Dòng điện xoay chiều - luyện thi đại học Vật lý

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Ngày đăng: 11/09/2014, 20:55

Đây là bộ tài liệu hay, được tuyển chọn kĩ càng, có chất lượng cao, giúp các em học sinh lớp 12 củng cố và nâng cao kiến thức, phục vụ tốt việc bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi và luyện thi đại học của bộ môn. Bên cạnh phần lí thuyết được hệ thống hóa một cách khoa học và dễ hiểu là phần bài tập thực hành với lời giải chi tiết cụ thể, không những giúp các thầy cô có căn cứ để hướng dẫn và giảng dạy cho học sinh mà còn giúp cho các em tự học, tự kiểm tra và so sánh đối chiếu kết quả làm bài của mình khi không có sự trợ giúp của các thầy cô giáo.Hy vọng bộ tài liệu sẽ giúp ích đắc lực cho các em học sinh lớp 12 trong việc học tập và luyện thi đại học.  !                     !∀#∃%%%#∀∃&  !∀#∃%&∋(∀)∗+∗,∗!∀#∃−.(! ∋()∗+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− ,− ./0+1−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− 234567 89, :;      ∀#∃%&∋∋     !    /   <=,=   >?67 8 >?≅:2 Α>   01  2  3  4    526    07    8  526  −                                    !  ∀#∃ 329:;<=>6## :;?6≅09ΑΒ2;Χ:# ∆<8Ε# Φ=4ΓΗ#Γ&Γ& ΒΓ & Γ & . 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   Ξ       >?67 8Κ  −#_&∋α.β#χ)δεα.∋φ#%γηι)∗β#χ)α.∋φ# ϕ Ρ .(κΗλµ  & Ι%γϕ Ρ .(κΗλµ  # Ι ν#  ϕ  &   # ∃γβο∃χ.∋ε∋∀.π∀κ(%ν#Γ.θ / /        /−ι)∗β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&ϕ Ρ .(κΗ/  Τµ  # Ι υ;ϖ#∗#ωσβξ#.∋#τ&/Τ∃ψ) υζ&ε∋∀+∀)βψ&  # ϕ /   ∋({.  # ϕ /  ∋|.∋}∗#ωσβψ& #∼)βξ#.∋#τ&/ΤΝ∃ψ)− Ξ−)∗∋α.)∋∋φ#∗#∀)β)∋&)∋&∀)∗κδ)∗()∗!ο .∋& ∋# β{ β#χ) δε  ϕ  Ρ .(κΗ   µ  & Ι %γ( ∋∀# βψ& +θ)∗ β)Γ+#ζβ).∋}κδ)∗∃∼)∋#  −         ν#  Ρ (κ       ΓΗΡ     /Ι −ι)∗β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&()∗β()!.∋ΒΓΓ υ()!.∋.∋}.θβ#χ)∋&ψ)Β  .)∗ε∋∀%ν#ΓΗ  ϕ  &   # ϕΡΙ           %γ Ρ Ρ       ()∗#χ)Β.∋(ηι)∗β#χ)∋)∗βξ#β#&∀%γ.θ      υ()!.∋.∋}.θ.&ο)∋&ψ).!  )∋∀)∋ε∋∀∋)∃γ /  ΓΗ  ϕ  &   # ϕ /  Ι            %γ Ρ Ρ      %ν#  ϕ  ∃γ.!∋δ)∗  ()∗&ο)∋&ψ).!.∋(ηι)∗β#χ)∋)∗βξ#β#&∀∋(γ)(γ)Η∋)∗.)Ι− υ()!.∋.∋}.θβ#χ)  .∋!ε∋∀∋)∃γ /  ΓΗ  ϕ  &   # ϕΝ /  Ι           %γ Ρ Ρ      %ν#       ∃γη&)∗∋δ)∗  ()∗β#χ)∋)∗.∋(ηι)∗β#χ)∋)∗βξ#β#&∀Η.)∋(γ)(γ)Ι− υ()!.∋Β∋)∗ε∋ω))∋δ)∋  / / / / / / Ρ Ρ Ρ Ρ Η Ι Η Ι Η Ι                                 ∀) κ#)  (κ                      %ν# / /         µ∋#    ∋∀σ        Ρ∋|)∋∀)∋ε∋∀∋)  µ∋#    ∋∀σ        Ρ∋|.∋!ε∋∀∋)   2 ;/ ;/ ; ; Ν  Ρ Ρ  Ν  0δ)∗ 0δ)∗   :4Λ  !       µ∋#  ϕ  ∋∀σ        ϕΡ∋|.)∗ε∋∀%ν#− .βθ ;∀ρ   ϕ Β ∗#∃γ∋#χ))∗.ο)∗∋)∗ηι)∗β#χ) ∆−)∗κ&()∋#χ∼)β()!.∋Β υ)∗κ&α.∋φ#Υϕ.(κ  µ.(κΗ/λµ  &µ  # Ι υ)∗κ&&)∗+|)∋Υϕ.(κ  ϕ / Β− Φ−#χ)δεϕ  µ Ρ .(κΗ  µ  Ιβ..(#∗!!οβ#χ)δε∋)∗βξ#  %γ!οβ#χ)δερ(∀σ .∋#τ&ϕ Ρ .(κΗ  µ  Ιβ)∗∋φ#β{%γ(β()!.∋− ϑ−ψ)κηι)∗β#χ)η(!δσε∋δβ#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&!οε∋∀.θΥ.{ε..Γ(&∀σ%ν#%).) %ι)∗∗#ωσε∋δ∀Τϕε) ∋)∗∗#&∀∋&)∗ηωσ.π∀!δσε∋δβ#χ)  ϕ0.(κΗ  µ  Ιϕ  Ρ .(κΗ  µ  Ι ν#  Ρ ϕ0∃γ∋)∗..β#Γ∃γκ%ι)∗ηωσΓ∃γ.!α)∗.π∀φ)∗Γ0∃γη#χ) .∋.π∀%ι)∗ηωσΓ  ϕ/  Τ 0&β#χ)βο)∗()∗∋&)∗ηωσ€ϕ  0.(κΗ  µ  Ν /  Ιϕ Ρ .(κΗ  µ  Ν /  Ι ν# Ρ ϕ  0∃γκ&β#χ)βο)∗..β#−  >?≅:2 Α>  :∀ΜΝ : ΟΜΠ Θ  +,)−∀. ∋)∗&∀∋&)∗ηωσ.π∀!δσε∋δβ#χ) ϕ0.(κΗ Γ     Ιϕ0.(κΗµΙϕ Ρ .(κΗµΙ%ν# Ρ ϕ0−  Ην#  ϕ%γχκ.!ϕ  −Ρ Νϑ  / −0∃Ι  0&βο)∗()∗∋&)∗ηωσ.π∀!δσε∋δβ#χ) €ϕΝ    ϕΝϒϕ0κ#)ΗµΙϕ Ρ .(κΗµΝ /  Ι%ν# Ρ ϕ Ρ ϕ0− µ0γη#χ).∋!ο%ι)∗ηωσ µ0%ι)∗ηωσ.π∀∋&)∗ µ   ′..!α)∗.π∀φ)∗βτ&Η   %&)∗∗θ.%ν#.&∀σ  Ι µ  ).∗θ.∋)∗βξ#.π∀∋&)∗Η∋)∗.∋φ#∗#∀)ϕΡ∃.Η Γ Ι      Ρ Ρ Ι   δ.∗#δ≤∋#χ&η)∗ϕ Ρ /  ϕ Ρ /   ϕ Ρ /  − ψ)κηι)∗β#χ)η(!δσε∋δβ#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&!οε∋∀.θΥ.{ε..Γ(&∀σ%ν#%).) %ι)∗∗#ωσε∋δ∀Τϕε) ∋&|ψ)κϕ /   Τϕ /   −  Ρ=<;  ∀;ο∋&)∗ηωση⁄)ε∋∞)∗ηƒ∋|)∋.∋♣)∋.θ∆ΡΡ%ι)∗ηωσΓη#χ).∋!ϖ#%ι)∗∆ .! / − ∋&)∗ ηωσ &∀σ βτ& &∀)∋ !ο . β# ρα)∗ Η∋&ο. !{ ε∋∞)∗ .π∀ ∋&)∗ΙΓ ()∗  φ)∗βτ&.θ%€..!α)∗%&)∗∗θ.%ν#.&∀σ%γ.θβο∃ν)ϕΡΓ/−)∋  !    ∆  ∋)∗..β#&∀∋&)∗ηωσ−_κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗ρ&∋#χ)()∗∋&)∗ηωσ.θψ)κ ∆Ρ∋|∋&)∗ηωσε∋#&∀σ%ν#.βο+∀()∋#∼&%ι)∗ε∋♦  ∀.θ Ρ ϕ0ϕΡΓ∆Σ+)ϕ ΦΡ   ϕΞΡΡΡ%ι)∗ε∋−  ΙΣ−;ο∋&)∗ηωση⁄)ε∋∞)∗ηƒ∋|)∋.∋♣)∋.θ∆ΡΡ%ι)∗ηωσΓη#χ).∋!ϖ#%ι)∗∃γ//Ρ .! / −∋&)∗ηωσ&∀σβτ&%ν#.βο∆Ρ%ι)∗κ&∀)∋.β#ρα)∗)♥!()∗!{ε∋∞)∗∋&)∗ ηωσΓ()∗!οφ)∗βτ&.θ%′..!α)∗   %&)∗∗θ.%ν#.&∀σ%γ.θβο∃ν) / ∆  −)∋κ&β#χ)βο)∗..β#ρ&∋#χ)()∗∋&)∗ηωσ−  ∀.θΤϕ)ϕ∆Ρϕ/ΤϕΡΡ∀ηκ Ρ ϕ0ϕ//Ρ / −  Τ;ο∋&)∗ηωση⁄)∋|)∋.∋♣)∋.θ∆ΡΡ%ι)∗Γη#χ).∋!ϖ#%ι)∗ΡΡ.! / Γ&∀σβτ& &∀)∋.β#ρα)∗.π∀∋&)∗%ν#.βο∗θ./Ρ%ι)∗ε∋()∗!οφ)∗βτ&.θ.! α)∗+♥)∗ΡΓ−.&∀σ%&)∗∗θ.%ν#.δ.βφ)∗κα.−∋)∗.∋φ#∗#∀)∃γ∃.%′. ε∋δε&σζ).π∀!{ε∋♠)∗∋&)∗ηωσ.)∗∋ν)∗%ν#%′..!α)∗−#ζ+#_&∋α.κ& β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗α.∋φ#()∗∋&)∗−  ∀.θ Ρ ϕ0ϕΦΣ+ϕ ΦΡ  /ϕ∀ηκ ϕ Ρ .(κΗ  Γ Ιϕ Ρ .(κΗµΙ∋#ϕΡ∋|Η  Γ ΙϕΡϕΡ−  σϕΦ.(κΗΣ+Ι€ϕΝϒϕ/κ#)ϕ/.(κΗΝ /  ΙΗΙ−  Υ−∋)∗&∀%ι)∗ηωση⁄)∃γϕ / /−Ρ   .(κΗΡΡΝ   ΙΗΣ+Ι−|!+#_&∋α..π∀κ& β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗∗#♣∀∋∀#βψ&.&ο)ηωσ∗!∆Ρ%ι)∗ηωσ)γσ−  ∀.θ€ϕΝϒϕ∆Ρ−ΡΡ / /−Ρ   κ#)ΗΡΡΝ   ΙϕΞΡΡ.(κΗΡΡΝ Ξ   ΙΗΙ−  ς ;ο∋&)∗ηωσ.θη#χ).∋0ϕΦΡ.!/&∀σβτ&%ν#%)./Ρ%ι)∗()∗!ο∗#ωσ−∋&)∗β{()∗ φ)∗βτ&ϕ/−ΡΝ/−.&∀σ.π∀∋&)∗%&)∗∗θ.%ν#.δ.βφ)∗.!α)∗Γ∃.ϕΡε∋δε&σζ)∋&)∗ ηωσ.θ∋ν)∗.π∀− ∀−#ζ+#_&∋α.∋)∗ρ&σ∼)&∀∋&)∗ηωσ− +−#ζ+#_&∋α.κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗ρ&∋#χ)()∗∋&)∗ηωσ− /)012    ΡΓΡ∆ /Ρ        / / −/Ρ Ρ           /  ∆ −/−Ρ −ΦΡ−Ρ /−Ρ           ∆ /−Ρ .(κΡ        ∆ / Ρ −/−Ρ Γ∆−Ρ              !    Φ   / Γ∆−Ρ κ#) Ρ        / .(κ / Γ∆−Ρ Ρ              # ;ο∋&)∗ηωση⁄)∗!ϕΡΡ%ι)∗&))##ζεΓη#χ).∋!ϖ#%ι)∗ηωσ∃γ0ϕΦΡ.!/−∋&)∗ηωσ &∀σβτ&%ν#ψ)κ/Ρ%ι)∗κΓ()∗!οφ)∗βτ&.θ.!α)∗ϕ/−ΡΝ/−.&∀σ.π∀∋&)∗%&)∗ ∗θ.%ν#−#ζ+#_&∋α..π∀κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗α.∋φ#− /)012 ∋&|   ΡΓΡ∆ /Ρ       κ−ψ)κ∗θ. / / /Ρ Ρ          Η∀ηκΙ #∼)βο.π∀κ&β#χ)βο)∗ ( ϕ0ϕΡ  −ΡΡ−/−Ρ Ν/ −ΦΡ−Ρ Ν   Γ∆ ∋)∗.∋φ#∗#∀)∃.   Γ Ρ       Ρ    − 0&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗α.∋φ# κ#) Γ∆κ#)Ρ          ΗΙ∀σ Γ∆.(κ Ρ /             ΗΙ− & ;ο∋&)∗ηωση⁄).θϕΡΡ%ι)∗ηωσ&))##ζεΓ!ϖ#%ι)∗.θη#χ).∋0ϕ∆Ρ.! / −∋&)∗ηωσ β.β{()∗φ)∗βτ&ϕΡΓ∆−.ϕΡΓ%€.ε∋δε&σζ).π∀∋&)∗ηωσ∋ε%ν#   ∗θ. Ξ    −∋( ∋&)∗ηωσ&∀σβτ&%ν#ψ)κ/Ρ%ι)∗κ&∀)∋.  Η.β#&∀ω!%γ κ()∗κ()∗ %ν#!ο.)∋.π∀ ∋&)∗Ι%&)∗∗θ.%ν#   −∋α)∗↔♥)∗()∗∋&)∗ρ&∋#χ)κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗€%γ|!+#_&∋α..π∀ €∋€(− /)012 ∋&)∗ηωσ&∀σβτ&&∀)∋.  %&)∗∗θ.%ν#.!α)∗   ∋|∗θ.∋ε+#%€.ε∋δε&σζ)   .π∀ ∋&)∗ηωσ%γ   ∋∀σβξ#∋)∗&∀∋&)∗ηωσ+#ζ)∋#∼)∋€(β≤)∋∃&.!α)∗β#χ)Γ()∗∋&)∗ ηωσρ&∋#χ)κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗− ψ)κ∗θ. / / −/Ρ Ρ          Η∀ηκΙ #∼)βο.π∀κ&β#χ)βο)∗  Ρ −ΡΡ−ΡΓ∆−∆Ρ−Ρ ΞΓ/          ΗΙ ∋)∗.∋φ#∗#∀)∃.   Γ Ξ        #_&∋α..π∀κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗α.∋φ# ΞΓ/ κ#) Ρ Ξ             ΗΙ ∀σ ΞΓ / .(κ Ρ Φ             ΗΙ ∃ΩϑΙ!!∃ ;ο∋&)∗ηωση⁄)∋|)∋.∋♣)∋.θΡΡ%ι)∗Γη#χ).∋!ϖ#%ι)∗ΦΡΡ.! / Γ&∀σβτ&&∀)∋ .β#ρα)∗.π∀∋&)∗%ν#%).∗θ./Ρ%ι)∗ε∋()∗!οφ)∗βτ&.θ.!α)∗+♥)∗ΡΓ/−. &∀σ%&)∗∗θ.%ν#.δ.βφ)∗.!α)∗−∋)∗.∋φ#∗#∀)∃.%€.ε∋δε&σζ).π∀!{ε∋∞)∗∋&)∗ηωσ )∗.∋ν)∗%ν#%€..!α)∗−#_&∋α.κ&β#χ)βο)∗.!α)∗()∗∋&)∗∃γ  6− € Λ κ#)ΗΡ  ΙΗΙ− /       − € ΓΛ κ#)Η  ΙΗΙ−        − € Λ κ#)Η  ΙΗΙ−       − € ΓΛ κ#)ΗΡ  ΙΗΙ− /                                                  :Ι:<:Β9,9Ξ8<Θ >? Ψ  ι)∗β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&()∗β()!.∋.∋}.∋α∀Β∋({.∋({.−  !    ϑ  _|!.δ.β#∃)∗∼)β()!.∋ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&∀|!.)∗∋α.∃#∼)&∀)βζ).δ.β#∃)∗β← +#ζ%ν#)θϕβ#∃)∗.ψ)|!−  +3∀45 #_&∋α..π∀#%γ& Ρ .(κΗµ # Ι&ϕ Ρ .(κΗµ & Ι− ο∃χ.∋ε∋∀∗#♣∀&%γ#ϕ & Ν # − ()∗∗#ωσηι)∗β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&.θψ)κΤΗ)∋∀Ιβξ#.∋#τ&/Τ∃ψ)−  #_&∋α..π∀β#χ)δεα.∋φ#&ϕ Ρ  (κΗ Ι       Η   ∃γε∋∀+∀)βψ&.π∀β#χ)δεΙ #_&∋α..π∀.φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)α.∋φ#()∗!.∋ϕ Ρ (κΗ Ι       Η   ∃γε∋∀+∀)βψ&.π∀ηι)∗β#χ)Ι #δ≤∋#χ&η)∗µφ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)∋#χ&η)∗ϕ Ρ /    µ#χ&β#χ)∋ζ∋#χ&η)∗ ϕ Ρ /   µ0&β#χ)βο)∗∋#χ&η)∗ ϕ Ρ /    υ()!.∋.∋}.θβ#χ)∋&ψ)Β  .)∗ε∋∀%ν#ΓΗ  ϕ  &   # ϕΡΙ           %γ Ρ Ρ       ()∗ #χ)Β.∋(ηι)∗β#χ)∋)∗βξ#β#&∀%γ.θ      υ()!.∋.∋}.θ.&ο)∋&ψ).!  )∋∀)∋ε∋∀∋)∃γ /  ΓΗ  ϕ  &   # ϕ /  Ι            %γ Ρ Ρ      %ν#  ϕ  ∃γ.!∋δ)∗  ()∗ &ο)∋&ψ).!.∋(ηι)∗β#χ)∋)∗βξ#β#&∀∋(γ)(γ)Η∋)∗.)Ι− υ()!.∋.∋}.θβ#χ)  .∋!ε∋∀∋)∃γ /  ΓΗ  ϕ  &   # ϕΝ /  Ι           %γ Ρ Ρ      %ν#       ∃γη&)∗∋δ)∗  ()∗ β#χ)∋)∗.∋(ηι)∗β#χ)∋)∗βξ#β#&∀Η.)∋(γ)(γ)Ι−   Ρ=<;  ∀  { %γ( ∋∀#βψ& .&ο) .! ϕ ↑ΗΙ !ο ∋#χ& β#χ) ∋ζ ρ(∀σ .∋#τ& //Ρ ∆Ρ− φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)∋#χ&η)∗&∀.&ο).!∃γ 6−ϕ/Γ/6−  −ϕ/ΓΡ6− −ϕΓΦ6− −ϕΓ6−  !∋δ)∗.π∀.&ο).!β.)∋∋€(.)∗∋α.       − φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)()∗!.∋ϕ  ϕ/Γ/6−ϕ∋)6−   Ι {%γ(∋∀#βψ&β#χ) ΙΗ Ρ      !ο∋#χ&β#χ)∋ζρ(∀σ.∋#τ&&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑Ι− &)∗∋δ)∗.π∀β#χ)∃γ  !    Λ  6−  ϕ∆Ρ→−  −  ϕΡΓΡ→− −  ϕ6−−  ϕΡΡ→−  +#_&∋α.&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑ΙΓκ&σ∀↓ϕΡΡ↑Η∀ηκΙ−&)∗∋δ)∗.π∀β#χ)β.)∋ ∋€(.)∗∋α.           −ϕ∋)− Τ {%γ(∋∀#βψ&.&ο).! ΙΗ     !ο∋#χ&β#χ)∋ζρ(∀σ.∋#τ&&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑Ι− !∋δ)∗.π∀.&ο).!∃γ 6−  ϕ/ΡΡ→−  −  ϕΡΡ→−  −  ϕ∆Ρ→−  −  ϕ/∆→−  +#_&∋α.&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑ΙΓκ&σ∀↓ϕΡΡ↑Η∀ηκΙ−!∋δ)∗.π∀.&ο).!β. )∋∋€(.)∗∋α.       −ϕ∋)−  Υ {%γ(∋∀#βψ&β#χ) ΙΗ Ρ      !ο∋#χ&β#χ)∋ζρ(∀σ.∋#τ&&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑Ι− φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)&∀β#χ)∃γ 6−ϕΓ6− −ϕΓΡΡ6−  −ϕ/ΓΡΡ6−  −ϕΡΡ→−  +#_&∋α.&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑ΙϕϕΡΡ%γψ)κ∗θ.↓ϕΡΡ↑Η∀ηκΙ−&)∗∋δ)∗ .π∀β#χ)β.)∋∋€(.)∗∋α.           −φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)()∗!.∋ϕ.− ϕ∋)−  ς {%γ(∋∀#βψ&.&ο).! ΙΗ     !ο∋#χ&β#χ)∋ζρ(∀σ.∋#τ&&ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑Ι− φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)∋#χ&η)∗&∀.&ο).!∃γ 6−ϕΓ6− −ϕΓΡΡ6−  −ϕ/ΓΡΡ6−  −ϕΡΡ→−  &ϕ.(κΗΡΡ↑ΙΓϕϕΡΡΓ↓ϕΡΡ↑Η∀ηκΙ−       −ϕϕ  ϕ6ϕ  ∋)−  # −ι)∗β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&.θ.φ)∗βο#ϕ.(κ/ΡΗ6Ι−5δ.β≤)∋.φ)∗βο∋#χ&η)∗.π∀ ηι)∗β#χ)%γ.∋(+#ζ()∗∋φ#∗#∀)/κηι)∗β#χ)βξ#.∋#τ&+∀()∋#∼&∃ψ)♦   ∀.θϕ Ρ /  ϕ/ / 6Τϕ /   ϕΦΡ−  ()∗/∗#ωσηι)∗β#χ)βξ#.∋#τ&Τϕ/Ρ∃ψ)−  & −ι)∗β#χ).∋σ&∀!οβ()!.∋.θ+#_&∋α.#ϕ Ρ .(κΡΡ−()∗∋()∗∋φ#∗#∀) Ρβζ)ΡΓΡ/κΓρδ.β≤)∋.δ.∋φ#β#_!.φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ).θ∗#δ≤α.∋φ#.θ∗#δ≤+♥)∗ ∀ΙΡΓ∆    +Ι / /  Ρ −  ∀Ι∀.θΡΓ∆ Ρ ϕ Ρ .(κΡΡ  .(κΡΡϕ.(κΗ° Ξ  Ι  ΡΡϕ° Ξ  µ/  !    Θ    ϕ °  ΞΡΡ  µΡΓΡ/%ν# − δ. )∗∋#χ!η)∗)∋↔ ∋)∋({. +♥)∗ ΡΓΡ/κ ()∗ /∋ )∗∋#χ!)γσ∃γϕ  ΞΡΡ κ%γϕ  ΦΡ κ−  +Ι∀.θ / /  Ρ ϕ Ρ .(κΡΡ  .(κΡΡϕ.(κΗ°   Ι  ΡΡϕ°   µ/    ϕ °  ΡΡ µ ΡΓΡ/ %ν#   − δ. )∗∋#χ! η)∗ )∋↔ ∋) ∋({. +♥)∗ ΡΓΡ/ κ ()∗ / ∋ )∗∋#χ!)γσ∃γϕ  ΡΡ κ%γϕ ϑ ΡΡ κ−  ∃ #∋φ#β#_!Γβ#χ)δε&ϕ/ΡΡ / .(κΗΡΡ↑Ν /  ΙΗ&)∋+♥)∗Γ)∋+♥)∗κΙ.θ∗#δ≤∃γ ΡΡ / %γβ∀)∗∗#!−5δ.β≤)∋β#χ)δε)γσκ∀&∋φ#β#_!βθ  ΞΡΡ κ−   #∋φ#β#_!&ϕΡΡ / ϕ/ΡΡ / .(κΗΡΡ↑Ν /  Ι  .(κΗΡΡ↑Ν /  Ιϕ  / ϕ.(κΗ° Ξ  Ι−|&β∀)∗∗#!)∼)∀)∋))∗∋#χ!ΗµΙ  ΡΡ↑Ν /  ϕ Ξ   ϕ  /Ρ ΗκΙ−  0∀&∋φ#β#_!βθ  ΞΡΡ κΓ∀.θ   &ϕ/ΡΡ / .(κΗΡΡ↑Η  /Ρ µ  ΞΡΡ ΙΝ /  Ιϕ/ΡΡ / .(κ / Ξ  ϕΝΡΡ / ΗΙ−  % −#χ)δερ(∀σ.∋#τ&∗#♣∀∋∀#β#_!6%γ+#ζ)∋#∼)β#τ&∋ι∀%ν#+#_&∋α. &ϕ//Ρ / .(κΗΡΡ↑µ Φ  ΙΗ()∗βθ&)∋+♥)∗Γ)∋+♥)∗κΙ−#∋φ#β#_!  )θ.θ∗#δ≤α. ∋φ#&  ϕ//Ρ%γβ∀)∗.θρ&∋ν)∗±)∗−↔##∋φ#β#_! / )∗∀σκ∀&  ∆!κ∋|)θ.θ∗#δ≤α.∋φ# & / +♥)∗+∀()∋#∼&♦  ∀.θ&  ϕ//Ρϕ//Ρ / .(κΗΡΡ↑  µ Φ  Ι  .(κΗΡΡ↑  µ Φ  Ιϕ / / ϕ.(κΗ   Ι−  |&β∀)∗±)∗)∼)∀)∋))∗∋#χ!ΗΝΙ  ΡΡ↑  µ Φ  ϕΝ       ϕΝ  /Ρ κ    / ϕ  µΡΓΡΡ∆ϕ ΡΓ/ /Ρ κ  & / ϕ//Ρ / .(κΗΡΡ↑ / µ Φ  Ιϕ//Ρ−  ∀! ;ο!β#χ)∋(βο)∗+|)∋∋φ)∗∋#)#%ν#!)∗β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&.θβ#χ)δε∋#χ& η)∗∃γ//ΡΓβ#χ).π∀!∋#βθ∃γΛΓ−)∋)∋#χ∃)∗η(!↔∀∀()∗∋φ#∗#∀) !οε∋−  ∀.θϕ   ϕΓ∆∆6Υϕ / Βϕ /   ϕΡΡΡΣ>ϕΥϕΦΡΡΡΡ″ϕΦΡ≥−  !    Ρ  :Τ:4Λ:<:Β9,9Ζ 7>  υ()!.∋Β∋)∗ε∋ω))∋δ)∋  / / / / / / Ρ Ρ Ρ Ρ Η Ι Η Ι Η Ι                                 ∀) κ#)  (κ                      %ν# / /         µ∋#    ∋∀σ        Ρ∋|)∋∀)∋ε∋∀∋)  µ∋#    ∋∀σ        Ρ∋|.∋!ε∋∀∋)  µ∋#  ϕ  ∋∀σ        ϕΡ∋|.)∗ε∋∀%ν#ϕ∋#χ))∗.ο)∗∋)∗ β#χ).βθ ;∀ρ   ϕ Β    ζ&()∗β()!.∋.θ)∋#τ&ε∋ψ)ΒΓΓ!.)##ζε∋|()∗∋#)∋ξ)∗∋({.βο ∃χ.∋ε∋∀≥∗#♣∀&%γ#∀β{ΒϕΒ  µΒ / µ−−−  ϕ  µ / µ−−−  ϕ  µ / µ−−−−ζ&!.∋∋)∗.θβ#χ) ∋γ)∋ε∋ψ))γ(∋|.∋()θϕΡ−   Ρ=<; ∀ ∋).ω& 6 −∋(!.∋β#χ)ρ(∀σ.∋#τ&)∋∋|)∋%×Η|)∋ΘΙ−∗φ#∀β(β..δ. ∋#χ&β#χ)∋ζ 6; ϕΦΓ ; ϕ/ΡΓ  ϕΛ−#χ&β#χ)∋ζ∗#♣∀∋∀#βψ&β()!.∋6∃γ  6−  2 −/Ρ  −/Λ  −Φ /−+1[∴+∋+2  )∗.δ..)∗∋α.           ]  /Ρ Ι −ζ&β{%γ(∋∀#βψ&.&ο)ηωσβ#χ)δε.∋#τ&Θ∋| .φ)∗βοηι)∗β#χ)()∗.&ο)ηωσ∃γΡΓ∆6−ζ&β{%γ(∋∀#βψ&.&ο)ηωσβ#χ)δερ(∀σ.∋#τ& .θ∗#δ≤∋#χ&η)∗∃γΘ∋|.φ)∗βο∋#χ&η)∗.π∀ηι)∗β#χ)&∀.&ο)ηωσ∃γΡΓΞ6−5δ. β≤)∋β#χ)∋&ψ)%γ.!∋δ)∗.π∀.&ο)ηωσ−  ∀.θΒϕ     ϕΛ η ϕ !   ϕΞΡ  ϕ //    ϕ/− Τ ∋(β()!.∋∗!β#χ)∋&ψ)ΒϕΡΡ%γβ#χ).θβ#χ)η&)∗!.)##ζε− #ζ+#_&∋α.∋#χ&β#χ)∋ζ∗#♣∀/βψ&β()!.∋&ϕΡΡ.(κΡΡ%γ.φ)∗βο∋#χ&η)∗ ()∗!.∋ϕΡΓ∆6−)∋ξ)∗.π∀β()!.∋%γβ#χ)η&)∗.π∀β#χ)♦ 6−ϕΡΡ / ϕ    ϕ   Ρ       −−ϕ/ΡΡ / ϕ    ϕ   Ρ     −ϕ∆Ρ / ϕ    ϕ   Ρ       −−ϕΡΡ / ϕ    ϕ Ξ Ρ       !ϕϕΡΡ / η)∗.)∗∋α.ϕ / / / / ΡΡ          0&σ∀  ϕ / / / / /−ΡΡ ΡΡ ΡΡ        ϕ    ϕ   Ρ    ϕ ∋+   Β      6  ;       |)∋ Θ 
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