a disourse analysis of english sales presentations an integrated approach = phân tích diễn ngôn bài thuyết trình bán hàng tiếng anh ứ́ng dụng đường hướng tổng hợp

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0 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ HÀ MY A DISOURSE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SALES PRESENTATIONS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH PHÂN TÍCH DIỄN NGÔN BÀI THUYẾT TRÌNH BÁN HÀNG TIẾNG ANH: ỨNG DỤNG ĐƯỜNG HƯỚNG TỔNG HỢP M.A. Combined Programme Thesis Field : English Linguistics Code : 60.22.15 HANOI – 2012 1 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ HÀ MY A DISOURSE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SALES PRESENTATIONS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH PHÂN TÍCH DIỄN NGÔN BÀI THUYẾT TRÌNH BÁN HÀNG TIẾNG ANH: ỨNG DỤNG ĐƯỜNG HƯỚNG TỔNG HỢP M.A. Combined Programme Thesis Field : English Linguistics Code : 60.22.15 Supervisor : Prof. Nguyễn Hòa (PhD) HANOI – 2012 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS DACLARATION 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 3 ABSTRACT 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………5 LIST OF TABLES 9 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 10 1.1 Rationale of the study 10 1.2 Aims of the Study 10 1.3 Scope of the study 11 1.4 Methods of the study 11 CHAPTER 2: DEFINING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 13 2.1 Discourse 13 2.1.1 The notion of discourse 13 2.1.2 Discourse and text 14 2.1.3 Spoken and written discourse 15 2.2 Genre 16 6 2.3 Register of discourse 17 2.3.1 The notion of register 17 2.3.2 The parameters of register 18 2.3.2.1 Field of discourse 18 2.3.2.2 Tenor of discourse 18 2.3.2.3 Mode of discourse 19 2.4 Coherence 31 2.4.1 Relevance 31 2.4.2 Discourse structure 33 2.5 English sales presentations 35 2.6 Conclusion 36 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 37 3.1 Literature review 37 3.2 Research methods 37 3.3 Subjects of the study 38 3.4 Data collection methods 38 3.4.1 Data 38 7 3.4.2 Discourse recordings 38 3.4.3 Samples selection and samples size 39 3.5 Analysis procedure 39 3.5.1 Transcription 39 3.5.2 Analysis process 40 CHAPTER 4: THE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SALES PRESENTATIONS 41 4.1 Register 41 4.1.1 Field of discourse of English sales presentations 41 4.1.2 Tenor of discourse of English sales presentations 42 4.1.3 Mode of discourse of English sales presentations 43 4.1.3.1 Use of grammar in English sales presentations 44 4.1.3.2 Use of vocabulary in English sales presentations 51 4.2 Coherence 57 4.2.1 Relevance of discourse of English sales presentations 57 4.2.2 Discourse structure of English sales presentations 59 4.2.2.1 The beginning 59 4.2.2.2 The body 60 8 4.2.2.3The ending 67 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 74 5.1 Concluding remarks 74 5.2 Implications 75 5.2.1 Implication for business communication 75 5.2.2 Implications for the teaching and learning presentation skill 76 5.3 Limitations 77 5.4 Suggestions for further study 78 REFERENCES 79 APPENDIX 1: I APPENDIX 2: IX APPENDIX 3: XVII 9 LIST OF TABLES Chart 1: The frequency of occurrence of modal verbs in English sales presentations. Chart 2: The frequency of occurrence of active and passive voices in English sales presentations. Chart 3: The frequency of occurrence of four kinds of sentences in English sales presentations. Chart 4: The frequency of occurrence of subject and other parts of speech as first element of sentences in English sales presentations. Chart 5: The frequency of occurrence of types of adjectives in English sales presentations. Chart 6: The frequency of occurrence of types of adverbs in English sales presentations. Figure 1: Mode of discourse Table 1: Register analysis of the article “A back door to war” Table 2: Permission/Possibility/Ability modalities Table 3: Obligation/Necessity modalities Table 4: Volition/Prediction modalities Table 5: Classification of Adjectives in English Table 6: Classification of Adverbs in English 10 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study In theory: Up to now, only few books and researches specialize in presentations, and most of them are guidance in making presentation in general, for example: Presentation Skills for Students (Emden, J. & Becker, L., 2004). This thesis desires to investigate this new field and to be as a reliable source for a salesperson before making his sales presentation. In practice: The rapid development of economy has created various challenges to Vietnamese companies; they are forced to act more effectively in the market. One of their ways to compete with other companies is to make successful presentations to introduce new products, in which they can provide clients with full information about new products. Making an effective sales presentation becomes a challenge for businesses and business training centers when there is mostly no study or research on this field. Therefore, the investigation to famous sales presentations will be a good means for enterprises to attract more customers and to get more profits. To make a persuasive sales presentation, it is undeniable to understand the discourse of sales presentation, especially register of discourse and coherence of discourse. Register of discourse is investigated in terms of field of discourse, tenor of discourse and mode of discourse. Coherence of a discourse is created by cohesion, relevance and discourse structure. With the limited time, this paper only looks at register of discourse of sales presentation and coherence of discourse of sales presentation in terms of relevance and discourse structure 1.2 Aims of the Study 11 Due to the constraints in time and knowledge in Business English, this thesis will not able to cover all aspects of sales presentations, this study aims at: - Investigate register of the discourse of English sales presentations with three aspects: field of discourse, tenor of discourse and mode of discourse. - Examine factors creating coherence of the discourse of English sales presentations: relevance and discourse structure. These aims are to answer the research questions: - What is the register in terms of field of discourse, tenor of discourse and mode of discourse, of English sales presentation? - How coherence of discourse of English sales presentations is created via relevance and discourse structure? 1.3 Scope of the study In business, there are various ways for a salesman to seek customers‟ needs including sales letters, advertisements, or sales presentations, etc. Within the limit of a M.A. thesis, this research can only deal with one aspect of this broad area, that is sales presentations made by Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple. This study is confined to the register of sales presentations with three aspects: field, mode and tenor of the discourse. Moreover, this thesis will focus on coherence of discourse of sales presentations with two factors: relevance and discourse structure. 1.4 Methods of the study 12 This study adopts an integrated approach to discourse analysis, which looks into the concerned discourse in terms of register and coherence. To do this, descriptive method is used to describe data and characteristics of the population or phenomenon being studied. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculation of variables of register and coherence‟s relevant factors of discourse of sales presentations. [...]... However, he has to monitor what he said and determines whether it matches what he wants to say and the response he means to make The speaker also has little chance to change what he said The writer, on the other hand, can manage what he has just produced, pause and revise at any points that he wants to The writer also has time for choices of word use or phrase use to suit his needs However, on contrary to... 5: Classification of Adjectives in English  Adverbs In a clause, adverbs can either be integrated into an element of a clause (modifiers) or function themselves as an element of the clause (adverbials) Most commonly, adverbs that are integrated into another element of a clause modify an adjective or another adverb - Adverbs modify adjectives: Joes is slightly better than John in studying Maths - Adverbs... coherence and register of the discourse This is a functional approach regarding discourse as a process of interactive 38 communication among members of the society (Nguyễn H a, 2003:144) As Halliday (1994: xvi) argues “it is sometime assumed that this (discourse analysis) can be carried out grammar – or even that it is somehow an alternative to grammar But this is an illusion A discourse analysis that is... meanings Semantic Meanings Examples domain Place adverbs Position, direction, Here, distance Time adverbs there, away, backward, forward, Position, frequency, Now, then, again, always, still, duration, and today, relationship never, ago, ever, just, yesterday, already, sometimes, yet, later, often, usually Manner adverbs How an action performed is Together, happily, significantly, well, automatically,... including archaic words/phrases and technical terms Use of grammar  Modality Modal auxiliaries, together with primary auxiliaries are used to build up complex verb phrases and cannot occur alone unless a lexical verb is recoverable from the context The modal auxiliaries express a wide range of meanings, having to do with concepts such as ability, permission, necessity, and obligation Although they 22 can... use of grammar (including modality, active and passive voices, kinds of sentences and sentence order) and the use of vocabulary (technical words, adjectives and adverbs) Sales presentation is also investigated in terms of coherence with the constitution of relevance factors and discourse structure Relevance provides ideas about the subject matters of English sales presentation under a topic framework... between spoken and written language in terms of two aspects: manner of production and the representation of discourse 2.1.3.1 Manner of production In spoken language, the producer can control and process the production of communication by varying voice quality, using posture, gesture, or body language, etc The speaker also gets a great advantage that he can observe the reactions from the audiences or... can hardly be regarded as pertaining to text such as noise and laughter Therefore, the perception and interpretation of what constitutes a spoken text is essentially subjective 2.2 Genre The concept of genre has been discussed by some linguists The Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards, Platt and Platt 1992) describes “genre as a particular class of events that are... the sales presentation is understood as “Formal and pre-arranged meeting, usually at a customer's place (or at a neutral premise, such as a hotel) where a salesperson or a sales team presents detailed information (often including live demonstration) about a product or product-line” (www.businessdictionary.com) From the genre point of view, sales presentation shares the same characteristics of advertisement,... left, main, maximum, single, standard, top, various, 29 same, etc Affiliative Designating national the American, Chinese, Christian, or English, French, German, religious group to Irish, United, etc which a referent belongs Miscellaneous Chemical, commercial, topical environmental, industrial, legal, human, medical, mental, official, oral, phonetic, political, sexual, social, ventral, visual, etc Table . VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ HÀ MY A DISOURSE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SALES PRESENTATIONS: . HANOI – 2012 1 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THỊ HÀ MY A DISOURSE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH. examples of language use, i.e., language which has been produced as the results of an act of communication. It refers to larger units of language such as paragraphs, conversation and interviews”.
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