CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR DENOTING “ECONOMY” AS “HUMAN BODY” IN NYTIMES.COM AND FICA.VN (2013)

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES o0o HỒ THỊ HẢI YẾN CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR DENOTING “ECONOMY” AS “HUMAN BODY” IN NYTIMES.COM AND FICA.VN (2013) Ẩn dụ ý niệm biểu hiện “kinh tế” được dùng như “cơ thể con người” trong báo nytimes.com và fica.vn (2013) M.A. Minor Programme Thesis Field: English Linguistics Code: 60220201 Hanoi, 2014 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES o0o HỒ THỊ HẢI YẾN CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR DENOTING “ECONOMY” AS “HUMAN BODY” IN NYTIMES.COM AND FICA.VN (2013) Ẩn dụ ý niệm biểu hiện “kinh tế” được dùng như “cơ thể con người” trong báo nytimes.com và fica.vn (2013) M.A. Minor Programme Thesis Field: English Linguistics Code: 60220201 Supervisor: Dr. Huỳnh Anh Tuấn Hanoi, 2014 i DECLARATION Title: “Conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human body” in the nytimes.com and fica.vn (2013)” I hereby declare that the master thesis is my own original work under strict guidance of my supervisor. All sources used for the thesis have been fully and properly cited. No part in the thesis has been copied or reproduced by me from any other person‟s work without acknowledgements. Hanoi, 8 th October, 2014 Hồ Thị Hải Yến ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Huỳnh Anh Tuấn for his great patience, encouragement, ceaseless academic support and insightful comments. Without his guidance and contributions, the present study would have never seen the light. My great thankfulness is also given to all my lecturers of the Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for their ideas to my paper and many thanks to all my friends who have been always willing to help and give their best suggestions during the time of collecting necessary data and information for the study. Last but not least, I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to my whole family who were always supporting me and encouraging me with their best wishes. Hanoi, 8 th October 2014 Hồ Thị Hải Yến iii ABSTRACT Metaphors are rhetorical figures used to express one thing which is more abstract or unfamiliar in terms of another thing which is more familiar and concrete. Metaphor has often been regarded as a special language use characteristic of poetry and drama, but in the ground-breaking work Metaphors We Live By (2003), Lakoff and Johnson showed that metaphor is, in fact, a fundamental structuring mechanism in the way we interact with and perceive the world around us. Studies have also shown metaphor to be common not only in everyday language but also in language of economy. Having chosen Lakoff and Johnson‟s Conceptual Metaphor Theory (2003) as the analytical framework, 74 metaphorical expressions from English and Vietnamese newspapers were analyzed to address how conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human body” works in English and Vietnamese newspapers as well as indicate the similarities and differences between both languages in terms of this conceptual metaphor. It aims to enhance the effectiveness of teaching, learning and translating conceptual metaphors in English and Vietnamese. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION……………………………… …………………………………………………i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv PART A: INTRODUCTION 1 1. Rationale of the study 1 2. Aims and objectives 2 2.1. Aims of the study 2 2.2. Objectives 2 3. Scope of the study 3 4. Significance of the study 3 4.1. In terms of theory 3 4.2. In terms of practice 3 5. Method and procedures 3 5.1. Research questions 3 5.2. Research method 4 5.3. Data collection 4 5.4. Data analysis 4 6. Organization of the study 4 PART B: DEVELOPMENT 6 CHAPTER I: THEORICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 6 1.1. Theorical Background 6 1.1. Cognitive linguistics 6 1.2. Cognitive Semantics 6 1.2.1. Definition of cognitive semantics 6 1.2.2. Main tenets of cognitive semantics 7 1.2.2.1. Conceptual structure is embodied 7 1.2.2.2. Semantic structure is conceptual structure 7 1.2.2.3. Meaning representation is encyclopedic. 8 1.2.2.4. Meaning construction is conceptualization 8 1.3. Conceptual Metaphor Theory 8 v 1.3.1. Metaphor 8 1.3.1.1.Traditional views on metaphor 9 1.3.1.2.Metaphor in the light of cognitive linguistics 9 1.3.2. Conceptual metaphor 10 1.3.2.1. Definition of conceptual metaphor 10 1.3.2.2. Classification of conceptual metaphor 11 1.3.2.2.1. Structural metaphor 11 1.3.2.2.2.Orientional metaphor 12 1.3.2.2.3. Ontological metaphor 12 1.3.2.3. Metaphorical mapping 13 1.3.2.3.1. Mapping principles 13 1.3.2.3.2. Image schema 14 1.3.2.3.3. Metaphorical entailment 14 2. Literature Review 15 3. Contrastive Analysis. 16 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 18 1. Research questions 18 2. Research method 18 3. Research procedures 18 4. Data analysis 19 4.1. Data collection 19 4.2. Data analysis 20 4.2.1. Data analytical framework 20 4.4.2.Data analytical units 21 CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS 22 1. Conceptual metaphor denoting economy as human body in nytimes.com in 2013 22 1.1. Stages of economy system are stages of human body development 22 1.2. Aspects of economy are organs of human body 22 1.3. Appropriate economic conditions are healthy human body conditions. 23 1.4. Inappropriate economic conditions are unhealthy human body conditions 24 1.5. Solutions to the economy are treatments to the human body 26 1.6. Recovery of economy is recovery of human body 26 1.7. Collapse of economy is the death of human body 27 2.2. Aspects of economy are organs of human body 28 vi 2.4. Inappropriate economic conditions are unhealthy human body conditions 29 2.5. Solutions to economy problems are medical treatments to human body problems 30 2.6. Recovery of economy are recovery of human body 31 2.7. Collapse of economy are collapse of human body 31 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 32 1. Similarities and differences between conceptual metaphor denoting economy as human body in nytimes.com and fica.vn (2013) 32 PART C: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS 35 1. Conclusion 35 2. Implications 36 2.1. Implications to Translation Practice 36 2.2. Implications to Foreign Language Teaching 37 3. Limitations and suggestions for further studies 37 REFERENCES 39 APPENDICES VIII APPENDIX I APPENDIX II IX 1 PART A: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale of the study It is indisputable that economy has a close relationship with human beings and human society since economic growth is considered as a foremost contributor to sustained progress in human development. Given the global trends emerging these days when nations‟ budget focuses more on boosting economy, the number of economics studies is proliferating considerably. Specifically, language of economy is one of burning concern of reasearchers (e.g. Boers, 2000; Charteris-Black, 2000; Broone & Feyaerts, 2005). Thebreakneck speed of global economic evolution has provided the language of economy with constant changes and innovations. In recent times, cognitive linguistics has become an exponentially essential discipline of modern psycholinguistics in language studies. Among researched issues dealing with cognitive linguistics is cognitive semantics which focuses on metaphor – a specific mental mapping that provides a foundation of human conceptualization. In the view of the classic theory, metaphor is regarded as a special language use characteristic of poetry and drama. However, according to the Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initiated by Lakoff and Johnson (1987), used as a theoretical framework for this paper, metaphor is not just a poet‟s tool for aesthetic, rhetorical purposes but rather pervasive in everyday life and plays an indispensible role in defining the way people perceive the world and the way we interact with the world. Our conception of abstract concept is achieved by virtue of a more concrete concept, thus creating what is called a “conceptual metaphor”. The prevalence of metaphors within the concept – economy is a pivotal topic of research. In 1983, McCloskey, in The Rhetoric of Economics recognized the importance of metaphor in economic contexts. McCloskey argues that economy is metaphorical in nature and economic texts are “heavily metaphorical”(McCloskey, 1983:502). Economic expressions such as “economic growth”, “infant industry”, “mature economy”, “underdeveloped”, “depression”, “human capital”, etc. are, in fact, used widely 2 and frequently. Of all the areas of economy that rely on metaphors to convey abstract ideas, perhaps the most interesting is the study of economy as human body. Metaphorically, the economy is regarded as human body with natural cycles of growth, decline and death. How economy can be conceptualized as human body in English and Vietnamese newspapers and how conceptual representations vary across languages and cultures will be illustrated in my research entitled: “Conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human body” in nytimes.com and fica.vn (2013)”. Considering the limited size of the material, the results of the study may probably not be generalized, but they can hopefully contribute to spark a brief insight into conceptual metaphors denoting economy as human body in English and Vietnamese online newspapers. Furthermore, they are considered to be important to specialist translators, English for Special purposes (hereafter ESP) teachers and students in understanding and interpreting these conceptual metaphor expressions efficiently, as well as to non-native writers who may be better equipped to produce economic texts. 2. Aims and objectives 2.1. Aims of the study As the title of my paper suggests, my primary aim is to investigate how conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human body” are manifested in English and Vietnamese online newspapers, nytimes.com and fica.vn respectively in 2013 in the light of cognitive perspective. 2.2. Objectives The study is intended to fulfill the following objectives: - To analyze the concept of “economy” metaphorically expressed as “human body” in two eminent English and Vietnamese online newspapers, namely nytimes.com and fica.vn respectively in the year of 2013. - To discover and explain the similarities and differences between conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body” in nytimes.com and fica.vn in 2013. [...]... differences in expressions of conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body” in English and Vietnamese online newspapers? 3 5.2 Research method A contrastive analysis was adopted in this study so as to describe and analyze the similarities and differences in expressions of conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human body” in both English and Vietnamese newspapers from cognitive linguistic... suggestions for teaching, learning and translating conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body” 3 Scope of the study Due to time constraints and within the framework of an M.A thesis, the research is limited to 74 expressions of conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body” which are selected from available articles during 2013 in nytimes.com and fica.vn from cognitive linguistic perspective... analyzing conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body in the two English and Vietnamese newspapers, namely nytimes.com and fica.vn respectively (2013) Chapter 4 – Findings and discussion deals with metaphorical expressions which are compared and contrasted so as to find out the similarities and differences in metaphorical expressions denoting “economy” as “human body in both languages Part C:... economic metaphorical expressions were classified into subtypes considering the particular mappings between source domain “human body and target domain “economy” - Thirdly, the investigation focused on comparing and finding out the similarities and differences between conceptual metaphors denoting economy as human body in nytimes.com and fica.vn in 2013 - Subsequently, some implications for teaching,... 1.3.2.2 Classification of conceptual metaphor According to Lakoff and Johnson (2003), conceptual metaphors are classified into three different kinds which are presented in the following, starting with structural metaphors, following orientational and ontological metaphors 1.3.2.2.1 Structural metaphor Structural metaphors are instances involving “the structuring of one kind of experience or activity in terms... contributing to disclose possible similarities and differences in the use of the metaphorical expressions denoting economy as human body in nytimes.com and fica.vn (2013), then interprets their 20 pragmatic meaning in both languages, English and Vietnamese To be more specific, data is qualitatively analyzed as follows: - Describing the representations of the conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human. .. Vietnamese online newspapers? - What are the similarities and differences in expressions of conceptual metaphors denoting economy as human body in English and Vietnamese online newspapers? 2 Research method Contrastive Analysis was carried out trying to depict, prove and analyze the similarities and differences in expressions of conceptual metaphors denoting economy as human body in both languages According... 74 metaphorical expressions denoting “economy” as “human body” are collected from available articles during the year of 2013 in two eminent English and Vietnamese online newspapers which are nytimes.com and fica.vn The most compelling and concrete ones are selected to demonstrate crucial points under the investigation 5.4 Data analysis Using Lakoff‟s and Johnson‟s Conceptual Metaphor Theory (2003) as. .. argument 14 In conclusion, we can say that metaphor plays a role in human thought, understanding, and reasoning, and beyond that, in the creation of our social, cultural, and psychological reality Understanding metaphor then means understand a vital part of who we are and what kind of world we live in 2 Literature Review There have been a number of scholars inspired and interested in conceptual metaphors... real world In this sense, in order to explain a rather complex concept, people tend to refer to another concept which is easier to comprehend 1.3.2 Conceptual metaphor 1.3.2.1 Definition of conceptual metaphor As stated in Metaphor We Live By (2003) by Lakoff and Johnson, conceptual metaphor (or cognitive metaphor) in cognitive linguistics refers to the understanding of one conceptual domain in terms . explain the similarities and differences between conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body” in nytimes. com and fica. vn in 2013. 3 - To make some suggestions for teaching, learning. analyzing conceptual metaphors denoting “economy” as “human body in the two English and Vietnamese newspapers, namely nytimes. com and fica. vn respectively (2013). Chapter 4 – Findings and discussion. DECLARATION Title: Conceptual metaphor denoting “economy” as “human body” in the nytimes. com and fica. vn (2013) I hereby declare that the master thesis is my own original work under strict
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