feedback on esl writing teachers’ practices and students’ preferences = hoạt động thực tế của giảng viên và mong muốn của sinh viên đối với phản hồi trên bài viết tiếng anh

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY - HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ****************** LÊ THỊ THU HÀ FEEDBACK ON ESL WRITING: TEACHERS’ PRACTICES AND STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES HOẠT ĐỘNG THỰC TẾ CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN VÀ MONG MUỐN CỦA SINH VIÊN ĐỐI VỚI PHẢN HỒI TRÊN BÀI VIẾT TIẾNG ANH M.A MINOR THESIS Field: English Language Teaching Methodology Code: 60140111 HANOI - 2013 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY - HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ****************** LÊ THỊ THU HÀ FEEDBACK ON ESL WRITING: TEACHERS’ PRACTICES AND STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES HOẠT ĐỘNG THỰC TẾ CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN VÀ MONG MUỐN CỦA SINH VIÊN ĐỐI VỚI PHẢN HỒI TRÊN BÀI VIẾT TIẾNG ANH M.A MINOR THESIS Field: English Language Teaching Methodology Code: 60140111 Supervisor: Dr. To Thi Thu Huong HANOI - 2013 i DECLARATION I confirm that this is my own research, and that it has not been published or submitted for any other degrees. Student's signature Lê Thị Thu Hà ii ACKNOWLEGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest thanks to my supervisor, Dr. To Thi Thu Huong, for her invaluable support, useful guidance and comments. I am truly grateful to her advice and suggestions right from the beginning when this study was only in its formative stage. I would also express my gratitude to all the teachers of English at College of Technologies and Economics in Trade for their constant support as well as suggestions for this paper. Especially, I am grateful to the students in the three classes which I am in charge for their actively taking part in completing the writing tasks and answering the survey questionnaires. Without their help, this study could not have been completed. Finally, my special thanks go to my family and my friends who have been beside me and have encouraged me a lot to fulfill my study. iii ABSTRACT This case study was conducted at College of Technologies and Economics in Trade to investigate teachers’ practices and students’ strategies for handling the feedback they received as well as students’ preferences for four different types of feedback. Fifty seven students in three ESL classes were asked to fill out the questionnaires and three writing teachers were asked to participate in the interviews. In addition, students’ paragraphs with teacher feedback were analyzed to see how teacher gave the feedback and how students responded to the feedback they received. The results show that teachers used written feedback frequently, but in different ways; and students’ strategies for handling feedback varied depending on the types of feedback each teacher gave on their papers. Besides, the study revealed that students preferred teacher feedback (teacher correction, teacher correction with comments, error identification) to non-teacher feedback such as self-feedback, peer- feedback or computer- directed feedback. The findings of the study suggests that writing teachers should consider the fit between their practice and students’ preferences to choose the most suitable ways of feedback giving to help students improve their writing. iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1: The number of each type of teacher feedback on students’ first drafts 23 Table 2: Student strategies for handling feedback 28 Table 3: Student’s preferences for each types of feedback 31 Table 4: Attitudes of students in class A to different types of feedback 32 Table 5: Attitudes of students in class B to different types of feedback 34 Table 6: Attitudes of students in class C to different types of feedback 36 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Paragraph sample of the student in class A with teacher feedback 24 Figure 2: Paragraph sample of the student in class B with teacher feedback 25 Figure 3: Paragraph sample of the student in class C with teacher feedback 27 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1: Student questionnaire I Appendix 2: Interview questions IV i TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEGEMENTS i DECLARATION i ABSTRACT iii LIST OF TABLES Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF FIGURES Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF APPENDICES Error! Bookmark not defined. Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1. The rationale of the study 1 2. Purposes of the study and research questions 3 3. Scope of the study 3 4. Significance of the study 4 5. Research methods 4 6. Organization of the study 5 Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6 1. Definitions of feedback 6 2. Roles of feedback in teaching ESL/EFL writing 7 3. Types of feedback 8 3.1. Teacher feedback 9 3.1.1. Student-teacher conferencing 9 3.1.2. Teacher written feedback 10 3.2. Peer feedback 12 3.3. Self-feedback 13 3.4. Computer- assisted feedback 13 ii 4. Teachers’ beliefs and practices of giving feedback on ESL writing 14 5. Students’ reactions and preferences for feedback 15 Chapter 3: THE STUDY 18 1. The current situation of teaching and learning English writing at CTET 18 2. Methodology 20 2.1. The participants 20 2.2. Methods and Instrumentation 20 2.2.1. Students’ compositions 20 2.2.2. Questionnaire and interview 21 2.3. Data collection procedure 21 2.4. Data analysis procedure 22 Chapter 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 23 1. Teachers’ practices of giving feedback on ESL writing 23 2. Students’ reactions to the received teacher feedback 28 3. Students’ preferences for different types of feedback on ESL writing 31 4. Implications for teaching and learning 38 Chapter 5: CONCLUSION 41 1. Summary 41 2. Limitations of the study 41 3. Suggestions for further studies 42 REFERENCES 43 APPENDICES I 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. The rationale of the study Among the most important skills students of English as a second language (ESL) or a foreign language (EFL) need to develop is writing. For many years, as many historical accounts have shown, writing won little interest from the learners’ side compared to other skills, especially speaking. Learning to speak has been deemed a primary concern; learning to write has always been a secondary matter, a means of practicing, sustaining and reinforcing other skills. However, foreign language proficiency demands a balance in mastery between different language skills. Thus, ESL/EFL students have come to realize the importance of writing as an independent medium of communication which they need for a wide range of purposes in different contexts both inside and outside the classroom. The ESL learners at College of Technologies and Economics in Trade, who follow a three year course in English with Business English as major, by no means; an exception. The course program offers the learners not only knowledge about business in English but also chances to improve their four English skills. Among the four macro skills, writing has recently been interested by both teachers and students. Over the first semester of the first years, the students are introduced to some basic concepts in Grammar (parts of speech and word function), Syntax (phrases, clauses, and sentences), and Mechanics (capitalization and punctuation). It is until the second semester that students are introduced to basic writing, ranging from writing informal letters/email to business letter, then writing paragraphs and essays for the third and the forth semester. They are taught different forms of letters/email and techniques for paragraph and essay writing including writing topic sentence, introduction, developmental paragraphs and conclusion. Besides, they are provided with insights into different patterns of essay development such as cause/effect, comparison/contrast or argumentation. The third year is by far an 2 opportunity for them to practice writing essays with different patterns of development. Teaching English writing is not an easy task for ESL teachers as it involves various processes which require teachers to devote a lot of time to helping students write better. Planning what to teach within a particular curriculum is only a part of the task. Besides, they have to consider the different approaches that gleaned from theories and researches on teaching writing in ESL contexts. Teachers also spend a great deal of time in the post-writing process grading students’ compositions in detail. Especially, it is the teachers’ jobs to select the approach that best fits the learners’ needs and create a motivating environment, and facilitate the learning-to- write activity. The teacher can do so by widening the area of interaction between him and his students. The best means for teacher-student interaction may be insightful feedback which helps both improving students’ writing production and motivating them to be independent writers. Therefore, most teachers believe that feedback is an important aspect of teaching of writing. However, providing effective feedback is one of the many challenges that any writing teacher faces. In ESL classroom, feedback practices can be even more challenging. Teachers and students agree that teacher written feedback is a crucial part of the writing process (Cohen& Cavalcanti, 1990). Teachers want to give feedback that will encourage and challenge students to be better writers, but do not always know how the feedback that they are giving is perceived by students, or how effective it is. Since reading students work and giving feedback is very time- consuming process, teachers may feel frustrated when the feedback they offer is not followed by the students. Even when the teachers’ system for giving feedback is clear and consistent, sometimes teachers do not know whether students understand their practices. Therefore, the study examines teachers’ practices of feedback and compared these with students’ preferences and reaction to feedback to see how the teachers’ practice matches students’ needs and to find the best approach to improve students’ writing skill. Besides, through the study, some implications will be [...]... students’ writing in a variety of genres and provide writers with immediate feedback on content and organization for revision (Lee, 2009) When comparing the reactions of students to handwritten and electronic feedback using Electronic Feedback, Denton (2008) stated that students rated the electronic feedback superior for “mark scheme clarity, feedback legibility, information on deficient aspects, and. .. author collected randomly 57 students’ paragraphs with feedback and their revised versions in one writing task The presentation and analysis of the feedback on students’ writing were carried out to obtain the most truthful information concerning teachers’ practice for feedback and see the reactions of students after receiving the feedback 20 2.2.2 Questionnaire and interview The questionnaire (see Appendix... questions was used with the participation of three teachers of writing to see their practices and opinions toward giving feedback on ESL writing 2.3 Data collection procedure The study was carried out throughout the first term of second-year students In the first stage, the samples of students’ compositions with feedback were taken in week 6 to analyze teachers’ practices and students’ reactions to feedback. .. issues Firstly, the real situation of teachers’ practices and students’ reactions to feedback on ESL writing was studied Secondly, the study investigates students’ preferences to four different types of feedback 4 Significance of the study Theoretically, the study proves teacher’s feedback to students’ writing is undeniably a key component and a crucial part of the process Feedback offers a number of advantages... the teacher’s thought and behaviors” However, very few studies have investigated teacher beliefs and perceptions about feedback, and even fewer that explore the correspondence or difference between students’ preferences and teachers’ practices for feedback giving In a recent study in an EFL context in Hong Kong, Lee (2003) compared teachers’ feedback beliefs with teachers’ feedback practices She found... the feedback on their writing Additionally, feedback can increase students’ attention on the subject they are writing Students who receive feedback will pay more attention to what they 7 have written that, beyond their knowledge or awareness, their work does not meet certain standards The feedback that they receive draws students’ attention to those aspects of their writing that need remediation, and. .. students toward types of feedback with the perceptions of teachers from the interview 22 Chapter 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1 Teachers’ practices of giving feedback on ESL writing To know how the teachers at CTET actually gave feedback on ESL students’ writings, at first, 57 students’ first drafts with teacher feedback were analyzed After considering student texts with teacher feedback, it can be seen... survey was done on the 57 students to find out the strategies they used when handling received feedback and their preferences for the four different types of feedback A semi-structured interview was also carried out with the participation of three ESL writing teachers to know more about their practices of giving feedback on student’s ESL writing and their perceptions about four different types of feedback. .. computer-directed feedback varied depending on their level of computer anxiety 4 Teachers’ beliefs and practices of giving feedback on ESL writing Teacher beliefs, which have been a common focus of previous studies in ESL education, are important aspects that influence teachers’ practice Borg (2001) defines teacher belief as “a set of consciously or unconsciously held propositions that serves as a reflection and. .. given considerable attention to the issue of how and who to provide feedback to students’ writing However, researchers still discuss the questions of what types of feedback would be the most effective one to improve students’ writing skill and fit the needs of particular students Through the literature reviewed, feedback has been categorized into various types of feedback based on feedback functions, . ESL WRITING: TEACHERS’ PRACTICES AND STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES HOẠT ĐỘNG THỰC TẾ CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN VÀ MONG MUỐN CỦA SINH VIÊN ĐỐI VỚI PHẢN HỒI TRÊN BÀI VIẾT TIẾNG ANH M.A MINOR THESIS Field:. ESL WRITING: TEACHERS’ PRACTICES AND STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES HOẠT ĐỘNG THỰC TẾ CỦA GIẢNG VIÊN VÀ MONG MUỐN CỦA SINH VIÊN ĐỐI VỚI PHẢN HỒI TRÊN BÀI VIẾT TIẾNG ANH M.A MINOR THESIS Field:. 3.2. Peer feedback 12 3.3. Self -feedback 13 3.4. Computer- assisted feedback 13 ii 4. Teachers’ beliefs and practices of giving feedback on ESL writing 14 5. Students’ reactions and preferences
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Xem thêm: feedback on esl writing teachers’ practices and students’ preferences = hoạt động thực tế của giảng viên và mong muốn của sinh viên đối với phản hồi trên bài viết tiếng anh, feedback on esl writing teachers’ practices and students’ preferences = hoạt động thực tế của giảng viên và mong muốn của sinh viên đối với phản hồi trên bài viết tiếng anh, feedback on esl writing teachers’ practices and students’ preferences = hoạt động thực tế của giảng viên và mong muốn của sinh viên đối với phản hồi trên bài viết tiếng anh

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