Tài liệu ôn thi THPT quốc gia môn tiếng anh 2016 cực hay (Phần 10 - Giả định cách - Đảo ngữ trong tiếng Anh)

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1 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP GIẢ ĐỊNH CÁCH (SUBJUNCTIVE) - P1 I Tóm tắt lý thuyết “Wish” sentence A Wish + to / wish somebody something / wish somebody to something I wish to pass the entrance exam I wish you happy birthday I wish you to become a good teacher Chú ý: trường hợp này, thay “wish” “want” “would like” I would like / want to speak to Ann Câu mơ ước phải lùi B Wish (that)+ subject + past tense : thể nuối tiếc tại, điều thật I don't know the answer I wish I knew the answer I wish I knew his address (thật địa anh ta) I wish I had a car I wish I were rich Chú ý: câu “wish” thật tại, dùng “were” động từ tobe cho tất C Wish (that) + subject + past perfect: thể tiếc nuối khứ I didn't go to his party I wish I had gone to his party I wish I hadn’t spent so much money.(sự thực tiêu nhiều tiền) I wish I had seen the film last night (sự thực không xem phim tối qua) D A + wish (that) + B + would something: phàn nàn muốn thay đổi tình ( A, B hai người khác nhau) I wish they would stop making noise I wish it would stop raining hard in summer I wish she could meet me next week “If only” sentence: giá như… A If only + present tense / future tense: diễn tả hi vọng tương lai If only he comes in time = we hope he will come in time If only he will listen to her = we hope he will be willing to listen to her B If only + simple past: diễn đạt hành động thật If only there were snow in summer We could go skiing If only he would join our party C If only + past perfect: diễn đạt hành động thật khứ If only the Bush government hadn’t spead war in Irak, million people there wouldn’t have been killed D If only ….would do….= person A wish person B would something You are driving too dangerously If only you would drive slowly = I wish you would drive slowly “As if/as though” sentence Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP A As if/as though + simple past: diễn đạt hành động thật It’s very cold today It looks as if/as though it were autumn now.(thực mùa hè) He isn't my father He is talking as if he were my father B As if/as though + past perfect: diễn đạt hành động thật khứ The whole were seriously damaged It looks as if it had been destroyed by bombs (thực động đất) He talked as if he had gone to London C As if/as though + present tense: mô tả hành động có thật It looks as if it is going to rain (Trông trời mưa) He appears running from a fierce dog –> It looks as if he is running from a fierce dog Other subjunctive structures • It’s time somebody did something: đến lúc phải làm The exam is coming It’s time they worked hard Chúng ta dùng cấu trúc “It’s high time somebody did something” để nhấn mạnh ý muốn nói It’s high time we started It was time sb had done Ví dụ: It was time they had left for their office • Person A would rather person B did something: đề nghị cách lịch A: Would you mind if I smoke? B: I’d rather you didn’t smoke I 'd rather you didn't talk in class now would rather sb had done sth: I'd rather they had prepared more food last week CONDITIONAL SENTENCES – SUBJUNCTIVE Type 2, 3, Mixed I work at night, so I can't attend evening classes If I didn't work at night, I could attend evening classes I didn't catch the plane I didn't meet him there If I had caught the plane, I would have met him there I didn't change my job I am poor now If I had changed my job, I would be rich now That Should It + be + adj + that + sb + (should) It + be + adj + that + sth + be + done • Một số tính từ đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau phải dạng giả định, câu bắt buộc phải có that động từ sau chủ ngữ dạng nguyên thể bỏ to: advised, necessary, recommended, important, obligatory / mandatory (bắt buộc), required, imperative (=vital: quan trọng), proposed, suggested, important / crucial / essential / vital (quan trọng), urgent, desirable It is necessary that he find the books Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP It was urgent that she leave at once It has been suggested that income tax be abolished It has been proposed that we change the topic Lưu ý: Nếu muốn cấu tạo phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ trước nguyên thể bỏ to It is necessary that he not find the books It has been proposed that we not change the topic Nếu bỏ that chủ ngữ biến thành tân ngữ sau giới từ for, động từ trở dạng nguyên thể có to câu tính chất giả định trở thành dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp It is necessary for him to find the books It is necessary for him not to find the books II Tài liệu đọc thêm Dùng với động từ Bảng sau động từ đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau phải dạng giả định câu bắt buộc phải có that trường hợp advise ask Command decree demand insist Move order prefer stipulate Recommend request require propose Suggest urge Động từ sau chủ ngữ dạng nguyên thể không chia bỏ to Nếu muốn thành lập thể phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ trước nguyên thể bỏ to Subject + verb + that + S + [verb in simple form] - Thí dụ: The doctor suggested that his patient stop smoking The doctor suggested that his patient not stop smoking + WE DEMAND THAT HE DO IT + THE PRESIDENT REQUESTS THAT YOU BE PRESENT AT THE MEETING Trong ngữ pháp Anh-Anh trước động từ mệnh đề thường có should, người Anh bỏ should sau động từ to be Lưu ý: - Câu giả định dùng với loại thường dùng văn thư giao dịch diễn đạt lời đề nghị từ phía A -> B mà tính bắt buộc - Không có động từ tính từ dùng theo dạng này, tất danh từ xuất phát từ động từ tính từ buộc mệnh đề sau phải dạng giả định, diễn đạt yếu tố There is suggestion from the doctor that the patient stop smoking It is recommendation that the vehicle owner be present at the court * Những động từ dùng SUBJUNCTIVE đằng sau dùng cấu trúc ” Động từ + Đại từ tân ngữ + Động từ nguyên mẫu có TO “: ASK, ORDER, REQUIRE, URGE - Thí dụ: + WE ASK THAT SHE BE PRESENT + WE ASK HER TO BE PRESENT Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP Question 30: It is imperative what to when there is a fire A he must know about B that everyone know C that he knew D we knew Trong câu có tính từ imperative nằm danh sách từ dùng giả định nên mệnh đề sau dùng should + nguyên mẫu nguyên mẫu Tương tự câu: It’s necessary that this parcel BE CHECKED before delivering NECESSARY nằm cụm giả định “obligatory, proposed, required, advised, suggested, necessary, recommended, mandatory, important, imperative, mandatory, proposed, suggested” nên sau phải BARE INF (1 dạng hay cho đề ĐH) III Bài nhà Exercise Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses Negative, passive and continuous subjunctive forms are possible It's important that she (remember) to take her medicine twice a day I suggest that Frank (read) the directions carefully before assembling the bicycle He doesn't want the wheels to fall off while he is riding down a hill Mrs Finkelstein demanded that the heater (repair) immediately Her apartment was freezing It's vital that the United States (focus) on improving its public education system What we now will affect our country for generations to come The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had removed their shoes I am not going to sit here and let her insult me I demand that she immediately (apologize) for what she just said Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week Was it really necessary that (sit) I there watching you the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again It is important to remember that Janine (think) very differently from you She may not agree to the changes you have made in the organization of the company 10 It's a little difficult to find the restaurant I propose that we all (drive) together so that nobody gets lost along the way 11 The woman insisted that the lost child (take) to store's information desk so his parents could be paged 12 The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) her daily fat intake 13 The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the people of the city (allow) to voice their concerns over the new hotel being built on the bay 14 She told me that the government (regulate) the airline industry I don't know if that is true 15 The sign at the pool recommended that you (swim) after eating a large meal 16 It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the summing pool while the children are taking their Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP swimming lessons 17 The sun is scorching today I suggest you (put) on sunblock immediately before you get a sun burn 18 John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding; otherwise he will not attend 19 I think it's an interesting fact that she (come) from Estonia 20 It is imperative that the world (work) towards a solution to global warming before the weather patterns of the world are disrrupted irreparably Exercise Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses Alice didn't get a good grade She wishes she (work) harder Tom likes football very much He wishes he (become) a professional football player He was running very fast when he had a heart attack If only he (not/run) so fast She's keen on computers She wishes she (study) computer science next school year I am sorry I don’t know how to use the computer If only I (know) how to use it I stayed late at work and missed the last bus I wish I (stay) at work late I wish I (talk) to him yesterday I need help badly If only you (can) help me My old car often breaks down I wish I (buy) a new car 10 He didn't pass the exam If only he (work) hard 11 She was absent I wish she (attend) the conference 12 What a beautiful house! I wish I (have) a house like this one 13 I wish I (be) rich I would buy a farm and enjoy the calm of the countryside 14 They had that bad accident because they were careless If only they .(be) more careful 15 We saw the film I wish you (see) it with us It was an amazing evening 16 I like traveling around the world If only I (have) time to realize my dream KEY Exercise 1 remember read be repaired focus not enter apologize attend be sitting thinks 10 drive 11 be taken 12 reduce 13 be allowed 14 regulates 15 not swim 16 monitor 17 put 18 be invited 19 comes 20 work Hướng dẫn số câu khó: Question Explanation: Trong câu giả định với động từ ''insist'' , mệnh đề phải dạng giả định, bắt buộc có that động từ sau chủ ngữ dạng nguyên thể bỏ “to”.Ở dạng phủ định ''not'' + V nguyên thể " to" Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP Question Explanation: Trong câu giả định, sau tính từ ''necessary'', mệnh đề phải dạng giả định, bắt buộc có'' that '' động từ sau chủ ngữ dạng nguyên thể bỏ “to” Trong câu mệnh đề biểu thị tiếp diễn theo cấu trúc : ''It’s + adj + that + S2 + be + V-ing'' Question Explanation: Câu giả định với tính từ '' important'' loại bỏ '' that'' nên động từ sau chủ ngữ hai phải chia theo chủ ngữ câu, mà chủ ngữ câu thứ số nên động từ chia dạng nguyên thể Question 12 Explanation: It’s + N phrase (a/an + adj + N) + that clause (S2 + V2 + O), đông từ chia theo chủ ngữ Đây cấu trúc giả định Exercise had worked became hadn't run studied knew had not stayed had talked could bought 10 had worked 11 had attended 12 had 13 were 14 had been 15 had seen 16 had Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP GIẢ ĐỊNH CÁCH (SUBJUNCTIVE) – PHẦN I Bài tập chữa video Ex 1: Present Subjunctive Choose the most appropriate answer I demand that he …………… immediately A apologize B shall apologize C will apologize D has apologized I suggested that she …………… her lawyer before signing the contract A consults B shall consult C will consult D should consult It is necessary that everything …………… ready by two o'clock tomorrow A be B was C were D would have been They recommend that she …………… to a ski resort in Spain A will go B would have gone C should go D should have gone It is advisable that you …………… your application as soon as possible A submit B will submit C will have submitted D should have submitted He decided to go inside the haunted house, ……………what may A come B comes C should come D would come It is strange that he so upset about such a trifle, isn't it? A were B shall be C should be D have been The doctor insisted that she …………… at the hospital A stay B stays C will stay D has stayed She suggested that we …………… in the lobby of the hotel at 9:00 a.m A shall meet B will meet C should meet D would have met Ex 2: Conditionals Choose the most appropriate answer I like this coat If it ……………cheaper, I would buy it A is B would be C were D had been If I …………… you, I would call him A am B would be D had been C were She would write to him if she ………… his address A knows B would know C knew D had known Even if I had enough money, I ………… buy this car A could B might C would D would not Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP What would happen if someone ………… this button accidentally? A will press B would press C pressed D had pressed What would you if you ………… a million dollars? A have B had C had had D would have If I had a bicycle, I ………… for a ride with you A can go B could go C could have gone D would have gone I hope she ………… mind if I stayed here A doesn't B won't D would C wouldn't ………… Mrs Green call, tell her I'll be back around four o'clock A Could B Might C Should D Would 10 She would be disappointed if we ………… her a present A won't bring B wouldn't bring C didn't bring D hadn't brought Ex 3: Conditionals Choose the most appropriate answer If I ………… her telephone number, I would have called her A knew B had known C would know D would have known If he ………… harder, he would have passed his exams A studied B had studied C would study D would have studied If he ………… us, we wouldn't have finished our work so quickly A hasn't helped B didn't help C hadn't helped D wouldn't help If I ………… enough money, I could have stayed at a five-star hotel during my vacation A had B had had C would have D would have had If you had asked him, he ………… able to help you A was B had been C would be D would have been They ………… for a picnic yesterday if the weather had been warmer A would go B would have gone C went D had gone It ………… if he had been more attentive A did not happen B had not happened C would not happen D wouldn't have happened If he hadn't been so busy at work last week, he …………more time with his children A may spend B might spend C could spend D could have spent We were terribly late If we had taken a taxi instead of a bus, we ………… on time A could arrive B may arrive C might arrive D might have arrived 10 ………… I known his true intentions, I would not have allowed him to stay in my house A Have B Had C Should D Were Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP Ex 4: Wishes Choose the most appropriate answer He likes to swim He wishes he ………… near the sea A lives B lived C had lived D would live It's cold today I wish it ………… warmer A is B has been C were D had been I wish I ………… the answer, but I don't A know B knew C had known D would know She wishes she ………… blue eyes A has B had D would have C had had She wishes she ………… a movie star A is B were C will be D would be I have to work on Sunday I wish I ………… have to work on Sunday A don't B didn't C won't D wouldn't I wish you …………borrow my things without permission A don't B won't C shouldn't D wouldn't He wishes he ………… buy a new car A could B might C should D would She misses him She wishes he ………… her a letter A has sent B will send C would send D would have sent 10 I wish I ………… help you A can B could D would C will Ex 5: Wishes Choose the most appropriate answer She didn't come to his birthday party yesterday He wishes she ………… A has come B came C had come D would come I said that her cooking was terrible I wish I ………… that A didn't say B hadn't said C wouldn't say D wouldn't have said Her new car consumes a lot of gas She wishes she ………… a different car A has bought B bought C had bought D would buy Their trip to China was very interesting I wish I …………there with them A could go B might go C had gone D might have gone Our picnic was a lot of fun I wish the weather ………… warmer, though A was B were C had been D would have been He enjoyed talking to them He wished they ………… so quickly A left B had left C did not leave D had not left [...]... – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP Đảo ngữ (P1) Trong tiếng Anh, một số trạng từ, cụm trạng từ phủ định phần lớn dùng với các ngữ cảnh phủ định. Những trạng từ, cụm trạng từ này có thể được nhấn mạnh bằng cách đặt ở đầu câu hay mệnh đề và theo sau là sự đảo ngược động từ Cách đảo động từ giống như cách cấu tạo câu hỏi (trừ một số trường hợp đặc biệt) Sau đây là những loại câu nhấn mạnh dùng đảo ngữ trong tiếng Anh He is... millionaire?” V Đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện (Inversion in Conditional Sentences) Trong câu điều kiện ta chỉ thực hiện đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề với If (If clause) Với mỗi loại câu điều kiện, ta có từng cách đảo ngữ riêng a Đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện loại I (type I) If+S +(should)+ V  Should + S + Vinfinitive If he comes, I’ll call the police Should he come, I’ll call the police b Đảo ngữ trong câu điều... từ chuyển động như” climb, come, fly,go, hang, lie, run, sit, stand…  Thường chỉ dùng dạng đảo ngữ này khi động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn giản  Trong trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ như trong câu hỏi mà dùng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ ngữ  Không thực hiện đảo ngữ khi chủ ngữ là đại từ  Không dùng : In an armchair sat she * Emphasizing form: Come in, please  Do come in, please... him, nor do I hate him: Tôi không thích anh ta và cũng không ghét anh ta I Đảo ngữ với NO và NOT No + Noun + Auxiliary + S + Verb ( inf) Not any + Noun + Auxiliary + S + Verb ( inf) I won’t lend you any money from now on  Not any/No money will I lend you from now on Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in tragedy II Đảo ngữ với các trạng từ phủ định NEVER ( không bao giờ, chưa bao giờ) , RARELY... trí thì nội động từ thường được đảo lên trước chủ ngữ Cách đảo ngữ này được sử dụng đặc biệt trong văn phong trang trọng ( formal) hoặc văn chương ( literary) ` (Place) + V + S Here comes the train Above the fireplace was a portrait of Lenin On the table sat the cat Up went the price In an armchair sat his mother Notes:  Động từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn dùng... giới từ có NO: IV At no time ( chưa từng bao giờ…) On no account ( Với bất cứ lý do gì cũng không…) + Auxiliary+ S + Verb (inf) On no condition ( tuyệt đối không…) Under/In no circumstances (Trong bất kỳ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không…) For no reason ( không vì lý do gì) In no way ( không còn cách nào) No longer ( không còn) The outcome of the election was never in doubt  At no time was the outcome of the... này) Only in this way ( chỉ bằng cách này) Only in that way ( chỉ bằng cách đó) Only then ( chỉ khi ấy) + Auxiliary + S + verb ( inf) Only after + Noun/ V-ing/clause ( chỉ sau khi) Only by + noun/ V-ing ( chỉ bằng cách) Only when + clause ( chỉ khi) Only if + clause ( chỉ nếu) Only with + Noun ( chỉ với) Only in + adverb of time/ place ( chỉ vào/ chỉ ở) Only once have I met her Only in this way can... PHƢƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP If I knew Portuguese, I’d speak to Ronando Were I to know Portuguese, I’d speak to Ronando If + S + had Ved2  Had + S + P2 If I hadn’t seen it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed it Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed it c Câu điều kiện loại III (type III) Notes: Với những câu điều kiện phủ định, khi đảo ngữ ta để NOT sau chủ ngữ VI Đảo ngữ sau các... could explain everything A have B had C have had D had had 9 If only I ………… how to find her now! A know B knew C had known D would know 10 Suppose he ………… elected last year Do you think he would have approved this project? A was B were C has been D had been II Bài về nhà Exercise 1 Part A Use the word "that" to begin a clause after the verb Examples: I asked them to be quiet / The thief told her to... horse Only by practicing English everyday can you make progress in it Never before have I heard such an extraordinary story Moon.vn Hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 5 Moon.vn Cô VŨ MAI PHƢƠNG – KHÓA NGỮ PHÁP Đảo ngữ (P2) I Đảo ngữ với: No sooner … Than; Hardly/ Barely/ Scarcely… When/before ( Vừa mới ….thì…) No sooner + had + S + P2 + than + clause Hardly/ Barely/ Scarcely + Auxiliary + S + V + when/before + clause ... PRESENT AT THE MEETING Trong ngữ pháp Anh- Anh trước động từ mệnh đề thường có should, người Anh bỏ should sau động từ to be Lưu ý: - Câu giả định dùng với loại thường dùng văn thư giao dịch diễn đạt... millionaire?” V Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện (Inversion in Conditional Sentences) Trong câu điều kiện ta thực đảo ngữ mệnh đề với If (If clause) Với loại câu điều kiện, ta có cách đảo ngữ riêng a Đảo ngữ câu... tiếng Anh, một số trạng từ, cụm trạng từ phủ định phần lớn dùng với ngữ cảnh phủ định. Những trạng từ, cụm trạng từ nhấn mạnh cách đặt đầu câu hay mệnh đề theo sau đảo ngược động từ Cách đảo động
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