Lý thuyết và Bài tập câu điều kiện các loại

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Conditional sentences 1. Type I: Real conditional sentences.If + S + V (present) , S + will shall + V (infinitive)Eg: 1. If I am free, I will come to see you tomorrow2. If you have finished your letter, I will post it3. If you are doing your homework, I will wait until you finish2. Type II: Unreal conditional sentences at present.If + S + V (past) , S + would should + V (infinitive) wereEg: 1. If I were you, I would work harder2. What would you do if you lived in Paris now?3. If I stayed at home now, I would watch TV.3. Type III: Unreal conditional sentences in the past. wouldIf + S + had + PII (past perfect) , S + should + have + PII couldEg: 1. If I had gone there, I would have met him.2. If she had had enough money, she would have bought that car.3. If he had studied hard enough, he would have passed the exams last year.4. Mixed type of conditional sentences wouldIf + S + had + PII (past perfect) , S + should + V (infinitive) couldEg: 1. If I had taken my mother’s advice, I wouldn’t be ill today.2. If she had revised the lessons well, she would do the test easily now.5. Câu diều kiện ở dạng tiếp diễnPast continuos (waswere + Ving) => past perfect continuos (had been Ving)Eg: I wasn’t working at the restaurant last night, I didn’t wait on your table.If I had been working at the restaurant last night, I would have waited on your table.Present continuos (amisare+Ving) => past continuos (waswere+Ving)6. Dạng đảo ngữ Chú ý: Ta chỉ đảo ngữ bỏ if với loại 2 và 3, còn loại 1 với trường hợp “should” Loại 1, trong mệnh đề if khi diễn tả điều không mong đợi (unexpected things): ta dùng should + bare infinitive.Eg: If you should see her, please let me know: nếu bạn có tình cờ gặp cô ấy,…SHOULD you see her, please let me know.Loại 2: WereV2edIf + S + beV2ed + O, S + would…Were + S + O, S + would…Eg: If I were your daughter, I would…Were I your daughter, I would…Loại 3: HadEg: If I had not realised what you intended,…Had I not realised what you intended,…Had not I realised…7. Các dạng khác của if Imagine that: giả sử như SupposeSupposingOn condition (that): với điều kiện là AsSo long asProvided that: miễn là OrOtherwise: nếu không Only if: chỉ khi In case: trong trường hợpEg: I provided that it was good for all of us: miễn là nó tốt cho tất cả mọi người.+ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. Type I1 If I see him I (give) him a lift. 2 The table will collapse if you (stand) on it. 3 If he (eat) all that he will be ill. 4 If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once. 5 The police (arrest) him if they catch him. 6 If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes. 7 Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked. 8 What will happen if my parachute (not open)? 9 If he (wash) my car Ill give him Ј10. 10 If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine. 11 If you (not go) away Ill send for the police. 12 Ill be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes. 13 If he (be) late well go without him. 14 She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about this. 15 If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea. 16 If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once. 17 If we leave the car here it (not be) in anybodys way. 18 Hell be late for the train if he (not start) at once. 19 If you come late they (not let) you in. 20 If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says. 21 Unless he (sell) more he wont get much commission. 22 If I lend you Ј10 when you (repay) me? 23 Well have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher. 24 If he (work) hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow? 25 Ice (turn) to water if you heat it. 26 If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation. 27 If you (not like) this one Ill bring you another. 28 Unless you are more careful you (have) an accident. 29 Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him. 30 If I tell you a secret, you (promise) not to tell it to anyone else? 31 If you (not believe) what I say, ask your mother. 32 If he (like) the house will he buy it? 33 If you will kindly sit down I (make) enquiries for you. 34 Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work. 35 She wont open the door unless she (know) who it is. 36 Should you require anything else please (ring) the bell for the attendant. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses Type II1 If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.2 If I (know) his address Id give it to you. 3 He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often. 4 If you (play) for lower stakes you wouldnt lose so much. 5 If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. 6 I shouldnt drink that wine if I (be) you. 7 More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate. 8 If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? 9 If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it? 10 I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money. 11 If he (clean) his windscreen hed be able to see where he was going. 12 If you drove your car into the river you (be able) to get out? 13 If you (not belong) to a union you couldnt get a job. 14 If I (win) a big prize in a lottery Id give up my job. 15 What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house? 16 I could tell you what this means if I (know) Greek. 17 If everybody (give) Ј1 we would have enough. 18 He might get fat if he (stop) smoking. 19 If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come). 20 If you (see) someone drowning what would you do? 21 I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for. 22 If you slept under a mosquito net you (not be) bitten so often. 23 I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree. 24 If she (do) her hair differently she might look quite nice. 25 If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster. 26 The whole machine would fall to pieces if you (remove) that screw 27 I (keep) a horse if I could afford it. 28 Id go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route. 29 If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches there might be less violence. 30 I (offer) to help if I thought Id be any use. 31 What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors? 32 If you (paint) the walls white the room would be much brighter. 33 If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? 34 If you knew you had only six weeks to live how you (spend) those six weeks? 35 You wouldnt have so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. 36 Id climb over the wall if there (not be) so much broken glass on it. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses Type III1 If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) you. 2 The ground was very soft. But for that, my horse (win). 3 If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier you would have got a seat. 4 You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week.5 But for his quickness I (be) killed. 6 I shouldnt have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes. 7 If he had slipped he (fall) 500 meters. 8 If he had asked you, you (accept)? 9 If I (had) a map I would have been all right. 10 If I (know) that you were coming Id have baked a cake. 11 I (offer) to help him if I had realized that he was ill. 12 If you had left that wasp alone it (not sting) you. 13 If I (realize) what a bad driver you were I wouldnt have come with you. 14 If I had realized that the traffic lights were red I (stop). 15 But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. 16 If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. 17 If you (not sneeze) he wouldnt have known that we were there. 18 If you (put) some mustard in the sandwiches they would have tasted better. 19 The hens (not get) into the house if you had shut the door. 20 If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. 21 If you (speak) more slowly he might have understood you. 22 If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry. 23 I shouldnt have eaten it if I (know) that there was ginger in it. 24 If I (try) again I think that I would have succeeded. 25 You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions. 26 If you hadnt been in such a hurry you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead of salt. 27 If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. 28 She had a headache; otherwise she (come) with us. 29 If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) down the wrong street. 30 If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what was missing. 31 Rome (be captured) by her enemies if the geese hadnt cackled. 32 He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. 33 I (take) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way. 34 You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going. 35 They would have forced their way into the house if I (not call) for help. 36 If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket he (not burn) a hole in his coat. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.1 If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar dont mention it to anyone. 2 If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration. 3 What (happen) if I press this button? 4 I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then. 5 If you go to Paris where you (stay)?6 If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)? 7 The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick. 8 If the milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints. 9 Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there. 10 You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much. 11 What I (do) if I hear the burglar alarm? 12 If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldnt have answered the wrong question. 13 I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder. 14 Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad. 15 If you were made redundant what you (do)? 16 Well have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here. 17 If you shake that bottle of port it (not be) fit to drink. 18 Ill probably get lost unless he (come) with me. 19 You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly. 20 If you (wear) a false beard nobody would have recognized you. 21 If she (leave) the fish there the car will get it. 22 Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody into it. 23 Youll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes. 24 If I had known that you couldnt eat octopus I (not buy) it. 25 If they (hang) that picture lower people would be able to see it. 26 She (be able) to walk faster if her shoes hadnt such high heels. 27 I (bring) you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty. 28 If you had touched that electric cable you (be) electrocuted. 29 If the story hadnt been true the newspaper (not print) it. 30 I (not buy) things on the installment system if I were you. 31 Dial 999 if you (want) Police, Ambulance, or Fire Brigade. 32 You (not be) any use to me unless you learn to type. 33 If anyone attacked me, my dog (jump) at his throat. 34 If he were in he (answer) the phone. 35 The ship would have run aground if the pilot (make) one mistake. 36 I shouldnt have taken your umbrella if I (know) that it was the only one you Conditional sentencesExercise 1: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. 1. If I (have)...................time, I will write to him. 2. If it’s cold, I (need)........................a heavier coat. 3. What are you going to do if you (have)......................a holiday? 4. If I can go tomorrow, I (let)........................you know. 5. If I should meet Helen, I (give)........................ her your message. 6. If flowers don’t get any water, they (die)............................. 7. If I (get).....................a headache, I usually take some aspirins. 8. I will go to the party unless it (rain)......................... 9. She will buy the car as long as it (not be).......................too expensive. 10. Everything (be)...............all right provided you tell the truth. 11. If he (come)........................., please tell him that I’ll be back in a few minutes. 12. Don’t come if they (not call)...................you. 13. If you (need)............some help, why don’t you tell me? 14. Suppose you (win)........................a lot of money, what would you do? 15. If I got up earlier, I (not be)......................late for work. 16. If I didn’t feel so tired, I (go).....................out with you. 17. If you (not pass)................. the exam, would you take it again? 18. If I (be)................. you, I would apply for the job. 19. I could repair the car if I (have)....................the right tools. 20. If I (study).....................hard, I would have passed the exam. 21. If I (not be)......................busy yesterday, I would have visited you. 22. She (go)........................to the university if she had had the opportunity. 23. Suppose they had offered her a job, do you think she (take).....................it? 24. If she hadn’t been ill yesterday, she (go)..........................to work now. 25. If I (be)..................you, I wouldn’t have told him the truth yesterday. 26. If today were Monday, I (not go)..........................to work yesterday. 27. What would happen if you (not go)........................to work tomorrow. 28. If I had gone to your party last night, I (be)...................very tired now. Exercise 2: Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. 1. Why didn’t you phone? If I (know).......you were coming, I (meet)... .....you at the airport. 2. It’s a pity you missed the party. If you (come)..., you(meet).......my friends from Hungary. 3. If we (have) ......some tools, we (be able) to repair the car, but we haven’t got any with us.4. Thank you for your help. If you (not help).............., I (not pass)............... the examination. 5. It’s a beautiful house, and I (buy)..........it if I (have)...........the money, but I can’t afford it. 6. I can’t imagine what I (do).......with the money If I (win)......the football pools or a lottery. 7. Mark isn’t a serious athlete. If he (train)..........harder, he (be).............quite a good runner. 8. If Claire (listen)............to her mother, she (not marry)................David in the first place. 9. It rained every day on our holiday. If we (not take)..................the television with us, we (not have)........................anything to do. 10. Jim is so untidy If he (buy)...............some new clothes, he (not look) ...... .....so bad. 11. The photograph would have been much better if it (be)…………lighter in the room. 12. He (die)…………….if the surgeon hadn’t operated on him. 13. Please don’t disturb him if he (be)……………………. busy. 14. If ice (be)…………………….heavier than water, it wouldn’t float. 15. If you had strained your ears, you (hear) …………….. a slight noise in the bushes.16. If you had done as I talk you, you (succeed)……………….. 17. If I followed his advice, I (be)_........................... a fool. 18. If I (lose)……………….. my license, I shall lose my job. 19. If he had gotten one more mark, he (pass)__ ……………….. the exam. 20. If I make a promise, I (keep)_............................it. 21. If I (have) …………………..enough money, I will buy a new skateboard.22. I would have been glad if he (visit)……………….._me in hospital. 23. If they were rich, they (stay) ………………..at a hotel. 24. If he had offered me the job, I (take)…………………._it. 25. She will be angry if you (not, tell)_.................................the truth. 26. If Jack (come) ………………..to my party, I would have danced with him. 27. If he (drive)…………………..more carefully, he would not cause an accident. 28. The Millers (move)………………to the seaside if they had had children. 29. If they take their medicine, they (feel)_....................... better. 30. If you had asked me, I (tell)………………………you. 31. We (not, get)……………………….good marks if we don’t learn hard. 32. They would be glad if the rain (stop)…………………… soon. 33. If he (not, go)…………………..back now, he will be late. 34. If we had gone to London, we (see) ………………….the Tower.35. What on earth would you do if the brakes of your car (not, work)………Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences so that the meaning stays the same. 1. I don’t buy it because I don’t have enough money. > If I ........................................................................................................ 2. I didn’t buy it because I didn’t have enough money. > I would.................................................................................................. 3. There was a test yesterday. I didn’t know that, so I didn’t study for it. > If I ........................................................................................................ 4. I’m busy right now, so I can’t help you. > I could................................................................................................... 5. He’s very thin, that’s why he feels the cold so much. > If he....................................................................................................... 6. I didn’t eat breakfast several hours ago, so I am hungry now. > If I.......................................................................................................... 7. If John had played for our football team, we would not have lost the game. > Unless.................................................................................................... 8. If I won a big prize in a lottery, I’d give up my job. > Unless.................................................................................................... 9. If you don’t like this one, I’ll bring you another. > Unless.................................................................................................... 10. I’ll only help you if you promise to try harder. > Unless.................................................................................................... 11.If she doesn’t work harder, she’ll lose her job. > She’ll..................................................................................................... 12.You can use my car, but have to keep it carefully.> Provided................................................................................................ 13.If the work is finished by lunch , you can go home. > Get......................................................................................................... 14.Keeping calm is the secret of passing your driving test. > As long as.............................................................................................. 15.You must work harder or you won’t pass the exam. > You won’t.............................................................................................. 16. She must apologize to me or I’ll never speak to her again. > I’ll......................................................................................................... 17. I didn’t have an umbrella with me and so I got wet. > I wouldn’t.............................................................................................. 18. I’ll call the police if you don’t leave me alone. > Unless...................................................................................................... 19. In the snowy weather we don’t go to school. > If.............................................................................................................. 20. Without Jack’s help, I wouldn’t have been able to move the table. > If.............................................................................................................. 21. You drink too much coffee, that’s why you can’t sleep. > If you....................................................................................................... 22. You press this button to stop the machine. > If.............................................................................................................. 23. Make me some coffee, and I’ll give you one of my biscuits. > If.............................................................................................................. 24. If you hadn’t told me about Sue’s hair, I wouldn’t have noticed. > Unless...................................................................................................... 25. If you see Peter, tell him he should be here at 8.00. > If you should............................................................................................ 26. I wouldn’t accept if you asked me to marry you. > If you were............................................................................................... 27. Working so much will make you tired. > If............................................................................................................... 28. I regret drinking so much last night. > If only....................................................................................................... 29. What would you do if there was an earthquake? > Supposing ................................................................................................ 30.If you do the shopping, I’ll cook lunch. > You...........................................................................................................31.What would you do If you found some buried treasure. > If you were................................................................................................ 32.If Pauline hadn’t been interested, the project would have been abandoned. > But for....................................................................................................... 33.If by any chance you find my wallet, could you let me know? > If you happen............................................................................................ 18.I might be late. If so, Start without me. > If I............................................................................................................. 34.The fire was brought under control thanks to the nightwatchman. > If it hadn’t................................................................................................. 35.Dick is in prison because a detective recognized him. > If a detective.................................................................................36. He doesn’t have the money and he cannot afford a new car. If………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37. Susan felt sick because she ate 4 cream cakes. If…………………………………….…………………………………………………….. 38. We didn’t know your phone number, so we could not contact you. If…………………………………….……………………………………………………….. 39. The price of petrol was raised last month, so car sales have dropped again. If…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40. I cannot go to the beach with you this weekend because I have a date with my old classmates. If……………………………………………………………………………………………. 41. She didn’t hurry, so she missed the train. If………………………………………….……………………………………………….. 42. I never got very lonely because I have lots of good friends. If…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43. We didn’t go on holiday because we didn’t have enough time. If…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44. We got lost because we didn’t have a map. If…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45. The match can be cancelled because it rains heavily. If…………………………………………………………………………………………….. Conditional sentences 1. Type I: Real conditional sentences. If + S + V (present) , S + will/ shall + V (infinitive) Eg: 1. If I am free, I will come to see you tomorrow 2. If you have finished your letter, I will post it 3. If you are doing your homework, I will wait until you finish 2. Type II: Unreal conditional sentences at present. If + S + V (past) , S + would/ should + V (infinitive) were Eg: 1. If I were you, I would work harder 2. What would you do if you lived in Paris now? 3. If I stayed at home now, I would watch TV. 3. Type III: Unreal conditional sentences in the past. would If + S + had + P II (past perfect) , S + should + have + P II could [ Eg: 1. If I had gone there, I would have met him. 2. If she had had enough money, she would have bought that car. 3. If he had studied hard enough, he would have passed the exams last year. 4. Mixed type of conditional sentences would If + S + had + P II (past perfect) , S + should + V (infinitive) could [ Eg: 1. If I had taken my mother’s advice, I wouldn’t be ill today. 2. If she had revised the lessons well, she would do the test easily now. 5. Câu diều kiện ở dạng tiếp diễn -Past continuos (was/were + Ving) => past perfect continuos (had been Ving) Eg: I wasn’t working at the restaurant last night, I didn’t wait on your table. If I had been working at the restaurant last night, I would have waited on your table. -Present continuos (am/is/are+Ving) => past continuos (was/were+Ving) 6. Dạng đảo ngữ * Chú ý: Ta chỉ đảo ngữ bỏ if với loại 2 và 3, còn loại 1 với trường hợp “should” - Loại 1, trong mệnh đề if khi diễn tả điều không mong đợi (unexpected things): ta dùng should + bare infinitive. Eg: If you should see her, please let me know: nếu bạn có tình cờ gặp cô ấy,… SHOULD you see her, please let me know. - Loại 2: Were/V2/ed If + S + be/V2/ed + O, S + would… Were + S + O, S + would… Eg: If I were your daughter, I would… Were I your daughter, I would… - Loại 3: Had Eg: If I had not realised what you intended,… Had I not realised what you intended,… Had not I realised… 7. Các dạng khác của if - Imagine that: giả sử như - Suppose/Supposing/On condition (that): với điều kiện là - As/So long as/Provided that: miễn là - Or/Otherwise: nếu không - Only if: chỉ khi - In case: trong trường hợp Eg: I provided that it was good for all of us: miễn là nó tốt cho tất cả mọi người. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. Type I 1 If I see him I (give) him a lift. 2 The table will collapse if you (stand) on it. 3 If he (eat) all that he will be ill. 4 If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once. 5 The police (arrest) him if they catch him. 6 If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes. 7 Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked. 8 What will happen if my parachute (not open)? 9 If he (wash) my car I'll give him Ј10. 10 If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine. 11 If you (not go) away I'll send for the police. 12 I'll be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes. 13 If he (be) late we'll go without him. 14 She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about this. 15 If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea. 16 If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once. 17 If we leave the car here it (not be) in anybody's way. 18 He'll be late for the train if he (not start) at once. 19 If you come late they (not let) you in. 20 If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says. 21 Unless he (sell) more he won't get much commission. 22 If I lend you Ј10 when you (repay) me? 23 We'll have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher. 24 If he (work) hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow? 25 Ice (turn) to water if you heat it. 26 If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation. 27 If you (not like) this one I'll bring you another. 28 Unless you are more careful you (have) an accident. 29 Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him. 30 If I tell you a secret, you (promise) not to tell it to anyone else? 31 If you (not believe) what I say, ask your mother. 32 If he (like) the house will he buy it? 33 If you will kindly sit down I (make) enquiries for you. 34 Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work. 35 She won't open the door unless she (know) who it is. 36 Should you require anything else please (ring) the bell for the attendant. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses Type II 1 If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. 2 If I (know) his address I'd give it to you. 3 He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often. 4 If you (play) for lower stakes you wouldn't lose so much. 5 If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. 6 I shouldn't drink that wine if I (be) you. 7 More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate. 8 If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? 9 If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it? 10 I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money. 11 If he (clean) his windscreen he'd be able to see where he was going. 12 If you drove your car into the river you (be able) to get out? 13 If you (not belong) to a union you couldn't get a job. 14 If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I'd give up my job. 15 What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house? 16 I could tell you what this means if I (know) Greek. 17 If everybody (give) Ј1 we would have enough. 18 He might get fat if he (stop) smoking. 19 If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come). 20 If you (see) someone drowning what would you do? 21 I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for. 22 If you slept under a mosquito net you (not be) bitten so often. 23 I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree. 24 If she (do) her hair differently she might look quite nice. 25 If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster. 26 The whole machine would fall to pieces if you (remove) that screw 27 I (keep) a horse if I could afford it. ' 28 I'd go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route. 29 If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches there might be less violence. 30 I (offer) to help if I thought I'd be any use. ' 31 What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors? 32 If you (paint) the walls white the room would be much brighter. 33 If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? 34 If you knew you had only six weeks to live how you (spend) those six weeks? 35 You wouldn't have so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. 36 I'd climb over the wall if there (not be) so much broken glass on it. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses Type III 1 If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) you. 2 The ground was very soft. But for that, my horse (win). 3 If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier you would have got a seat. 4 You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week. 5 But for his quickness I (be) killed. 6 I shouldn't have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes. 7 If he had slipped he (fall) 500 meters. 8 If he had asked you, you (accept)? 9 If I (had) a map I would have been all right. 10 If I (know) that you were coming I'd have baked a cake. 11 I (offer) to help him if I had realized that he was ill. 12 If you had left that wasp alone it (not sting) you. 13 If I (realize) what a bad driver you were I wouldn't have come with you. 14 If I had realized that the traffic lights were red I (stop). 15 But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. 16 If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. 17 If you (not sneeze) he wouldn't have known that we were there. 18 If you (put) some mustard in the sandwiches they would have tasted better. 19 The hens (not get) into the house if you had shut the door. 20 If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. 21 If you (speak) more slowly he might have understood you. 22 If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry. 23 I shouldn't have eaten it if I (know) that there was ginger in it. 24 If I (try) again I think that I would have succeeded. 25 You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions. 26 If you hadn't been in such a hurry you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead of salt. 27 If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. 28 She had a headache; otherwise she (come) with us. 29 If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) down the wrong street. 30 If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what was missing. 31 Rome (be captured) by her enemies if the geese hadn't cackled. 32 He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. 33 I (take) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way. 34 You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going. 35 They would have forced their way into the house if I (not call) for help. 36 If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket he (not burn) a hole in his coat. + Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar don't mention it to anyone. 2 If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration. 3 What (happen) if I press this button? 4 I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then. 5 If you go to Paris where you (stay)? 6 If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)? 7 The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick. 8 If the milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints. 9 Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there. 10 You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much. 11 What I (do) if I hear the burglar alarm? 12 If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn't have answered the wrong question. 13 I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder. 14 Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad. 15 If you were made redundant what you (do)? 16 We'll have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here. 17 If you shake that bottle of port it (not be) fit to drink. 18 I'll probably get lost unless he (come) with me. 19 You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly. 20 If you (wear) a false beard nobody would have recognized you. 21 If she (leave) the fish there the car will get it. 22 Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody into it. 23 You'll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes. 24 If I had known that you couldn't eat octopus I (not buy) it. 25 If they (hang) that picture lower people would be able to see it. 26 She (be able) to walk faster if her shoes hadn't such high heels. 27 I (bring) you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty. 28 If you had touched that electric cable you (be) electrocuted. 29 If the story hadn't been true the newspaper (not print) it. 30 I (not buy) things on the installment system if I were you. 31 Dial 999 if you (want) Police, Ambulance, or Fire Brigade. 32 You (not be) any use to me unless you learn to type. 33 If anyone attacked me, my dog (jump) at his throat. 34 If he were in he (answer) the phone. 35 The ship would have run aground if the pilot (make) one mistake. 36 I shouldn't have taken your umbrella if I (know) that it was the only one you Conditional sentences Exercise 1: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. 1. If I (have) time, I will write to him. 2. If it’s cold, I (need) a heavier coat. 3. What are you going to do if you (have) a holiday? 4. If I can go tomorrow, I (let) you know. 5. If I should meet Helen, I (give) her your message. 6. If flowers don’t get any water, they (die) 7. If I (get) a headache, I usually take some aspirins. 8. I will go to the party unless it (rain) 9. She will buy the car as long as it (not be) too expensive. 10. Everything (be) all right provided you tell the truth. 11. If he (come) , please tell him that I’ll be back in a few minutes. 12. Don’t come if they (not call) you. 13. If you (need) some help, why don’t you tell me? 14. Suppose you (win) a lot of money, what would you do? 15. If I got up earlier, I (not be) late for work. 16. If I didn’t feel so tired, I (go) out with you. 17. If you (not pass) the exam, would you take it again? 18. If I (be) you, I would apply for the job. 19. I could repair the car if I (have) the right tools. 20. If I (study) hard, I would have passed the exam. 21. If I (not be) busy yesterday, I would have visited you. 22. She (go) to the university if she had had the opportunity. 23. Suppose they had offered her a job, do you think she (take) it? 24. If she hadn’t been ill yesterday, she (go) to work now. 25. If I (be) you, I wouldn’t have told him the truth yesterday. 26. If today were Monday, I (not go) to work yesterday. 27. What would happen if you (not go) to work tomorrow. 28. If I had gone to your party last night, I (be) very tired now. Exercise 2: Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. 1. Why didn’t you phone? If I (know) you were coming, I (meet) you at the airport. 2. It’s a pity you missed the party. If you (come) , you(meet) my friends from Hungary. 3. If we (have) some tools, we (be able) to repair the car, but we haven’t got any with us. 4. Thank you for your help. If you (not help) , I (not pass) the examination. 5. It’s a beautiful house, and I (buy) it if I (have) the money, but I can’t afford it. 6. I can’t imagine what I (do) with the money If I (win) the football pools or a lottery. 7. Mark isn’t a serious athlete. If he (train) harder, he (be) quite a good runner. 8. If Claire (listen) to her mother, she (not /marry) David in the first place. 9. It rained every day on our holiday. If we (not take) the television with us, we (not have) anything to do. 10. Jim is so untidy! If he (buy) some new clothes, he (not /look) so bad. 11. The photograph would have been much better if it (be)…………lighter in the room. 12. He (die)…………….if the surgeon hadn’t operated on him. 13. Please don’t disturb him if he (be)……………………. busy. 14. If ice (be)…………………….heavier than water, it wouldn’t float. 15. If you had strained your ears, you (hear) …………… a slight noise in the bushes. 16. If you had done as I talk you, you (succeed)……………… 17. If I followed his advice, I (be)_ a fool. 18. If I (lose)……………… my license, I shall lose my job. 19. If he had gotten one more mark, he (pass)__ ……………… the exam. 20. If I make a promise, I (keep)_ it. 21. If I (have) ………………… enough money, I will buy a new skateboard. 22. I would have been glad if he (visit)……………… _me in hospital. 23. If they were rich, they (stay) ……………… at a hotel. 24. If he had offered me the job, I (take)…………………._it. 25. She will be angry if you (not, tell)_ the truth. 26. If Jack (come) ……………… to my party, I would have danced with him. 27. If he (drive)………………… more carefully, he would not cause an accident. 28. The Millers (move)………………to the seaside if they had had children. 29. If they take their medicine, they (feel)_ better. 30. If you had asked me, I (tell)………………………you. 31. We (not, get)……………………….good marks if we don’t learn hard. 32. They would be glad if the rain (stop)…………………… soon. 33. If he (not, go)………………… back now, he will be late. 34. If we had gone to London, we (see) ………………….the Tower. 35. What on earth would you do if the brakes of your car (not, work)……… Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences so that the meaning stays the same. 1. I don’t buy it because I don’t have enough money. > If I 2. I didn’t buy it because I didn’t have enough money. > I would 3. There was a test yesterday. I didn’t know that, so I didn’t study for it. > If I 4. I’m busy right now, so I can’t help you. > I could 5. He’s very thin, that’s why he feels the cold so much. > If he 6. I didn’t eat breakfast several hours ago, so I am hungry now. > If I 7. If John had played for our football team, we would not have lost the game. > Unless 8. If I won a big prize in a lottery, I’d give up my job. > Unless 9. If you don’t like this one, I’ll bring you another. > Unless 10. I’ll only help you if you promise to try harder. > Unless 11.If she doesn’t work harder, she’ll lose her job. > She’ll 12.You can use my car, but have to keep it carefully. > Provided 13.If the work is finished by lunch , you can go home. > Get 14.Keeping calm is the secret of passing your driving test. > As long as 15.You must work harder or you won’t pass the exam. > You won’t 16. She must apologize to me or I’ll never speak to her again. > I’ll 17. I didn’t have an umbrella with me and so I got wet. . (was/were+Ving) 6. Dạng đảo ngữ * Chú ý: Ta chỉ đảo ngữ bỏ if với loại 2 và 3, còn loại 1 với trường hợp “should” - Loại 1, trong mệnh đề if khi diễn tả điều không mong đợi (unexpected things): ta dùng should. realised what you intended,… Had not I realised… 7. Các dạng khác của if - Imagine that: giả sử như - Suppose/Supposing/On condition (that): với điều kiện là - As/So long as/Provided that: miễn là -. please let me know. - Loại 2: Were/V2/ed If + S + be/V2/ed + O, S + would… Were + S + O, S + would… Eg: If I were your daughter, I would… Were I your daughter, I would… - Loại 3: Had Eg: If I
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