Những lỗi thường gặp trong cách viết đoạn văn của người học tiếng anh

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Tiêu đề: Những lỗi thường gặp trong cách viết đoạn văn của người học tiếng Anh.Tác giả: Lại Thị Phương ThảoChủ đề: Những lỗiĐoạn vănNgười họcTiếng anhNgữ phápMô tả: Trong quá trình dạy môn tiếng Anh cơ sở và chấm bài viết đoạn văn trong bài thi hết môn của sinh viên, chúng tôi nhận thấy chất lượng bài viết đoạn văn của sinh viên không cao và sinh viên mắc khá nhiều lỗi trong bài viết như lỗi về cách viết đoạn vă SO3(185)-2011 NGON NGLT & 061 S N G 15 NGOAI NGU VOI BAN NGU NHU'NG LOI T H l / d N G GAP TRONG CACH VIET DOAN VAN CUA NGU'dl HOC TIENG ANH (Trito^ng hcfp sinh vien tri^cfng DHKHXH & NV, DHQG HN) LAI TH! PHLfONG THAO (ThS, Khoa tieng Anh, DHNN, DHQG HN) Trong qud trinh dgy mdn tieng Anh ca sd vd chdm bdi viet dogn vdn bdi thi het mdn ciia sinh vien, chiing tdi nhgn thdy chdt lucmg bdi viet dogn vdn eua sinh vien khdng cao vd sinh vien mdc khd nhieu ldi bdi viet nhic ldi ve cdch viet dogn vdn, ngic phdp, tic vung, cdch dien dgt, v.v. Muc dich ciia nghien ciru ndy nhdm nhgn dien vd phdn logi nhicng loi thudng gap bdi viet cica sinh vien he chudn sau ket thiie mdn tieng Anh ca sd, vd tren ed sd dd de xudt cdc gidi phdp mang tinh ggi y de gido vien cd the dp dung Irong cdc gid dgy kT nang viet nhdm gidm thieu viec mde ldi cua sinh vien bdi viet, vd gdp phdn cdi thien ki ndng viet ciia sinh vien hgc tieng Anh. 1. Dat van de 7. Li chgn de tdi Trong ba hpc ki dau tai trudng DH KHXH&NV, sinh vien he chuan hpc mon Tieng Anh co sd, lan lugt la Tieng Anh Al, Tieng Anh A2 va Tieng Anh Bl vdi giao trinh ehinh la New English File d cap dp Elementary, Pre-intermediate va Intermediate (Student's Book and Workbook). Ngoai viec gidi thieu va luyen tap cac kT nang nghe, dpc, noi, kT nang viet (dac biet la vi^t doan van) dugc danh mgt lupng thdi gian dang ke ca tren ldp va bai tap ve nha: khoang 1/5 thdi lupng cua chuong trinh hpc theo de cuong mon hpc. Phuong phap chu yeu la theo phuong phap san pham (product approach): (1) cac ngir lieu dugc cung cap (ca ve npi dung va mau bai viet); (2) phan tich dac diem eua bai mau; (3) tai hien bai mau vdi npi dung tuong tu. Cac bai viet eua sinh vien duge giao vien thu ve nha cham va tra lai kem nhan xet chi tiet. Diem so cua cac bai viet dugc diing cho dau diem danh gia thudng xuyen. Trong moi hgc ki, sinh vien duge cham toi thieu mgt bai viet. Ket thuc mon tieng Anh A2, sinh vien eo kha nang viet dugc mpt birc thu trang trpng hoac than mat; viet mpt doan van theo yeu cau (mieu ta hay tudng thuat) vdi each sir dung ngon ngil phii hgp nhu dimg tir noi eau, noi y, cac dau hieu ehuyen y ket hap vdi viec sir dung linh boat va chinh xac cac van de ngir phap da hpc nhu cac thi, cau true cau bi dpng, cau dieu kien hay eau c6 menh de quan he KT nang viet doan la mpt phan khong the thieu bai thi het hpc phan ciia sinh vien (c6 the chiem tir 10%-20% tong so diem eua bai thi). Tuy nhien, thuc te lam bai thi doi vdi kT nang viet cua sinh vien sau ket thue hpe mon hpc tieng Anh A2 khong kha quan. Theo khao sat so bp eiia ehiing toi, tren 60 % 16 NGON NGUr& 001 SONG sinh vien khong dat yeu cau. Dieu tnrde hit anh hudng true tiep den ket qua bai thi ciia cae em, va quan trpng hon niia, neu cae em khong dupc sira cac loi thudng gap bai viet cua minh thi mpt loi mon xau kT nang viet se duge hinh thanh, va ve lau dai se anh hudng d8n viec hpc cac chuang trinh tieng Anh eao hon. Tir thue t§ tren, ehiing toi nhan thay rang can phai co mpt nghien cuu ve cac loi thong thudng cac bai viet cua sinh vien sau ket thuc mon Tieng Anh ea sd, dac biet mon Tieng Anh A2. Tir do, chiing toi god y mpt so giai phap nham giup sinh vien nang cao kT nang viet va ban ehe cac loi bai viet eiia minh qua trinh hpc mon Tieng Anh tiep theo. 7.2. Muc dich nghien cim Nghien cim dugc thirc hien vdi muc dich: 1. Nhan dien va phan loai nhiing loi thudng gap bai viet ciia sinh vien sau ket thuc mon Tieng Anh A2. 2. De xuat cac giai phap mang tinh ggi y de giao vien co the ap dung eae gid day kT nang viet (cu the hai chuong trinh Tieng Anh Al va Tieng Anh A2) nham giam thieu viec mac loi cua sinh vien bai viet. tir gop phan cai thien kT nang viet eiia sinh vien. 1.3. Phgm vi nghien cicu Trong nghien eim nay, chung toi tap trung nhan dien va phan loai eae loi thudng gap bai viet doan van qua bai kiem tra het hpe phan mon Tieng Anh A2 cua 100 sinh vien dugc lira chpn ngau nhien va dua cac giai phap de ban che viec mac cac loi d cac sinh vien khoa sau. Viee tim hieu eae nguyen nhan (khaeh quan va ehii quan) eua cac loi bai viet ciia sinh vien se dugc tien hanh mpt nghien cim co quy mo ldn ban. 1.4. Phucmg phdp nghien cicu Nghien eim dugc thuc hien vdi cac phuang phap: S6 3(185)-2011 - Thu thap ca sd li thuyet: Cac co sd li thuyet nghien cim tap trung vao cac van de nhu: cac to tao qua trinh viet, cac yeu to anh hudng den kha nang viet cua sinh vien, cae ca sd de danh gia mpt bai viet. - Tong hgp phan loai doi tupng: Tir viec chpn ngau nhien 100 bai viet ciia sinh vien tap bai thi het hpc phan mon Tieng Anh A2, cac loi bai viet cua sinh vien se dugc phat hien, tong hop va sau phan loai theo tan suat xuat hien cac bai viet. 2. Giai quyet van de 2.7. Ca sd li thuyet 2.1.1. Cdc thdnh td eua qud trinh viet Tuy sir dung cac tir ngil va trinh tu khac nhau, hau het cac hpc gia (Raime, A. (1983); hay Brown, H.D. (1994)) deu thdng nhit rang, qua trinh viet la mpt qua trinh phirc tap lien quan den nhieu to: qua trinh viet ciia ngudi viet (chpn y, lap dan y, viet nhap, ), ngudi dpc, muc dich viet, viec chpn tir, cau tnic bai viet, ngir phap, npi dung, kT thuat viet (mechanics: chir viet, chinh ta), . 2.7.2. Nhitng yeu td dnh hudng den khd ndng viet cua ngicdi hge Theo hai tac gia Lightbown va Spada (1999: 49) co nhieu yeu to anh hudng den kha nang tiep thu mpt ngoai ngir n6i chung va mpt kT nang cu the (nghe, dpc, viet, noi) nhu trf thong minh, tuoi cua ngudi hpc hay kien thirc nen. Tuy nhien, y kien eiia hai tac gia tap trung vao cac yeu to sau: - Nang lire eua ngudi hpc: Nang lire ciia ngudi hpc the hien d kha nang nhan biet va ghi nhd, hieu tir, am, dac diem ngii phap va eae cau tnic mau cua ngoai ngii minh hpc. - Dpng luc va thai dp hpc tap: Dpng lire va thai dp hpc tap tfch cue c6 vai tro to ldn doi vdi kit qua hpc tap cua ngudi hpe. Chinh vi th6, giao vien co the la ngudi chii dpng tac dpng din dpng luc va thai dp cua sinh vien thong qua: (1) khuyen khich tham gia vao bai hpc; (2) da dang cac boat dpng, bai tap va tai lieu day hpc. , ;;: SO3(185)-2011 NGON N G Q & OOl SONG - Sd thich/ thoi quen hpc tap: Cum tir dien dat chien luge, thoi quen, sd thich khac eua timg ea nhan ngudi hgc nhim hoan nhiem vu hpc tap. Trong qua trinh day mpt ki nang nao d6, ngudi giao vien ngoai ngir can xem xet cac yeu to tren de hieu ro dae diem ciia ngudi hpc tir d6 c6 nhirng dieu chinh phii hop cho cac boat dpng suot khoa hpc dong thdi kip thdi ho trg sinh vien giai quyet cac kho khan viec tiep thu va phat trien kT nang d6. 2.1.3. Tieu chi sodt hdi viet dogn vdn Theo Raime, A. (1986), ea sinh vien va giao vien c6 the ap dung cac tieu chi soat bai. Mpt ban tieu chi soat bai co the rat ngan hay 17 dai vao yeu cau cua bai viet, va thudng dupc sinh vien diing de soat bai ciia minh trudc, va sau giao vien se diing lai dung ban tieu chi de danh gia bai viet eua sinh vien. Tuy nhien, ban tieu chi soat bai cang chi tiet thi viec danh gia bai viet cang chinh xac. Orhima, A. va Hogue, A. cuon Introduction to Academic Writing (Saeh Thanh Hai gidi thieu, NXB Giao Thong Van Tai, trang 112) dua mpt tieu chi danh gia bai viet mpt doan van vdi mpt loat cau hoi lien quan den cae to ciia qua trinh viet: Dang thiic 1. Bai viet co dung mau ichong (de le, liii chir dau dong) To chuc bai viet 2. Bai vilt co cau ma bai hay va phii hop khong? 3. Cau chu de co gioi han y ro rang khong? 4. Cac cau phat triSn tiSp theo co lam ro y chinh neu cau chu de khong? 5. Doan vSn co sir thong nhat khong? 6. Doan vSn c6 sir dung cac dau hieu chuyen cau/ y phii hgp khong? 7. Viec su dung cac dai tir co nhat quan khong? 8. Doan van co ket thiic voi mot cau ket ro rang khong? 9. Doan van co dua cam nhan/ binh luan cuoi ciing cua ngucri viet? Ngu- phap va kT thuat viet (MECHANICS) 10. Nguoi viet CO diing dau cham cau a cuoi moi cau? 11. Nguoi viet co diing chir cai viet hoa can thiet, co loi chinh ta khong? 12. DSu phay dugc diing hgp li khong? 13. Cac thi cua dgng tir dugc diing diing chua? Cau triic cau 14. M6i cau bai vilt da co du chii ngif va dgng tir, va da diln dat mgt y trgn ven chua? 15. Cac dgng tir da dugc hgp vai chii ngir chua? 16. Doan van co sir dung cac cau triic cau da dang va hgp li khong? 2.2. Ket qud khdo sdt 2.2.1. Tdng hap vdphdn tich ldi bdi viet Nhu da trinh bay d muc 1.4, 100 bai viet ciia sinh vien bai thi het mon Tieng Anh A2 dugc lira chgn mpt each ngau nhien. Phuong phap phan tich dua tren tieu chi soat bai viet da dupc trinh phan d phan tren. Ve dang thirc cua mot doan van Trong so 100 bai viet, eo 51 bai viet sai yeu eau ve dang thire (chiem tong so 51%) , CO nghTa la tat ea cac bai gom nhieu doan van. Vi du: "Now in America literature is more famous or more loved than Samuel Clemens. He was born in Missouri in 1835, he grew up on the banks of the Mississipi River. In 1870 Mark Twain married Olivia Langdon, who had great influence on Mark Twain's book, befall in love her picture even before. Mark Twain was also a very successful lecture. His travel around the country giving take on a variety in subject help him famous. He death in 1909, when he was 74year old" . 18 NGON NGiJr& 001 SONG Mpt sinh vien khac viet nhu sau: "Bill Gate is a men very rich and famous. He Mas born in 1955 at New York-America. He 's father was doctor. He's mother work for a bank. Now, He live near Oasington lake with he's family. " Qua vi du tren, ta eo the ket luan rang sinh vien khong nam duge dang thire eiia mpt doan van nen da viet nhieu doan. Ve to chirc bai viet Cdu chd de (topic sentence) Yeu cau bai viet: 'Write a biography of a famous person in about 150-170 words. Your paragraph must include the following items: introduction, early career, private life, later career' Theo tieu chi soat bai viet, cau chu de ciia doan van phai phii hgp va dung theo yeu cau de bai. Tuy nhien theo thong ke, co tdi 47% so sinh vien viet cau chii de khong phii hgp ha\ khong true tiep lien quan den yeu cau de bai. Vi du: ''Now in America literature is more ftimous or more loved than Samuel Clemens. He M'as born in Missouri in 1835, he grew up on the banks of the Mississipi River. " "American is the country development. American history hove been very much characteristics attention. Washington who have much atttention to. ." Cdu phdt trien chii de (supporting sentences) Theo nhu thong tin yeu cau viet, sinh vien phai viet ve: gidi thieu ve ten, tuoi, (introduction), sir nghiep liic tre, cupc song rieng. sir nghiep sau nay. Tuy nhien, den YA bai viet thieu npi dung bai viet theo yeu eau. Hon nira, nhieu cau phat trien y khong lien quan den chii de ciia bai viet. Cdu ket Ciia dogn vdn (concluding sentence) Theo nhu tieu chf ciia bai van, phan cuoi ciia doan \an la cau ket va cam nghT ciia S6 3(185)-2011 ngudi viet \e chii d§ ciia bai viet. Tuy nhien, e6 tdi 62% bai viet ehua hoan thien. hay noi each khac la khong c6 cau k^t. Sur thong nhat doan van va tinh lien ket 87% bai viet cua sinh vien deu viet ve chii de yeu cau. Tuy nhien, hau het sinh vien khong sir dung cac dau hieu chuyen y de cho cac y doan van lien ket vdi nhau. Vi du, d doan van dudi day, c6 mpt sinh vien viet: 'Now, there are many famous person. They can famous for actor, writer, or an invention, a discover . Maria Trollop is a writer. She was born in 1843 and died in 1910. She has written many book, . " George Mpt vai sinh vien khac viet: ' Washington was born in 1732 at Virgania. His family lived at countryside. . " .' " She is ahvays phone with I and noise she's life beautiful in Ho Chi Minh City. She is famous and vejy good. I love you, a good friend's."; "American is the eountiy development. American history have been very much characteristics attention. ." ; " like rock, and she sing rock" Qua cac vi du tren, chiing thay ro la y tren va y dudi khong an nhap vdi nhau. Q vi du thir nhat, eau tren sinh vien viet ve nguyen nhan noi tieng ciia mpt so ngudi, nhung a y dudi. sinh vien lai de cap den mpt nha \an. vi du thir hai, cau trudc viet ve nam sinh va nai sinh ciia George Washington, nhung d cau tiep theo de cap den gia dinh eiia ong ma khong CO dau hieu chuyen y. vi du thir ba, cau tnidc viet ve mpt ngudi ban su dung dai tir '"she", nhung cau sau lai viet "7 love yoii\ Hay d vi du cuoi, hai cau viet lien nhung dien dat hai y hoan toan dpc lap, khong CO sir lien ket. Hon nira tinh thieu thong nhat the hien d each sir dung dai tu. Co nhieu sinh vien dang vilt ve ngudi khac thi lai de cap den ban than minh: Vi du nhiing cau tren dang su so (185)-2011 NGON N G I / & l SONG dung dai tir she, sau d6 lai chuyin sang sir dung we, hay you. Ngfr phap va kT thuat vilt (Grammar and Mechanics) Ve viec diing dau ngdt cdu (dau cham, dau phay, ddu chdm phay, .) vd quy tdc viet hoa Tuy da ket thuc chuong trinh Tiing Anh A2 (giao trinh New English Preintermediate), nhung each sir dung dau ngat cau cua sinh vien van chua thao. Vi du: " .He was born in Missouri in 1835, he grew up on the banks of the Mississipi River "; " He was married with Hong Nhung, we are very love, we have a busy and girl. "; "But, noM> he had gone forever. ", Nhieu bai viet sir dung khong diing quy tac viet hoa. Vi du: Now, He live near Oasington lake with he 'sfamily", "Dam Vinh Hung read name: Huynh Minh Hung, he is war born Hd Chi Minh City, He is a student Nguyen Thugng Hien hight school and student Ngd Quyen hight school, he is a young singe pob", v.v. Ve chinh td Hien tupng sai ve chinh ta xuat hien d rat nhieu bai viet. Vi du: " . 77e is famast when he 25 whit miss very good and watching "; " Now, He is fimast we was but He exacting and help people."; "eompertion", "chird", "always", • 'performance ", " ehildrent'', ' Michale Jackson"; "althought", "Pari", "He and his family helf Hanoi", "hight", "achived", " hards", "farmous", "albuU", "poe", "cant", v.v. Nhin chung, hien tugng sai ve chinh ta xuat hien d hau bet cac bai viet cua sinh vien. Dieu chimg to, von tir vung ciia sinh vien rat ban ehe, va sinh vien chua dau tu thdi gian vao viec luyen tir mdi. Danh tir sd it so nhieu, diing dgng ddng cda tie, edeh chia dgng tir 19 RSt nhieu sinh vien viet sai danh tir so nhilu eiia tir "person" la "persons", hoac khong them 's/es' vao danh tir nhu: 'many thing', "His family have five peoples", "he was children", " Con CO hien tugng sinh vien khong viet sii' dung tir loai: "he wrote very interestedly", " She will success in the ways singer and actress", " I love he", " I like hers", "My Tam was the very famous singer of Vietnamese", "He was a revolutionary", . Hien tugng bien ntla la each chia dang dung ciia dpng tir va thi ciia dpng tir: " He listening the languages", " He is kink and love", " He sing beautiful and good expeneial he is very handsomes";" His mother is Name's Hoang Thi Loan", "1 loves Michale", " But, now he had gone foreover", " When he was the mans, he went to many country", " He found out a new way for Vietnam race, to took all come out Slavery", "His poem still live in reader's heart, and still with time, forever", " He used to a teacher", "He died a few months", Hon nira, nhieu sinh vien eon dimg sai gidi tir hoac thieu nhu: ''get married with", "He was born Kim Lien district, Nghe An province in 19/05/1890", "He had visited in the country on the worl", "He always worried for", " She come back her career and have successful with album 'circus'", . Cau trdc edu Nhieu sinh vien chua biet dien dat cau cho day dii phan C-V va dien dat mpt y trpn ven. Nhieu sinh vien chua nam dugc quy tac sir phii hpp giila chu ngir va vi nga, trat ty tir; Sir da dang ve eau tnic cau hau nhu chua co; Cac cau viet don gian. Vf du: "I hope to in the world will love parent his", "Dam Vinh Hung read name: Huynh Minh Hung, he is war born Hd Chi Minh City, He is a student Nguyen Thucmg Hien hight school and student Ngd Quyen hight school he is a young singe pob ". "He had to the book famous", "He is teen's star very 20 NGON NGUr& 001 SONG s6 3(185)-2011 well, I like she so much She will sueeees in viet, va nang cao kha nang \'iet ciia sinh vien the ways singer and actress ". hpc cac mon tiing Anh tiep theo. 2.2.2. Nhicng ldi thudng gap 1) Thu nhat, trudc sinh vien co the viet Qua phan tong hgp tren, nhiing loi sinh hoac dupe yeu cau viet mpt doan van hoan vien thudng mac phai bai viet nhu sau. chinh, giao vien can dam bao de sinh vien Thif nhdt, hau het sinh vien ehua phan \ let diing ngir phap cac cau don le. Ngii phap biet dugc mpt doan van (paragraph) va mpt chfnh la van de mau chot viee giup sinh bai van (essay). Hon nira, ve cau tnic eita \ien tranh dugc cae loi nhu xac dinh sai trat doan van (bao gom cau chii de, eau phat trien tu tir, tan ngil. quan tir v.v . neu phai sir dung cau chil de, eau ket), nhieu sinh vien chua ehung cau. Nhung bai tap ngan xay nam dugc cau tnic nen sap xep y tien, dung tren eo sd mpt chii diem ngir phap nhat khong ro rang va ranh mach, khong dien dat y dinh (vi du nhu hay viet cau sir dung cau trpn ven, nhieu bai \'iet khong hoan chinh. tnic "used to do") vao cuoi buoi hpc \Tla co Thie hai, ve kien thirc ngii phap, ket qua tac dung nhu mpt chiec "neo kien thiic' cua cho thay, sinh vien van chua nam dugc each phan ngir phap bai, vira co tac dung sir cac thi ca ban: thi hien tai don, hien tai Idem tra xem cac em da thue sir nam dugc hoan thanh, qua khir don, .Dac biet, sinh vien each diing mau cau chua. van ehua nam dugc vi tri ciia tfnh tir, danh tir, Tuy nhien, dii ket qua kiem tra tai cho c6 hay trang tir cum tir hay mpt eau. Han tich cue den dau di chang nira, giao vien ciing nira. nhieu sinh \ien van chua nhd gidi tir di khong nen chii quan cho rang nhu the la on, \di danh tir ha\" dpng tir. Do vay. nhimg loi \\ som muon gi kien thirc ngir phap ay ciing ve trat tu tir. chia dpng tir. lap danh tir bj md nhat dan neu sinh vien khong sir dung so nhieu ia rat bien bai \iet. thudng xu\en, lien tiic va ben bi. Nhung bai Thir ba. \e tir vimg. rat nJiieu sinli \ien kiem tra dinh ki ve mpt so nhom chu diem khong nlid each \ let ciia mpt so tir quen thupc ngir phap nhat dinh nen dugc thiet ke dudi nhet famous, while, when cho nen dan den dang bai tap ve nha va co the giao cho sinh hien tupng \iet sai chinh ta. diing tir khong \ien cham cheo va chira loi cho neu diing theo ngir canh. dugc giao \'ien cung cap dap an. Chiing toi de Thir tu, mpt sd sinh \ ien van chua nam xuat giai phap \di mong muon giiip sinh dugc qu\' tac ngat cau va \'iet hoa. Han niia. \ ien lam ehii dugc qua trinh tir hpc ngir phap mpt so sinh ^ien van chua nam dupe cac nliieu hon, hieu qua hon dong thdi van khong thanli phan cua cau (chii ngir, vi ngQ, tan ngu, lam tang ganh nang cho giao \'ien trang tir) va \i tri ciia chung nen van sir dung hp dang eon qua nhieu phan \iee phai dam sai tan ngir sau dpng tir (chang han love he). trach: da}' tir \amg. ngir phap, ngil am, \'a ca tinh tir sau dpng tir (nhu she sings beautiful). kT nang nghe noi dpc \iet eho mpt sT so ldp Cudi cung, nhieu sinh vien dudng nhu hpc liic nao ciing "qua ehuan". thieu kien thiic hieu biet ve xa hpi (nhu kien 2) Thii hai la dam bao phan dang thirc thuc \e ngirdi noi tieng) eho nen hp kliong doan van de sinh vien viet dung. Nhin lai %iet bai. hoac bai \iet ciia hp rat ngan thire te, rat nhieu sinh vien khong he nam (khoang 20 din 30 tir). dugc dang thiic doan van theo van phong 2.3 Giai phdp gcri y tieng Anh la gi. Nhieu thay co yeu cau sinh Tir nhung van de sinh vien hay mac phai vien viet bai thudng xuyen, va ciing da bai viet dugc neu tren, mpt so giai phap cong cham, chira, sira nhirng bai do, nhung ggi y dugc dua giup giao vien co each day lai quen mat phan viec quan trpng nhat trudc phii hgp de han che loi cua sinh vien bai giao bai la nen co vi du, cho format, co S6 3(185)-2011 NGON NGUT & 001 SONG chuan, co mau cho sinh vien theo. Chinh vi thieu sir ph6 biin va thdng nhk vl chu&i doan van vdi sinh vien nen giao vien la nhung ngudi phai lam viec rit vk va sau d6 de chira nhung loi lap di lap lai cua sinh vien. Nhin tir goc dp nay, giao vien cin nhat quan each lam viec tir dm: biin ro reformat bai vilt, tham chi la dudi hinh thiic van ban de tranh cac tranh cai sau nay, va neu ro chi nhung bai viet dung format mdi dugc cham va chinh siia. 3) Thir ba la van de tir vung. Thuc tl cho thay day la mpt nhirng van de mang tinh ca nhan nhat cac loi cua sinh vien vi thudng thi cac loi tir vung khong gi6ng d tat ca cac sinh vien hoac timg nh6m ldn sinh vien. Vdi nhiing loi he thong ve tir vung (tiic la cac loi lap di lap lai) can yeu cau sinh vien ghi lai so tu nhiing loi thudng xuyen cua hp va luu y tat ca nhirng 16i trudc khi, soat bat cir san phim viet nao. 4) Ve cac kieu loi lai lien quan den cham cau va npi dung bai viet ban che kien thiic nen yeu: Thiet nghT day la van de phiic tap vi no lien quan den sir sir dung tieng me de va cac yeu to di biet ciing nhu tuong dong giira hai ngon ngU (ngon ngir thir nhat va tieng nudc ngoai), cung nhu phong each hanh van, nen tang, von song cua moi hpe sinh, viec chinh sira chiing khong phai la chuyen mpt sdm mpt chieu. Tuy nhien, mpt von ngil phap chuan, manh va sir trau doi thudng xuyen ngoai ngii ca tren ldp va ngoai ldp chac chan se dan den nhirng tien bp dang ke. Ve van de kien thiic nen, giao vien nen sir dung mpt so thii thuat nhu 'dpng nao' bang hoat dpng theo cap doi hoac nhom trudc viet de tao dieu kien cho cac em trao doi, chia se thong tin vdi nhau, nang cao hieu bilt ve van de dinh viet. Ngoai ra, cac boat dpng dpc md rpng ben ngoai ldp, dii mang tinh ca nhan hay theo nhom, chac chan ciing se rit 21 hilu ich va thii vi doi vdi phan ldn sinh vien, nhin tu goc dp nay. 3. Ket luan T6m lai, nghien ciin da chi dugc nhiing loi sinh vien thudng hay mac phai bai viet doan van va de xuat giai phap mang tinh chat ggi y de giao vien co the ap dung day viet cho sinh vien. Vdi ket qua nghien curu tren, chiing toi hi vpng se gop phan vao viee nang eao kha nang viet cua sinh vien qua trinh hpc tieng Anh tai trudng DH KHXH&NV va ngudi hpe tieng Anh noi chung d Viet Nam. Tai lieu tham khao 1. Brown, H . D ! (2000), Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Addition Wesley Longman, Inc. 2. Brown, H.D. (1994), Teaching by prieiples. London: Prenitice Hall Press. 3. Cohen, A.D. (1998), Strategies in learning and using a second language. London: Longman. 4. Hedge, T. (1990), Writing . Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5. Hutchison ,T. (1987), English for special purposes Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 6. Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. (1999), How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6. O'Malley, J.M. & Chamot, A.U. (1990), Learning strategies in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press. 7. Raimes, A. (1983), Techniques in teaching writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 8. Tribble, C. (1996), Writing Oxford: Oxford University Press. 9. White, R.V. (1998), Teaching written English. London: Heineman International. 10. Wenden, A.L. (1985), Learner strategies. In Newsletter Vol.XIX. No.5, p35. (Ban Bien tap nhan bai 23-12-2010) . cac loi thudng gap trong bai viet cua minh thi mpt loi mon xau trong kT nang viet se duge hinh thanh, va ve lau dai se anh hudng d8n viec hpc cac chuang trinh tieng Anh eao hon. Tir thue . sd li thuyet trong nghien cim nay tap trung vao cac van de nhu: cac thanh to tao thanh qua trinh viet, cac yeu to anh hudng den kha nang viet cua sinh vien, cae ca sd de danh gia mpt bai. dau tai trudng DH KHXH&NV, sinh vien he chuan hpc mon Tieng Anh co sd, lan lugt la Tieng Anh Al, Tieng Anh A2 va Tieng Anh Bl vdi giao trinh ehinh la New English File d 3 cap dp Elementary,
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