Các chuyên đề luyện thi đại học môn tiếng anh

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CÁC CHUYÊN ĐỀ LUYỆN THI ĐẠI HOCN MÔN TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN ĐỀ: PASSIVE VOICE (THỂ BỊ ĐỘNG) I. Cách chuyển từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động: Active: Chủ động S + V + O S + be* + P.P + by + O (* be chia theo thì của V) Passive: Bị động Ex: They are painting the house. → The house is being painted. They had destroyed all the documents when we arrived. → All the documents had been destroyed when we arrived. II. Thay đổi hình thức động từ cụ thể trong từng thì: TENSES ACTIVE PASSIVE Simple Present S + V1-s/es S + am / is / are + PP Present continuous S + am / is / are + V-ing S + am / is / are + being + PP Simple Past S + V-ed /V 2 S + was / were + PP Past continuous S + was / were + V-ing S + was / were + being + PP Present Perfect S + have / has + PP S + have / has + been + PP Past Perfect S + had + PP S + had + been + PP Simple Future S + will + V 1 S + will + be + PP Modal verbs can may must S + have to + V1 should used to be going to can may must S + have to + be + V3 should used to be going to Ex: 1. John delivers the newspapers every morning. The newspapers are delivered by John every morning. 2. My mother wrote that letter. That letter was written by my mother. 3. They will build a new school here next month. A new school will be built here next month. 4. He is asking me a lot of questions. I am being asked a lot of questions. 5. She was doing her homework at that time. Her homework was being done at that time. 6. My mother has made that cake. 1 That cake has been made by my mother. 7. They had prepared a party before we came. A party had been prepared before we came. 8. Sue is going to write the book The book is going to be written by Sue 9. You must finish this report This report must be finished NOTES: LƯU Ý: 1. Khi chủ ngữ và túc từ trong câu chủ động là đại từ, ta phải thay đổi cho phù hợp. Ex: The teacher punished me.  I was punished by the teacher. 2. Khi chủ ngữ trong câu chủ động là: people, I, we, you, they, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, anybody…khi đổi sang bị động thường được bỏ đi Ex: They built this bridge last year.  This bridge was built last year (by them) 3. Khi trong câu chủ động có 2 túc từ thì dùng tức từ nào làm chủ ngữ cũng được, tuy nhiên, túc từ chỉ người được sử dụng nhiều hơn. Ex: My mother bought me a new shirt.  I was bought a new shirt by my mother.  A new shirt was bought for me by my mother. 4. Nếu chủ ngữ trong câu chủ động là Noone/ noboby khi đổi sang bị động ta bỏ by noone/ nobody nhưng động từ phải đổi sang thể phủ định. Ex: No one believes his story.  His story isn’t believed. 5. Vị trí của trạng từ. Trạng từ chỉ thể cách được đặt trứơc Past Participle. Ex: I do my homework carefully.  My homework is carefully done. Trạng từ chỉ thời gian có thể đặt ở đầu câu hoặc sau by + O Ex: I lent him money yesterday.  He was lent money yesterday.  Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn được đặt trước by + O Ex: Mary bought the gift from that shop.  the gift was bought from that shop by Mary. III. MỘT SỐ DẠNG CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG ĐẶC BIỆT: 1. Verbs of opinion (Động từ chỉ ý kiến): say, think, believe, know, report, consider, expect, feel, hope, know, understand… KINDS FORMS Active S 1 + V S1 + that + S 2 + V S2 Passive It + be V 3/ ed + that + S 2 + V S2 S 2 + be V 3/ ed + to V (S2) 2 to have V 3/ ed Ex. People say that he is a famous doctor. It is said that he is a famous doctor. He is said to be a famous doctor. People believe that he drove through the town at 90 km an hour. It is believed that he drove through the town at 90 km an hour. He is believed to have driven through the town at 90 km an hour. 2. Causative forms(Thể nhờ bảo): have, get VERBS KINDS FORMS Have Active S + have + O (person) + V o + O (thing) Passive S + have + O (thing) + V 3/ed Get Active S + get + O (person) + to V + O (thing) Passive S + get + O (thing) + V 3/ed Ex: 1. I had him repair my bicycle yesterday. I had my bicycle repaired yesterday. 2. I get her to make some coffee. I get some coffee made. 3. Verbs of perception (Động từ chỉ giác quan): see, hear, watch, smell… Active: S +see/ hear/ watch/ smell + O +Vo / V-ing Passive: S + be + seen/ heard/ watched/smelt + to Vo/ V-ing. Ex: They saw the man run away / They saw the man running away  The man was seen to run away / The man was seen running away 4. Với động từ make/ let + O + bare - infinitive Active: S + make + O + bare - infinitive Passive: S + be + made + to - infinitive. Ex: Teacher make the students do a lot of homework.  Students are made to do a lot of homework. Active: S + let + O + bare infinitive Passive: S + be + allowed + to - infinitive. Ex: She lets her son play computer games on Sunday afternoon.  Her son is allowed to play computer games on Sunday afternoon. 5. Với động từ: want/ need + to + V  want/need + V-ing/to be + V-ed/V3 Ex: He needs you to believe his ability.  He needs to be believed his ability. Ex: They need to repaint the house .  The house needs repainting = The house needs to be repainted 6. Remember/ hate/ keep…+ someone + V-ing. 3 Ex: I remember my mother taking me to school on the first day.  I remember being taken to school on the first day by my mother. 7. Imperative form (thể mệnh lệnh) Active: Verb + object + adjunct Passive: Let + object + be + past participle + adjunct. Ex1: Keep your hand clean  Let your hand be kept clean. Ex2: Don’t talk the secret to her.  Don’t let the secret be talked to her. 8. It is your duty to do something  You are supposed to do something (bổn phận của bạn là….) Ex: It’s your duty to lock all the doors.  You are supposed to lock all the doors. EXERCISES I. Change the following sentences into the passive voice. 1. They grow rice in tropical countries. → _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Mr. Green loves his children very much. → ______________________________________________________________________ 3. People don’t speak French here. → _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Someone broke his windows last night. → _______________________________________________________________________ 5. The police didn’t find the lost boy yesterday. → _______________________________________________________________________ 6. About thirty million people are watching this live show now. → _______________________________________________________________________ 7. They were carrying the injured player off the field at that time. → _______________________________________________________________________ 8. Jack has typed the article recently. → _______________________________________________________________________ 9. The police haven’t found the murderer yet. → _______________________________________________________________________ 10. They were carrying the injured player off the field at that time. → ______________________________________________________________________ 4 11. They had wrapped the package carefully before they posted it. → ______________________________________________________________________ 12. Children should treat old men with respect. → ______________________________________________________________________ 13. The computer can do all the accounts. → ______________________________________________________________________ 14. They are going to build a new school. → ______________________________________________________________________ 15. He isn’t going to buy that house. → _______________________________________________________________________ 16. They will pull down that building → _______________________________________________________________________ 17. The teacher won’t correct the exercises tomorrow. → _______________________________________________________________________ 18. You have to keep dangerous chemicals in the safe place. → _______________________________________________________________________ 19. Police had to break the meeting up. → _______________________________________________________________________ 20. They may use that room for the classroom. → _______________________________________________________________________ 21. You must wash your hands. → _______________________________________________________________________ 22. They ought to knock down the old building. → _______________________________________________________________________ 23. You needn’t type that report today. → ________________________________________________________________________ 24. Nobody has used this room for ages. → ________________________________________________________________________ 25. No one can solve that problem. → ________________________________________________________________________ 26. No one told us the news. 5 → ________________________________________________________________________ 27. Paul didn’t tell me the ending of the story. → ________________________________________________________________________ 28. The teacher will give her a prize if she works well. → ________________________________________________________________________ 29. Her mother bought her a doll last week. → ________________________________________________________________________ 30. The police found the robber in the forest yesterday. → ________________________________________________________________________ 31. They made him work all day. → ________________________________________________________________________ 32. People don’t make the children work hard. → ________________________________________________________________________ 33. They let him meet her family last month. → ________________________________________________________________________ 34. He won’t let you do that silly thing again. → ________________________________________________________________________ 35. People saw him steal your car. → _____________________________________________________________________ __ 36. I have heard her sing this song several times. → _____________________________________________________________________ __ 37. The teacher is watching them work. → _____________________________________________________________________ __ 38. Alice had a mechanic repair her car. → ________________________________________________________________________ 39. Ellen got Marvin to type her paper. → ________________________________________________________________________ 40. The hairdresser is cutting Mary’s hair now. → Mary is having her hair ___________________________________________________ 6 → Mary is having the hairdresser ______________________________________________ 41. People know that English is an international language. → It is known _____________________________________________________________ → English is known ________________________________________________________ 42. They said that she won the competition. → _______________________________________________________________________ → _____________________________________________________________________ __ 43. They reported that the President had suffered a heard attack. → _______________________________________________________________________ → _______________________________________________________________________ 44. They need to clean the windows → _______________________________________________________________________ → _______________________________________________________________________ 45. I would like to give Mary a nice present. → _______________________________________________________________________ 46. Our teacher wants us to prepare our lessons carefully. → _______________________________________________________________________ 47. It is your duty to lock all the doors. → _______________________________________________________________________ 48. He suggested selling the radio → _______________________________________________________________________ 49. Open your book, please! → _______________________________________________________________________ 50. They advised enlarging the garden → _______________________________________________________________________ II. Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences 1. These T-shirts and jeans __________ in the US. in 1900. A. have made B. made C. were made D. make 2. The building is very dangerous. It __________ down next week. A. knocked B. will knock C. will be knocked D. was knocked 7 3. The room looks nice. It __________ A. was cleaning B. has just been cleaned C. will be cleaned D. is cleaning 4. We ………… each other for 10 years. A. know B. knew C. have known D. had known 5. Our twenty houses __________ when the fire engine __________ A. had burnt up / arrived B. burnt up / had arrived C. had been burnt up / arrived D. will have burnt / arrives 6. After I __________ the grass, it __________ to rain. A. have watered / will begin B. water / began C. had watered / began D. had watered / will have begun 7. Next week when there __________ a full moon, the ocean tides will be higher. A. is being B. is C. will be D. will have been 8. English is __________ all over the world. A. spoken B. speak C. speaks D. to speak 9. Where will these coconut trees __________? A. be planted B. planted C. plant D. be planting 10. Before Jane won the lottery, she __________ any kind of contest. A. hasn’t entered B. doesn’t enter C. wasn’t entering D. hadn’t entered 11. My parents __________ tomorrow to stay with me for a few days. A. come B. will have come C. are coming D. came 12. She left home in 1993 and __________ since then. A. hasn’t seen B. didn’t see C. hasn’t been seen D. wasn’t seen 13.__________ your house painted last year? A. Had B. Did C. Was D. Have 14. What __________ you __________ at 8 o’clock last night? A. did/ do B. have/ done C. were/ doing D. had/ done 15. - “We are having a party at the weekend.” -“Great! Who _________?” A. will being invited B. Is going to invite C. is going to be invited D. will invite 16. This is the fifth time you __________ the same question. A. ask B. asked C. are asking D. have asked 17. This church was said __________ in the 19 th century. A. to build B. to be built C. to have been built D. being built 18. In England, the academic year __________ into three terms. Each term __________ by a one-week break. A. is divided / separated B. divided / is separated C. is divided / is separated D. divided / separated 19. Gold __________ in California in the 19 th century. A. was discovered B. was discover C. has been discovered D. they discovered 20. I am going to have my car __________ A. service B. to be serviced C. serviced D. servicing 21. Two tablets __________ twice a day to have you recover from the illness quickly. A. must take B. must be taken C. must have taken D. must be taking 22. The next meeting __________ in May. A. will hold B. will be held C. will be holding D. will have held 8 23. They had a boy _______ that yesterday. A. done B. to do C. did D. do 24. We got our mail _______ yesterday. A. been delivered B. delivered C. delivering D. to deliver 25. James_______ the news as soon as possible. A. should tell B. should be told C. should told D. should be telle d 26. My wedding ring _______ yellow and white gold. A. is made B. is making C. made D. make 27. Mr. Wilson is _______ as Willie to his friend. A. known B. knew C. is known D. know 28. References _______ in the examination room. A. not are used B. is not used C. didn’t used D. are not used 29. Laura _______ in Boston. A. are born B. were born C. was born D. born 30. His car needs ________. A. be fixed B. fixing C. to be fixing D. fixed 31. Her watch needs _______. A. repairing B. to be repaired C. repaired D. A and B 32. My mother is going _____ this house. A. sold B. sell C. to be sold D. to sell 33. There’s somebody behind us. I think we are _______. A. being followed B. are followed C. follow D. following 34. Have you _______ by a dog? A. bite B. bit C. ever been bitten D. ever been bit 35. The room is being _______ at the moment. A. was cleaned B. cleaned C. cleaning D. clean 36. It _______ that the strike will end soon. A. is expected B. expected C. are expected D. was expected 37. It is _______ that many people are homeless after the floods. A. was reported B. reports C. reported D. reporting 38. He was said _______ this building. A. designing B. to have designed C. to design D. designed 39. Ted _______ by a bee while he was sitting in the garden. A. got sting B. got stung C. get stung D. gets stung 40. These tennis courts don’t _____ very often. Not many people want to play. A. got used B. used C. get used D. get use 41. I’ll get Minh _______ this for you. A. do B. done C. did D. to do 42. Those letters _______ now. You can do the typing later. A. need typing B. needn't be typed C. need to type D. needn't typing 43. “What a beautiful dress you are wearing”- “thanks, it_______ especially for me by a Fre nch tailor.” A. is made B. has made C. made D. was made 44. Somebody cleans the room every day. A. The room everyday is cleaned. B. The room is every day cleaned. C. The room is cleaned every day. D. The room is cleaned by somebody ever 9 y day. 45. People don’t use this road very often. A. This road is not used very often. B. Not very often this road is not used. C. This road very often is not used. D. This road not very often is used. 46. How do people learn languages? A. How are languages learned? B. How are languages learned by people? C. How languages are learned? D. Languages are learned how? 47. Tom bought that book yesterday. A. That book was bought by Tom yesterday. B. That book was bought yesterday by To m. C. That book yesterday was bought by Tom D. That book was bought yesterday. 48. The new computer system _______ next month. A. is be installed B. is being installed by people C. is been installed D. is being installed 49. Traffic rules____________ strictly. A. followed B. must followed C. must be followed D. must follow 50. Over 1500 new houses _______ each year. Last year, 1720 new houses _______. A. were built/were built B. are built/were b uilt C. are building/were built D. were built/were built III. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to show the underlined part that needs correction. 1. The children were frightening by the thunder and lightning. A B C D 2. Two people got hurt in the accident and were took to the hospital by an ambulance. A B C D 3. The students helped by the clear explanation that the teacher gave. A B C D 4. That alloy is composing by iron and tin. A B C D 5. The winner of the race hasn’t been announcing yet. A B C D 6. Progress is been made every day in all parts of the world. A B C D 7. When, where and by whom has the automobile invented? A B C D 8. Each assembly kit is accompany by detailed instruction. A B C D 9. Arthur was giving an award by the city for all of his efforts in crime prevention. A B C D 10. It was late and I was getting very worry about my son. A B C D 11. I discovered that many strange things were happened last night. A B C D 12. He was seen go to the beach with some other people. A B C D 10 [...]... Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định (Non – defining clauses) • Là mệnh đề quan hệ dùng cho danh từ Đã xác định Đây là mệnh đề quan hệ không cần thi t vì danh từ phía trước nó đã xác định, không có nó câu vẫn rõ nghĩa Mệnh đề này được ngăn cách bởi dấu phẩy • Mệnh đề này không được dùng “That” • Cách nhận diện mặt hàng: + Chủ ngữ là danh từ riêng (Proper noun) hoặc danh từ chỉ vật duy nhất + Dùng cho các. .. **************************************** 27 CHUYÊN ĐỀ: MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ RELATIVE CLAUSES I ĐỊNH NGHĨA: • Mệnh đề quan hệ hay còn gọi là mệnh đề tính từ, là một mệnh đề phụ được dùng để bổ sung ý nghĩa cho một danh từ đứng trước nó Ex: The man who lives next door is very handsome (Người đàn ông sống cạnh nhà tôi rất đẹp trai.) • Mệnh đề quan hệ thường được bắt đầu bằng các đại từ quan hệ hoặc trạng từ quan hệ • Các đại từ quan hệ:... yesterday III CÁC LOẠI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: 29 1 Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (Defining relative clauses) • Là mệnh đề quan hệ dùng cho danh từ Chưa xác định Đây là mệnh đề quan hệ cần thi t vì danh từ phía trước chưa xác định, không có nó câu sẽ không rõ nghĩa Ex:- The man who met me at the airport gave me the money à Ta gọi mệnh đề who met me at the airport là mệnh đề quan hệ xác định vì nó rất cần thi t để bổ... on, at, of,…) Sau các từ chỉ số thứ tự: The first, The second, The third, the last, the only,… Sau các đại từ bất định: Someone, anybody, nothing, any thing, something, noone,… Và sau các đại từ: “all, much, any, few, some, little, none” Không dùng That khi nó thay thế cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước, mà dùng Which để thay thế Ex: It rained all day, which was a pity Không dùng That với các từ chỉ lượng có... belongs to Mr Pike àThe house built now belongs to Mr Pike V CÁC LƯU Ý VỀ MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: F Các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đều có thể lược bỏ 30 Ex: Do you know the boy (whom) we met yesterday? Ex: That’s the house (which) I have bought F Tuy nhiên các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định không thể lược bỏ Ex: Mr Tom, whom... con chó của bã đang chạy trong công viên) • Notes: Không được dùng That trong mệnh đề quan hệ có dấu phẩy • Khái quát các trường hợp nên và không nên dùng That: CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP KHÔNG DÙNG CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP DÙNG THAT THAT Danh từ phía trước chỉ cả người lẫn vật (hỗn từ) Trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định Ex: I see the girl anh her dog that are running (có dấu phẩy) 28 in the park Sau cấu trúc so sánh nhất:... bạn đấy!) FWHOM: Đại từ quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người, đóng chức năng tân ngữ trong câu Theo sau Whom phải là một chủ ngữ Ex: The woman whom you saw yesterday is my aunt (Người phụ nữ mà bạn gặp ngày hôm qua là dì của tôi) Ex: This is the man whom we saw at the party yesterday (Đây là người đàn ông mà chúng tôi gặp vào bữa tiệc ngày hôm qua) FWHICH: Đại từ quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật,... down A B C D ********************************** CHUYÊN ĐỀ: REPORTED SPEECH (CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT) CÁC NGUYÊN TẮC CHUNG 11 1 Thay đổi động từ trong câu tường thuật Động từ tường thuật là động từ giới thi u câu nói trực tiếp hay câu nói gián tiếp Khi đổi từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp, động từ tường thuật được thay đổi tùy theo trường hợp cụ thể Dưới đây là các động tường thuật dùng trong câu: Said → said... (Ngôi nhà kia, cái nhà mà được xây dựng một vài tháng trước, trông không hiện đại) Vietnam, which lies in Southeast Asia, is rich in coal (Việt Nam, nơi mà nằm ở Đông Nam Á, thì có rất nhiều than) IV RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: 1 Using participle phrases (sử dụng hiện tại phân từ): • Dùng cho các đại từ trong câu chủ động Lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ (nếu có) và đưa động từ chính trong câu về dạng... đẹp trai.) • Mệnh đề quan hệ thường được bắt đầu bằng các đại từ quan hệ hoặc trạng từ quan hệ • Các đại từ quan hệ: who, whom, which, that, whose hoặc các trạng từ quan hệ: where, when, why II CÁC ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ: F WHO: Đại từ quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người, đóng chức năng chủ ngữ trong câu Theo sau Who phải là một động từ Ex: The man who met me at the airport gave me the money (Người đàn ông . CÁC CHUYÊN ĐỀ LUYỆN THI ĐẠI HOCN MÔN TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN ĐỀ: PASSIVE VOICE (THỂ BỊ ĐỘNG) I. Cách chuyển từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động: Active:. day. 45. People don’t use this road very often. A. This road is not used very often. B. Not very often this road is not used. C. This road very often is not used. D. This road not very often is. FORMS Have Active S + have + O (person) + V o + O (thing) Passive S + have + O (thing) + V 3/ed Get Active S + get + O (person) + to V + O (thing) Passive S + get + O (thing) + V 3/ed Ex: 1. I had him repair
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