, 448 errors, 210–211, 215, 218, 221 Euro code, 589–617 expansion joints, 457, 459–460, 464 expansive soils, 140 631 Subject Index exploration and sampling, 32 external load, 170, 179, 187 factor of safety, 55, 72, 302, 304 factored loads, 494, 514, 589–590 field plate load test, 62 field tests, 9, 11, 31, 33, 35–36, 43 field vane shear test, 43 fine-grained soils, 17 finite beams, 168, 170, 173, 175, 186 finite difference method, 166, 186, 203, 209, 217, 234 finite difference operator (FDO), 210–211 finite element deformation pattern, 264 finite element method, 166–167, 186, 261 finite grid method, 283 fixed ends, 230, 243 flexural bond, 500 footings, 4–5, 119–142, 151, 157, 162–163, 165–166, 170, 173–174, 186–187, 193 combined footing, 3, spread footing, 3, wall footing, 3–5 forced vibrations, 416, 418, 422, 429–430, 432, 434, 436–437, 439, 443, 447, 450, 457 foundation, 1–6, 471–472, 475, 493, 504 deep foundations, 3–5, 309, 317–318, 329–330, 334 shallow foundations, 3–5, 119–121 foundation bolts and fixtures, 460 foundation dynamics, 400 foundation models, 141, 146–148, 151, 163 foundation type, framed foundations, 419, 455–456, 458–459, 465 free edges, 244–247, 249, 252 free ends, 227–229, 232, 237, 242 free vibrations, 405, 422, 424–425, 428–430, 432, 435, 439, 448 friction piles, 351, 369–370, 377 function of piles, 314 Galerkin’s method, 205–206, 208 general and local shear failure, 49 general shear failure (GSF), 49, 53, 60, 64 geotechnical engineering, geotechnique, grain size distribution, 11–12, 15 gross bearing capacity, 303 ground water table, 55 guidelines for design, 453 harmonic exciting force, 436, 440 homogeneous solution, 169, 173, 178–179, 185, 192–193, 201 immediate settlement, 73 impact type machines, 455 inclined loads, 131–134 Indian Standard (IS) code, 589–617 infinitely long beam, 364 influence functions, 178–181, 185–186, 201–202 input parameters, 514 in-situ tests, 32, 43 internal nodes, 213–214, 222–223, 233, 236–237, 240–241, 249 internal supports, 240 isolated footing, 472, 478, 482, 484, 515 isotropic plates, 277, 281 landfills, 137, 140 lateral capacity, 357 lateral earth pressure, 51, 74 lateral load capacity, 315, 325, 330, 332 lead asbestos pads, 470 Levy’s solution, 188, 190–193, 196, 200 liquidity index, 15 load transfer method, 370 loads, 216–225, 234–237, 247–249, 256, 262–263, 268, 270, 272–273, 280–281, 292, 299 local shear failure (LSF), 49, 54, 60, 64 logarithmic decrement, 428–430 loose sands, 139 Lysmer and Richart’s analysis, 403, 451 Lysmer and Richart’s parameters, 451 machine data, 453 machine foundations, 393–464 machine foundation-soil system (MFS), 394, 409–410, 451 machine tools, 394, 431, 457–458 mass moment of inertia, 452 matrices, 264, 266, 274, 277, 280–281, 296 matrix, 201–202 method of computation, 371 method of initial parameters, 166, 186–187, 196, 201 method of superposition, 186 method of undetermined parameters, 203–205, 257 632 Meyerhof’s factor, 56 mild steel bars, 592–593, 603 miscellaneous guidelines, 457 modeling, 6–7 modes of vibration, 402, 406, 410, 414, 418, 448, 451 modified bearing capacity factors, 54 modulus of subgrade reaction, 152–153, 160–163, 514–515 moment of resistance, 496–497, 590, 597 moments, 216–218, 221, 223, 232–237, 247, 250, 253 multi-degree of freedom system (MDF), 418, 421, 447, 450–451, 466 natural frequency, 395, 401–402, 406, 408, 422–426, 432–455 Navier’s solution, 188, 190 net bearing capacity, 303, 308 neutral axis, 496, 590, 595 nodal load, 218 nodes, 210–253 non-drilled caissons, 333–334 numerical methods, 165–166, 186–187, 193, 196 operators, 205, 210–212, 217, 226, 249 other codes, 589–617 other parameters for MFS analysis, 451 over consolidation ratio (OCR), 16, 18 overdamped, 426–427, 431, 435 parameters, 1, 3, 6–7 passive pressures, 52, 76, 78, 82, 84–85, 117 permeability, 12, 15, 21, 24 permissible stresses, 454–456 piers, 4–5 pile cap, 352, 356, 368–369, 375–376, 379–380, 383–384, 386–387 pile capacity, 311, 315–317, 321–325 pile configuration, 354, 356 pile driving formulae, 316 pile foundations, 314, 325, 328, 330, 414, 416, 419, 451–452, 455, 457 pile groups, 351–357, 367–371, 377–380, 383, 386, 389 pile load capacity, 316, 341, 343 pile load tests, 315–316, 322, 324 pile-raft systems, 309, 336–338 piles, 4–5, 351–391 bearing pile, Subject Index drilled pier/caissons, 4–5 floating pile, type and functions of pile, 310, 315–316, 324 plasticity, 12–16, 31 plate element, 274, 277, 281–282, 284, 289, 296–297 plate load test, 62–64, 151–153, 155, 157, 160–163 plates, 203, 215, 248, 253, 256 plates on elastic foundations (PEF), 130, 143, 151, 163, 166–167, 187, 196 point bearing piles, 351, 368–369 Poisson’s ratio of soil medium, 142, 160 practices, 302, 304 Prandtl’s theory, 51 prestressed concrete foundations, 465 presumptive bearing capacity, 303–304 prismatic beams, 240, 242 punching shear, 472–473, 600–601 punching shear failure, 49–50 quick sand condition, 16 raft foundations, 486–490, 492, 570, 577, 583 Rankine’s theory, 74, 76–77, 80–81 rational design, 119, 121, 136, 140 Rayleigh’s method, 424 reciprocating engines, 453 reciprocating machines, 453 rectangular plates, 167, 187, 248 reinforced concrete (RC) design, 589–617 reinforced concrete foundations, 459 reinforcement, 473, 477, 589–617 reinforcement in piles, 503 relative density, 18, 21, 27, 38, 40 relative motion, 445–447 resonance, 395, 405, 434, 439, 442–443, 465 resonant frequency, 401–402, 419, 438, 442 retaining walls, 74, 76–77, 81–83, 85 right circular cylinder, 452 rigid design, 494 rigid foundations, 394, 397, 412–413, 451 rotary type machines, 455 safety factors, 494–495, 589–590 salient features, 160 sampling, 32–33, 35–36 secondary consolidation, 72, 74 633 Subject Index sensitivity and thixotropy, 32 settlement analysis, 314–315, 327, 332 settlement of piles, 367–369 settlements, 49–51, 59, 62–66, 72–74, 119, 121–128, 138–140, 152, 154, 160–161, 301–308 shaft friction, 319, 331–335 shaft resistance, 318, 321, 324, 330, 332, 341, 343 shallow foundation, 3–5, 119–120 grillage foundation, 3–5 raft/mat foundation, 3–5 shape functions, 271, 275–278 shear, 473, 599–602 shear force, 216, 225, 234–237, 243, 247, 249–250, 253, 473, 600–601 shear reinforcement, 474–475, 498–499, 502–503, 599–602 shear strength, 26–28, 30–31, 37 short piles, 361, 365 simply supported ends, 207, 229–230, 232, 237, 242 simultaneous equation, 204–208, 210, 214–215, 223, 243, 252 single-degree of freedom system (SDF), 400–406, 418–422, 429, 443 software package BEF, 256 soil classification, 11–12, 15, 17 soil data, 453 soil exploration, 32–33, 35 soil map, soil medium, soil reaction, 273–274, 281–284 soil-structure interaction, 140–141, 146, 151, 162, 261, 292 spacing design example, 607 spacing of reinforcement, 501, 606–607 split spoon sample, 35–37, 39 spring constant, 62–63, 146, 149, 151, 161–163, 401–404, 408, 422 spring type absorber, 466–467 standard penetration test (SPT), 35–36, 39–40 standards, 302–306 static methods, a, b, l - methods, 316–317 stationary functional method, 204–205 steady state motion, 404, 431, 435 steady-state solution, 404–405, 409, 418, 431, 433, 435, 446 steel, 590–607 steel piles, 312, 314 stiffness, 261, 263–266, 269, 272–274, 277, 279, 281–283, 451, 465 stiffness analysis, 261, 266 stiffness and damping parameter, 406, 413, 415, 451 strap footings, 484–485, 556 stresses, 124, 126, 137, 149–150, 296–297, 310, 315, 325–327, 330, 332 stresses in soils, 65 structural checks, 366 structural design, 472, 487, 492, 514 subdomain method, 205, 207 subgrade reaction, 218, 222–225, 227, 244, 249 subgrade reaction approach, 359 substructure, superstructures, 1–5 tension steel, 496 Terzaghi’s effective stress principle, 19 Terzaghi’s theory for shallow foundation, 52 timber piles, 311, 316 tolerance on placing reinforcement, 502 transient motion, 405, 431, 436 trial solutions with undetermined parameters, 203, 257 tri-axial shear test, 26, 29 tuning of foundations, 465 two way shear, 474, 484, 600–602 types and functions of piles, 310, 315–316, 324 types of caissons, 333–334 types of deep foundations, 57 ultimate bearing capacity (UBC), 49, 51–54, 59, 62, 64 unconfined compression test, 26, 30–31 undamped, 422, 426, 430, 432, 438–439, 457 under-damped, 425–426, 428, 431, 435 under-reamed piles, 503 unified soil classification system, 17 uniform load on circular area, 70–71 general shape, 52, 71 rectangular surface, 67 uniformly varying loads, 216, 219 unsymmetrical footing, 483 uplift capacity, 377 use of pile foundations, 351 634 vane shear test, 26–28, 43 vertical reaction, 237 vibration absorbers, 466–467 vibrations, 393, 395–398, 401–402, 405–406, 408–410, 414, 416, 418, 421–450 viscous damping, 422, 425, 429, 434, 436, 443 Subject Index wall footing, 3–5 wave equation, 316 weighted residuals, 203–207 Westergaard’s solution, 66, 68 Winkler’s model, 149, 151–152, 162–163 Young’s modulus, 160 [...]... compressibility and the column loads are not very high Foundation Design 4 1.2.2 Deep Foundations A typical deep foundation is shown in Figure 1.3(b) If Df /B 1, the foundations are called deep foundations such as piles, drilled piers/caissons, well foundations, large diameter piers, pile raft systems The details of analysis and design of such foundations are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10 Deep foundations... Classification of Foundations Foundations are classified as shallow and deep foundations based on the depth at which the load is transmitted to the underlying and/ or surrounding soil by the foundation as follows 1.2.1 Shallow Foundation A typical shallow foundation is shown in Figure 1.3(a) If Df /B 1, the foundations are called shallow foundations, where Df ¼ depth of foundation below ground level, and B ¼... ¼ width of foundation (least dimension) Common types of shallow foundations are continuous wall footing, spread footing, combined footing, strap footing, grillage foundation, raft or mat foundation and so on These are shown in Figure 4.2 Figure 1.3 Shallow and deep foundations All design and analysis considerations of shallow foundations are discussed in Chapters 4–8 and 12 The shallow foundations... for easy understanding of the topics being discussed in the text Both conventional and rational approaches to analysis and design are included For example, the provision of RCC codes, pile design and construction, vibration
theory and construction practices, as well as tests for obtaining the design parameters are included in the respective chapters Examples of structural design of foundations are... explained in Chapter 7 The design criteria for shallow foundations are presented in Chapter 8 while actual design principles are given in Chapter 12 along with structural design details Chapter 9 discusses the design and construction of deep foundations such as piles, large diameter drilled piers, pile raft systems and non-drilled piers/caissons The construction aspects and design of pile foundations are presented... with pile foundations Introduction 3 The generally insufficient and conflicting soil data, selection of proper design parameters for design, the anticipated mode for design, the perception of a proper solution and so on require a high degree of intuition – that is, engineering judgment Thus, foundation engineering is a complex blend of soil mechanics as a science and its practice through foundation. .. 11.1.1 Design of Foundations in a Dynamic Environment 11.2 Types of Machine Foundations 11.3 General Requirements of Machine Foundations and Design Criteria 11.4 Dynamic Loads 393 393 393 394 394 395 383 383 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 387 387 389 Contents 11.5 12 xv Physical Modeling and Response Analysis 11.5.1 Dynamic Interaction of Rigid Foundations and Soil Media 11.5.2 Idealization of Foundation. .. relevant to foundation design are also examined to help designers In addition, several examples have been worked out to illustrate the analysis and design methods presented Also, assignment problems are given at the end of each chapter for practice The author hopes that this book will be a very useful resource for courses on Foundation Engineering and Design, Soil-Structure Interaction, and so on, at... to research,
development and practice N S V Kameswara Rao January, 2010 Acknowledgments I am happy to bring out this book on Foundation Design:
Theory and Practice after teaching this course formerly at IIT Kanpur, India, and currently at the School of Engineering and IT, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia I express my gratitude to all my colleagues, students and authorities in both... India and presently in the School of Engineering and IT, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia Accordingly, the contents of the book are presented in a user-friendly manner that is easy to follow
and practice Contents The book consists of 12 chapters plus appendices Chapters 1–3 present the engineering properties, tests and design parameters needed for the analysis and design of foundations