A survey research at Nguyen Du high school Thanh Oai, Hanoi = Thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả của việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh Khảo

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ MAI CHUNG TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY IN CONTEXTS: A SURVEY RESEARCH AT NGUYEN DU HIGH SCHOOL, THANH OAI, HANOI (Thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả của việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh: Khảo sát tại trường THPT Nguyễn Du, Thanh Oai Hà Nội) M.A Minor Thesis Programme I Major: English Language Teaching Methodology Code: 60.14.10 HANOI, 2012 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ MAI CHUNG TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY IN CONTEXTS: A SURVEY RESEARCH AT NGUYEN DU HIGH SCHOOL, THANH OAI, HANOI (Thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả của việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh: Khảo sát tại trường THPT Nguyễn Du, Thanh Oai Hà Nội) M.A Minor Thesis Programme I Major: English Language Teaching Methodology Code: 60.14.10 Supervisor: Trần Hiền Lan, M.A HANOI, 2012 iv LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS Table 1 Students and teachers’ attitudes towards the role of vocabulary in language learning and teaching Table 2 Students’ common ways in vocabulary learning Table 3 Frequency of using context-based techniques in presenting vocabulary evaluated by teachers Table 4 Frequency of using context-based techniques in presenting vocabulary evaluated by students Table 5 Techniques used by teachers to teach vocabulary through contexts in the practicing stage Table 6 Students’ attitudes towards context-based techniques used to present vocabulary Table 6 Techniques preferred by students Chart 1 Kinds of vocabulary chosen to teach by teachers Chart 2 Students’ difficulties in learning vocabulary Chart 3 Context-based vocabulary techniques used to present vocabulary Chart 4 Ideas from students about the effects of learning vocabulary through contexts Chart 5 Ideas from teachers about the effects of teaching vocabulary through contexts Chart 6 Teachers’ idea about the benefit of teaching vocabulary through contexts v TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration p. i Acknowledgements ii Abstract iii List of charts and tables iv Table of contents v Part A: INTRODUCTION 1 1. Rationale 1 2. Aims of the study 2 3. Research questions 2 4. Scope of the study 3 5. Methods of the study 3 6. Design of the thesis 3 Part B: DEVELOPMENT 5 Chapter 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 5 1.1 Vocabulary 5 1.1.1 Definitions of vocabulary 5 1.1.2 Classification of vocabulary 6 1.1.3 The roles of vocabulary in language teaching and learning 7 1.1.4 Principles of vocabulary teaching 8 1.1.4.1. Criteria for selection of vocabulary 8 1.1.4.2. Criteria for teaching vocabulary 9 1.2. Teaching vocabulary in contexts 11 1.2.1. Definition of contexts 11 1.2.2. Reasons for teaching vocabulary in contexts 12 1.2.3. Techniques to teach vocabulary through contexts 14 1.2.3.1. Techniques for presenting vocabulary in contexts 14 1.2.3.2. Techniques for practicing vocabulary in contexts 16 1.3. Summary 19 Chapter 2: METHODOLOGY 20 2.1. Context of the study 20 vi 2.1.1. Textbook 20 2.1.2. Participants 20 2.2. The instruments 21 2.2.1 Survey questionnaires 21 2.2.2 Class observation 22 2.3 Data collection and analysis 23 2.4 Summary 23 Chapter 3: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 24 3.1 Data analysis of survey questionnaire 24 3.2 Data analysis of class observation 38 3.3 Discussion and major findings 40 3.4. Pedagogical implications 40 3.4.1. Suggestions for presenting the meaning of new words in contexts 41 3.4.2. Suggestions for practicing vocabulary in contexts 42 3.5. Summary 44 Part C: CONCLUSION 45 1. Conclusions 45 2. Limitations and suggestions for further study 46 REFERENCES APPENDICES 1 Part A: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Nowadays, we have witnessed the wide use of English as an international language in different fields of life. English has become the most popular foreign language in Vietnam. This trend has led to much focus on teaching and learning English from linguistic competence to communicative one. Therefore, the important role of teaching and learning vocabulary is more paid attention. It is known to most second language learners that the acquisition of vocabulary is a fundamental and important component in the process of their learning. The importance of vocabulary was emphasized by Wilkins (1972) that “without grammar very little can be conveyed; without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (p.111). Besides, Pyles and Algeo (1970) also stated that “when we first think about language, we think about words. It is words that we arrange together to make sentences, conversation and discourse of all kinds”. Generally, the teaching and learning of vocabulary is obviously a very significant aspect in foreign language teaching in general and in English language teaching in particular. In Vietnam vocabulary teaching is still not quite concerned. Developing students’ strategies for handling unknown words has always been one of the principal challenges of English reading classes. Dealing with this challenge, many teachers normally use explanations and translation through word-list as a common way to teach vocabulary. The learners therefore passively acquire vocabulary through teachers’ explanation. This situation also happens to the teachers and learners at Nguyen Du high school. The students here mainly use some rote strategies such as writing words on paper with equivalence in Vietnamese, trying to learn by heart, looking up words in dictionaries and asking teachers for help whenever they encounter any new words. The drawbacks of this approach are obvious. Too much dictionary work can kill all interest in reading and even 2 interfere with comprehension, because readers become more concerned with individual words and less aware of the context which gives them meaning. It also results in very slow and inefficient reading (Wallace 1982). Moreover, the students rarely remember the meaning of words and do not know how to use these words appropriately in particular situations or contexts. Meanwhile, a word learned in a meaningful context is highly assimilated and remembered. The contexts in which the new items are used helps students guess the meanings more easily. For all the above reasons, the researcher has strong desire to undertake the study which aims at exploring the teachers and students’ attitudes towards the effectiveness of teaching and learning vocabulary in contexts at Nguyen Du high school. 2. Aims of the study This study is aimed at investigating the attitudes of teachers and students towards the effectiveness of teaching and learning vocabulary in contexts. To be specific, the aims of the study are: - To investigate the current situation of teaching vocabulary through contexts to students at Nguyen Du high school, Thanh Oai, Hanoi - To investigate the effectiveness of using contexts to teach vocabulary 3. Research questions In order to achieve the set goals, the following questions were proposed: 1. What is the current situation of teaching context-based vocabulary to students at Nguyen Du high school? 2. How effective is the teaching context-based vocabulary to students at Nguyen Du high school? 3 4. Scope of the study The study is limited to the area of teaching English vocabulary at Nguyen Du high school. Specifically, this minor thesis deals with the current situation of using contexts to teach vocabulary to the eleventh grade students at Nguyen Du high school and suggests some pedagogical implications to the teachers. 5. Method of the study To find answers to the above - stated research questions, the study uses a combination of qualitive and quantitive research approaches, which include data analysis and survey questionnaires. In the study, data which is collected through questionnaires will be processed and analyzed to investigate into vocabulary teaching and learning strategies. 6. Design of the study The study is designed as follow: Part A: Introduction provides a general introduction of the study with the specific reference to the rationale, the aims, the scope, the methods and the design of the thesis. Part B: Development consists of three chapters: Chapter 1: “Literature Review” gives a brief view on the theoretical background of English vocabulary, contexts and the benefits of using contexts in teaching vocabulary. Chapter 2: “Methodology”, shows an insight into the research methods to find out the answers to the research questions. This chapter also gives a brief view on the subjects, the procedures and the instruments to collect data employed to reach the aims of the research. Chapter 3: “Data analysis and discussion” presents the data collected from the survey questionnaires and class observation and the discussion of these data. Pedagogical implications for teachers are also suggested in this part. Part C: Conclusions concludes the report of the study with the suggestions for further research. 4 Part B: DEVELOPMENT Chapter 1: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter deals with some of the important issues in the theories of vocabulary and the use of contexts in vocabulary teaching. It consists of the definitions of vocabulary, the roles of vocabulary in language teaching and learning, classification of vocabulary, principles of vocabulary teaching, definitions of contexts, context clues and techniques to teach vocabulary through contexts. 1.1. Vocabulary 1.1.1. Definition of vocabulary According to Ur (1996:60), the vocabulary was roughly defined as “the words we teach in the foreign language.” It was also accepted that “a new item of vocabulary may be more than a single word: for example, post office and mother- in-law, which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea”. Additionally, Pyles and Algeo (1970 : 96) affirmed that „vocabulary is the focus of language with its sound and meaning, which interlock to allow us to communicate with one another, and it is words that we arrange together to make sentences, conversation and discourse of all kinds " . It is inferred that vocabulary is essential for learning language in general and particularly for learning foreign language. According to Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary Third Edition (2008), vocabulary is defined as “all the words which exist in a particular language or subject” (p.1624). This definition covers vocabulary’s meaning on the whole. However, it is not the knowledge of words and word meanings, vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggests. The definition does not totally show a deep understanding about vocabulary. In conclusion, there are different ways to define the concept “vocabulary”. However, the idea that vocabulary is the total number of words existing in a language, including single words as well as multi-word items is more favorable. 1.1.2. Classifications of vocabulary 5 Vocabulary can be classified in various ways depending on different criteria, features or functions. 1.1.2.1. Semantics: There are two main kinds of meanings in a word, lexical meaning and grammatical meaning. Thus in term of semantics, vocabulary can be categorized into notional words and functional words (Read, 2000: 18).  Notional words: Their meanings are lexical, form a great mass of the speaker’s vocabulary. Those words name objects, actions, qualities and have meanings themselves. In terms of part of speech, they can be nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and so on.  Functional words: They are grammatical words, which only have their meanings in relation to other words with which they are used. They can be particles, articles, prepositions, etc. 1.1.2.2 Grammar: In terms of grammar, vocabulary items are divided into different parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. (Quirk, 1987: 18) 1.1.2.3. Methodology: In terms of the use of word, vocabulary can be divided into two types basing on the classification Doff (1988: 19):  Active words: Active vocabulary includes all words which can be understood, pronounced correctly, and can be used effectively in speaking and writing.  Passive words: Passive vocabulary includes all words which the learners can recognize and understand when they occur in a context, but which learners cannot produce or use correctly themselves even when they attempt to. In addition, some other methodologists follow communicative Language Approach divide vocabulary into productive and receptive. Gairns and Redman (1986) define productive vocabulary as the language items which a language learner can use effectively to produce information in speaking and writing. The [...]... procedure of data collection and data analysis to find out answers to the research questions 20 Chapter 3: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents all the collected data which will be discussed and analyzed to reveal the answers to each research question relatively The collected data will be illustrated on tables and graphs Each table or graph is followed by an analysis of the data 3.1 Data analysis... the language” (p.142) The idea emphasized the communicative purpose in learning vocabulary as an ultimate goal for leaning a new language For those statements, it is undeniable that vocabulary is a decisive element in language communication Moreover, the importance of vocabulary is also indicated in all four language skills In terms of speaking, it is impossible to communicate without vocabulary And... emphases in teaching and learning 1.1.3 The roles of vocabulary in language teaching and learning It is commonly accepted that vocabulary is the most important language element among phonetics, vocabulary and grammar By saying that “vocabulary is one of the three dimensions of a language (phonetics, grammar, vocabulary)”, Wilkins (1972:111) emphasizes the special role of vocabulary in teaching and learning... a symbol that is personal to an individual and not shared  Meaning relationship How the meaning of one word, especially its denotative meaning, relates to the meaning of others can also be useful in teaching There are various relationships as synonyms, antonyms, translation, etc It should be noted that the teacher has to make a careful choice of and decision on which meaning of the word to teach and... pronunciation and irregularities of the words they are learning In teaching, these aspects must be presented and learned accurately  Grammar Learners should also understand the grammar function, the change of form in certain grammatical context, the regularity as well as the irregularity, etc so that they can use the word correctly 1.1.4.2.2 Meaning  Denotative and connotative meaning The denotative meaning... pronunciation and spelling, word form, grammar, collocation, aspects of meaning, word-formation As regards to this issue, Nu, D (2004) also states that knowing a word means knowing its meaning, word form (spelling, pronunciation, grammar), and its use in appropriate contexts 1.1.4.2.1 Forms of a word  Pronunciation and spelling Each English word has its spelling and pronunciation Learners have to know all... Nguyen Du high school at Thanh Oai, Hanoi They are both male and female students aged from sixteen to seventeen and have learnt English at junior high school for four years Their proficiency in English is more than elementary because many of them did not pay attention to studying English at lower classes They do not know the best way to learn English, especially, vocabulary They find it difficult to learn... texts are exploited to make clear the meaning and usage of them This way takes more time and thus the teaching process is slower than teaching vocabulary in isolation but teaching of vocabulary in contexts will be far more effective than the one in isolation Learners of this new method can use their vocabulary to communicate at their levels Hereafter are specific advantages of teaching vocabulary in... (1961:147) states that actual representation of an action or performance represents the action and performance better than any pictures This emphasizes the importance of demonstration, gestures, facial expression, etc of teachers and students in language class because they help teachers illustrate contexts and introducing new items and help students practice new vocabulary items like pronunciation, spelling,... the meaning of the word 13  Using situation, explanation It is not necessary to give a complicated explanation, the meaning should be shown by simple sentences This can be done by making statements using the word presented For example, to show the meaning of word “lazy”, teacher can give out a situation/ explanation “I have a brother He always gets up late and does nothing all day He is very lazy.” . TOWARDS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY IN CONTEXTS: A SURVEY RESEARCH AT NGUYEN DU HIGH SCHOOL, THANH OAI, HANOI (Thái độ c a giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả c a. TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCABULARY IN CONTEXTS: A SURVEY RESEARCH AT NGUYEN DU HIGH SCHOOL, THANH OAI, HANOI (Thái độ c a giáo viên và. và học sinh với hiệu quả c a việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh: Khảo sát tại trường THPT Nguyễn Du, Thanh Oai Hà Nội) M .A Minor Thesis Programme I Major: English Language
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Xem thêm: A survey research at Nguyen Du high school Thanh Oai, Hanoi = Thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả của việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh Khảo, A survey research at Nguyen Du high school Thanh Oai, Hanoi = Thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả của việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh Khảo, A survey research at Nguyen Du high school Thanh Oai, Hanoi = Thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh với hiệu quả của việc dạy và học từ vựng thông qua ngữ cảnh Khảo

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